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North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Issued Quarterly 

Volume XXXVIII Numbers 1-4 



Published By 


Corner of Salisbury and Edenton Streets 

Raleigh, N. C. 


Published by the State Department of Archives and History 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Christopher Crittenden, Editor 
Mrs. Memory F. Blackwelder, Managing Editor 
Mrs. Elizabeth W. Wilborn, Editorial Associate 


Hugh Talmage Lefler Miss Sarah M. Lemmon 

Frontis Withers Johnston Glenn Tucker 

Robert H. Woody 



McDaniel Lewis, Chairman 

James W. Atkins Ralph P. Hanes 

Miss Gertrude Sprague Carraway Josh L. Horne 

Fletcher M. Green Daniel J. Whitener 

Christopher Crittenden, Director 

This review was established in January, 192 Jf, as a medium of publication 
and discussion of history in North Carolina. It is issued to other institutions 
by exchange, but to the general public by subscription only. The regular 
price is $3.00 per year. Members of the North Carolina Literary and His- 
torical Association, Inc., for which the annual dues are $5.00, receive this 
publication without further payment. Back numbers may be procured at 
the regular price of $3.00 per volume, or $.75 per number. 

The North Carolina 
Historical Review 





Robert N. Elliott 


Ina W. Van Noppen 


A. Elizabeth Taylor 


1849, PART I 63 

Edited by John Bowen Hamilton 


Cronon's Josephus Daniels in Mexico — By Arthur S. 
Link: Howell's The Book of Wilmington — By Wil- 
liam S. Powell ; Allen's Asheville and Land of the Sky — 
By Oliver H. Orr; Ubbelohde's The Vice-Admiralty 
Courts and the American Revolution — By Stephen G. 
Kurtz; Knollenberg's Origin of the American Revo- 
lution, 1759-1766— By Donald H. Kent; Labaree's The 
Papers of Benjamin Franklin, Volume II, 17 35-17 Uh 
— By Gilbert L. Lycan ; Hopkins' and Hargreaves' The 
Papers of Henry Clay: The Rising Statesman, 1797- 
1814 — By William Nisbet Chambers; Woodward's The 
Burden of Southern History — By Robert F. Durden; 
Williams' Americans at War: The Development of the 


iv Contents 

American Military System — By John D. F. Phillips; 
Yearns' The Confederate Congress — By James W. Sil- 
ver; Tucker's Hancock the Superb — By James L. 
Nichols; Hesseltine's Three Against Lincoln: Murat 
Halstead Reports the Caucuses of 1860 — By Maurice G. 
Baxter; Moore's Thomas Overton Moore: A Confed- 
erate Governor — By David L. Smiley ; Saloutos' Farmer 
Movements in the South — By Cornelius 0. Cathey; 
Arnade's The Siege of St. Augustine in 1702 — By Cecil 
Johnson; Munn's Index to West Virginiana — By Wil- 
liam S. Powell; and Wootton's They Have Topped the 
Mountain — By C. C. Ware. 


NUMBER 2, APRIL, 1961 



Ina W. Van Noppen 



A. Elizabeth Taylor 



John D. F. Phillips 



Norman C. Larson 

Contents v 


FICTION, 1959-1960 199 

Thad Stem, Jr. 


NONFICTION, 1959-1960 209 

Spencer Murphy 


Hugh Talmage Lefler 


Edward P. Alexander 


1849, PART II 241 

Edited by John Bowen Hamilton 


William S. Powell 


Blackstock's Selected Poems of James Larkin Pearson: 
Poet Laureate of North Carolina — By Mildred E. Hart- 
sock; Gulick's Cherokees at the Crossroads — By 
James A. Stanley; Arnow's Seedtime on the Cumber- 
land — By William T. Alderson; Lander's A History of 
South Carolina, 1865-1960 — By Daniel Miles McFar- 
land; Van Schreeven (Chairman), The British Public 
Record Office: History, Description, Record Groups, 
Finding Aids, and Materials for American History — 
By D. L. Corbitt; Wilmerding's James Monroe: Public 
Claimant — By John A. Munroe; Hall's Edward Ran- 
dolph and the American Colonies, 1676-1703 — By Caro- 
line Robbins; Gipson's The British Empire before the 
American Revolution, Volume III, The British Isles and 
the American Colonies: The Northern Plantations, 
1748-1754— By Carl B. Cone; Fundaburk's Parade of 
Alabama — By Malcolm C. McMillan ; Jane and Bill Ho- 
gan's Tales from the Manchaca Hills: The Unvarnished 
Memoirs of a Texas Gentlewoman, Mrs. Edna Turley 
Carpenter — By Carlos R. Allen, Jr. ; Roland's The Con- 

vi Contents 

federacy — By Robert F. Futrell ; Cunningham's Knight 
of the Confederacy: Gen. Turner Ashby — By D. E. 
Fehrenbacher ; Roth's Well, Mary: Civil War Letters of 
a Wisconsin Volunteer — By Bell I. Wiley; Smith's Mill 
on the Dan: A History of Dan River Mills, 1882-1950 
— By Herbert Collins; Heimann's Tobacco and Amer- 
icans — By Joseph C. Robert; and Gates' The Farmer's 
Age: Agriculture, 1815-1860 — By D. W. Colvard. 


NUMBER 3, JULY, 1961 



Dorothy Gilbert Thorne 



Ina W. Van Noppen 





1849, PART III 380 

Edited by John Bowen Hamilton 


Orr's Charles Brantley Aycock — By Robert F. Durden; 
Gate wood's Eugene Clyde Brooks: Educator and Pub- 
lic Servant — By D. J. Whitener; Walser's Thomas 
Wolfe: An Introduction and Interpretation — By 
George W. McCoy; Patton's Messages, Addresses, and 
Public Papers of Luther Hartwell Hodges, Governor 
of North Carolina, 195U-1961 Volume I, 1954-1956 — 
By Willard B. Gatewood, Jr.; Walker's New Hanover 
County Court Minutes, Part 3, 1786-1793 — By A. M. 

Contents vii 

Patterson; Pierson's Whipt 'em Every time: The Diary 
of Bartlett Yancey Malone — By T. Harry Gatton; 
Campbell's Birth of a National Park in the Great 
Smoky Mountains — By Willard B. Gatewood, Jr.; 
Hormel's With Sherman to the Sea. A Drummer's Story 
of the Civil War as Related by Corydon Edward 
Foote — By John G. Barrett; Hemphill's and Wates' 
The State Records of South Carolina: Extracts from 
the Journals of the Provincial Congresses of South 
Carolina, 1775-1776 — By Lawrence F. Brewster; Eby's 
u Porte Crayon" : The Life of David Hunter Strother — 
By Richard Walser; Wellman's Harpers Ferry: Prize 
of War — By Ava L. Honeycutt, Jr. ; Donald's Why the 
North Won the Civil War — By Jay Luvaas; Jordan's 
Herbs, Hoecakes and Husbandry: The Daybook of a 
Planter of the Old South — By Elizabeth W. Wilborn; 
Miles' Jacksonian Democracy in Mississippi — By 
William S. Hoffmann; Talpalar's The Sociology of 
Colonial Virginia — By William M. E. Rachal; Davis' 
More Traditional Ballads of Virginia — By Artus Mon- 
roe Moser; Ferguson's The Power of the Purse: A His- 
tory of American Public Finance — By Richard C. Todd ; 
Simms' Emotion at High Tide: Abolition as a Contro- 
versial Factor, 1830-18 U5 — By Lawrence F. Brewster; 
Williamson's American Suffrage from Property to De- 
mocracy, 1760-1860 — By Edward W. Phifer; Carter's 
The Territorial Papers of the United States, Volume 
XXV, The Territory of Florida, 1834-1839— By Rem- 
bert W. Patrick ; and Lefler's A History of the United 
States from the Age of Exploration to 1865 — By E. 
Bruce Thompson. 



CAROLINA . -,- -467 

Durward T. Stokes 

PUBLIC DOMAIN, 1815-1828 482 

Zane L. Miller 

viii Contents 


Ina W. Van Noppen 



Robert F. Durden 


1849 534 

Edited by John Bowen Hamilton 


Camp's Governor Vance: A Life for Young People — By 
Jerome F. Morris; Walser's Eoneguski, or The Chero- 
kee Chief — By William P. Cumming ; Nash's A Goodly 
Heritage: The Story of Calvary Parish — By William S. 
Powell; Capers' John C. Calhoun, Opportunist: A Re- 
appraisal — By W. B. Yearns; Morton's Colonial Vir- 
ginia. Volume I, The Tidewater Period, 1607-1710 ; 
Volume II, Westward Expansion and Prelude to Revolu- 
tion, 1710-1763— -By William S. Powell; McLean's 
George Tucker: Moral Philosopher and Man of Letters 
— By H. G. Kincheloe; Barrett's and Turner's Letters 
of a New Market Cadet: Beverly Stanard — By James L. 
Nichols ; Sitterson's An Essay on Calcareous Manures 
— By W. C. White; Bettersworth's Mississippi in the 
Confederacy, Volume I, As They Saw It and Silver's 
Mississippi in the Confederacy, Volume II, As Seen in 
Retrospect — By Horace W. Raper; Jones' Confederate 
Strategy from Shiloh to Vicksburg — By Rembert W. 
Patrick; Van Tassel's Recording America's Past: An 
Interpretation of the Development of Historical Studies 
in America, 1607 -188 If — By Raymond Muse; Frick's 
and Steam's Mark Catesby: The Colonial Audubon — 
By Harry T. Davis; Stover's American Railroads — By 
Percival Perry; Link's Wilson: The Struggle for Neu- 
trality, 191A-1915 — By George C. Osborn; and Silves- 

Contents ix 

tro's and Davis' Directory of Historical Societies and 
Agencies in the United States and Canada — By Wil- 
liam S. Powell. 



The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVIII January, 1961 Number 1 



Robert N. Elliott 


Ina W. Van Noppen 


A. Elizabeth Taylor 

LINA, 1849, PART I 63 

Edited by John Bowen Hamilton 


Cronon's Josephus Daniels in Mexico — By Arthur S. 
Link; Howell's The Book of Wilmington — By Wil- 
liam S. Powell ; Allen's Asheville and Land of the Sky — 
By Oliver H. Orr; Ubbelohde's The Vice-Admiralty 
Courts and the American Revolution — By Stephen G. 
Kurtz; Knollenberg's Origin of the American Revolu- 
tion, 1759-1766— By Donald H. Kent; Labaree's The 
Papers of Benjamin Franklin, Volume II, 17S5-17UU — 
By Gilbert L. Lycan; Hopkins' and Hargreaves' The 
Papers of Henry Clay: The Rising Statesman, 1797- 
1S1U — By William Nisbet Chambers; Woodward's The 
Burden of Southern History — By Robert F. Durden; 

Entered as second class matter September 29, 1928, at the Post Office at 
Raleigh, North Carolina, under the act of March 3, 1879. 


Williams' Americans at War: The Development of the 
American Military System — By John D. F. Phillips 
Yearns' The Confederate Congress — By James W. 
Silver; Tucker's Hancock the Superb — By James L. 
Nichols; Hesseltine's Three Against Lincoln: Murat 
Halstead Reports the Caucuses of 1860 — By Maurice G. 
Baxter ; Moore's Thomas Overton Moore: A Confederate 
Governor — By David L. Smiley; Saloutos' Farmer 
Movements in the South — By Cornelius 0. Cathey ; Ar- 
nade's The Siege of St. Augustine in 1702 — By Cecil 
Johnson; Munn's Index to West Virginiana — By Wil- 
liam S. Powell; and Wootton's They Have Topped the 
Mountain — By C. C. Ware. 



The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVIII January, 1961 Number 1 


By Robert N. Elliott* 

Edwin L. Godkin, founder and editor of the Nation, wrote 
in one issue of that periodical: "The principal functions of the 
press under a popular government are two in number— the 
supply of news and the criticism of the government." l As the 
newspaper is usually considered by historians, for the years 
before the appearance of the penny press in the 1830's em- 
phasis is placed on the second of these two functions. But the 
fact is, these newspapers were also concerned with this first 
function— supplying news; and sometimes they were even 
concerned to the extent that the customary fare of politics 
was curtailed to allow space for an important general news 
story. Evidence of this is seen in the way three North Caro- 
lina newspapers handled the Nat Turner Insurrection in 
1831, as well as subsequent developments that followed from 
this outbreak in their own State. These newspapers are: the 
Raleigh Register, the Star, And North Carolina State Gazette, 
both published in Raleigh, and the Carolina Observer, issued 
in Fayetteville. 

Before getting into the details of the Turner Insurrection 
as reported in these papers, some account must be taken of 
the conditions under which Editors Thomas J. Lemay and 
Alexander J. Lawrence of the Star, Joseph and Weston Gales, 
father and son, of the Register, and Edward J. Hale of the 

* Dr. Robert N. Elliott is an Assistant Professor in the Department of 
Social Studies at North Carolina State College. He originally read this 
article as a paper at the April 8, 1960, meeting of the Historical Society of 
North Carolina, at the Woman's College, Greensboro. 

1 Frank Luther Mott and Ralph D. Casey (eds.), Interpretations of 
Journalism (New York, 1937), 122. 


2 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Observer labored to get news; especially of the poor commun- 
ication facilities available to them. In 1835, Raleigh was 
served by two daily mails, one each from the north and south; 
these also went through Fayetteville. West and east from 
Greensboro and New Bern, service to Raleigh was three times 
a week. 2 This mail service would have been adequate to meet 
the weekly publication dates of these papers if it had been 
reliable, which it frequently was not. A sudden shower, or, 
as the editors of that day were wont to say, a "freshet," quickly 
turned the rude roads into impassable quagmires, swelled 
bridgeless streams, and often brought the mails to a halt. Also, 
a fast-breaking story of concern to the peace of mind of every 
subscriber, such as the Nat Turner Insurrection was, needed 
constant confirmation of every development if the newspaper 
was to perform a real service to its readers. While this, of 
course, was impossible with the means at hand in 1831, these 
North Carolina editors did make an effort to get the facts and 
report them as accurately as they could; believing that by so 
doing they could check the hysteria that followed in the wake 
of the Turner uprising. 

At any rate, the importance of the mails to these editors 
cannot be overlooked; it was their "wire service." All editors 
exchanged papers with each other. This was a custom which 
had grown with the development of the newspaper in Amer- 
ica, until by the outbreak of the Revolution it had hardened 
into a stystem. It received official recognition in the Post- 
office Act of 1792, which permitted "exchanges" to be car- 
ried free. By the 1830*8 it was estimated that more than 
ninety per cent of the mail carried consisted of newspapers. 3 

Also, these were the years before the development of auto- 
matic type-setting machines and high speed presses. A story, 
once received, still had to be handset, one character at a 
time, into type; and, while the speed of these early composi- 
tors is legend, from sixty-four to eighty lines of type an hour 
was usually average. Then came the task of converting type 
into a printed sheet. On the hand presses used by North Car- 

2 Raleigh Register, and North Carolina Gazette, November 17, 1835, here- 
inafter cited as the Raleigh Register. 

3 Frank Luther Mott, American Journalism (New York, 1947), 160, 194. 

Nat Turner Insurrection 3 

olina printers in 1831, two hundred impressions an hour was 
probably good. 

Under these conditions, plus the fact that the Turner In- 
surrection occurred in a relatively isolated section of Vir- 
ginia, as was also the case with the rumored insurrection in 
Duplin and Sampson counties, the editors of these three 
newspapers reported the most serious slave insurrection in 
the ante-bellum South. 

Thursday was publication day for the Register, and on 
Thursday, August 18, 1831, the Galeses commented in their 
columns that "The very singular appearance which the SUN 
presented on Saturday and Sunday last [had] given rise to 
much speculation as to the producing cause." This appear- 
ance they described as an intensely blue color and a greatly 
obscured brilliance. The following week, the Star, which also 
published on Thursday, noted that this strange appearance 
of the sun had "been noticed by the papers generally. . . . 
Nearly all concur," the editors reported, "in the opinion that 
it was caused by the peculiar state of the atmosphere. A simi- 
lar phenomenon," they continued, "may never have come 
under the observation of any one now living; yet it seems 
such an one has heretofore taken place. The Newbern Sen- 
tinel," Editors Lemay and Lawrence observed, "remarks, 
that it is related by Plutarch in the first year of the reign of 
Augustus, the sun's light was so faint and obscure that one 
might look steadily at it with the naked eye." 4 

Whatever effect the odd appearance of the sun might have 
had on the fortunes of the Roman Empire, it had, by the 
time the editors of the Star made their report, shattered the 
peace of Southampton County, Virginia, caused the death of 
more than fifty-five whites and a hundred or more Negroes, 
and started a wave of contagious fear throughout the south- 
ern States that had not abated on the eve of the Civil War. 
For, this same "singular appearance of the sun," commented 
on so generally by the newspapers, Nat Turner, a slave- 
preacher in Southampton, took as "the sign for him to com- 

* Star, And North Carolina State Gazette, August 25, 1831, hereinafter 
cited as the Star. 

4 The North Carolina Historical Review 

mence his uprising against the whites of Southampton 
County. 5 

General Nat, as this slave leader was usually called in the 
press reports, launched his attack Sunday night, August 21, 
when he, with five companions, all armed with hatchets and 
axes, slaughtered his master Joseph Travis and his family. 
This was in the neighborhood of a place called Cross Keys, 
ten miles from Jerusalem, the county seat of Southampton. 
Taking some arms and horses, Turner's little band began an 
aimless march toward Jerusalem, recruiting followers and 
ruthlessly putting to death all whites they encountered in the 
farmhouses along the way. They continued their bloody 
march, stopping frequently to slake their thirst at the well- 
stocked cellars of their victims, until Tuesday morning, the 
twenty-third, when they first encountered resistance. 

By this time from fifty-five to sixty-one whites had been 
killed, and militia companies and volunteers in the whole area 
were on their way to Southampton. The insurgents, number- 
ing at most not more than seventy, insufficiently armed, and 
poorly disciplined, fled. That afternoon three companies of 
artillery from Fort Monroe, detachments of men from two 
warships anchored at Norfolk, and military units from Rich- 
mond—one of which included John Hampden Pleasants, 
editor of the Daily Richmond Whig— were on their way to Je- 
rusalem. The thirty-six hour insurrection was over, but the 
task of getting an accurate story of what had happened had 
only begun. 6 

The Register was the first, of the three papers here con- 
sidered, to run a story of the insurrection. The issue of August 
25 contained a bulletin inserted at the last moment. It stated 
that "information" had been received in Raleigh, "from such a 
source as leaves no doubt on our minds as to its authenticity, 
that considerable disturbances have occurred among the 
slaves in Southampton county, Va." Continuing, the story 
reported that a number of people in Northampton and Hali- 

5 Raleigh Register, September 8, 1831. 

8 There are many accounts of the Nat Turner Insurrection, but the most 
complete is that of William S. Drewry, The Southampton Insurrection 
(Washinton, D. C; 1900). A more recent treatment is that of Herbert 
Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts (New York, 1943), 293-313. 

Nat Turner Insurrection 5 

fax counties, North Carolina, "had turned out to quell the 
rebellion, the extent of which has probably been magnified," 
and ended with the warning "that caution is the parent of 

To get an authentic account of what had happened, the 
Galeses sent off a letter to the postmaster at Jerusalem. That 
harassed soul, who also acted as magistrate, did not answer 
until September 5. His letter was published in the Register 
of September 15, but it added little to what was, by then, 

Meanwhile, the Stars editors apparently felt they did not 
have sufficient information to warrant even a mention in 
their edition for August 25. But the next week, September 1, 
they made the insurrection the featured story, giving it one 
and a half columns, most of this consisting of a running ac- 
count of the story as it had developed in Richmond, taken 
from the Richmond Enquirer and Richmond Compiler, and 
run under a simple label head, as was the custom among 
newspapers at this time. However, these clippings were pre- 
faced by a summary prepared in the Star office. A glimpse of 
the problem facing these editors can be gained from the lead 
to this summary. They wrote: 

Public curiosity has been, several days, on tiptoe to learn the 
particulars of the reported insurrection among the slaves in 
Southampton county, Virginia. The reports concerning this dis- 
turbance were, for a while, so numerous and contradictory, that it 
was utterly and impossible to form any thing like a correct idea 
of its extent ; and even now, although the general facts are pretty 
well ascertained, to light on the truth concerning particulars, we 
have to make our way through rumors and contradictions, as 
Tully sought amidst bushes and brambles the tomb of Archi- 

The Register of September 1 also gave the story a big play, 
though the Galeses elected to prepare their own account 
culled "from the multiplicity of reports to which this soul har- 
rowing occurrence has given birth." They were careful, how- 
ever, to qualify their account, stating that the facts were given 
"without . . . vouching for their precise accuracy, though we 
have every reason to suppose them correct." They hoped that 

6 The North Carolina Historical Review 

their story would "allay the anxiety of the public, until some- 
thing official appears/' 

Both the Star and Register accounts were in outline ac- 
curate. Nat Turner was named as the leader, though the Star 
reported him as being from North Carolina. Also, each paper 
had him sharing leadership with a free Negro named Will 
Artist, both of whom were reported killed in the Register 
story, "and their heads placed upon stakes in the public road." 
There was a slight discrepancy in the number of whites 
killed, the Star reporting fifty-eight and the Register, fifty- 
nine. However, both papers carried a list of the victims. The 
Register credited "a gentleman, from the vicinity of the scene 
of action" for its list, while the Star gave the Richmond Com- 
piler as its source. The Register stated "that one white man, 
at least, was found amongst the dead conspirators, disguised 
and blackened as a negro"; this fact was not included in the 
Star's account. It was the Galeses' opinion that Turner, "this 
mis-called preacher, so worked upon the feelings of his audi- 
tors that they immediately resolved upon their bloody course." 
But they admitted this conclusion was reached by inference 
from the fact that the uprising broke out on a Sunday evening 
following "a negro preaching in the neighborhood of Cross 
Keys." Lawrence and Lemay claimed that the "marauders 
and murderers were runaway negroes, who had broken in 
upon the white population, for robbery and other mischief"; 
the conclusion of Thomas Ritchie of the Richmond Enquirer 
who insisted in his paper that "few, if any, of the plantation 
hands, had joined" the rebellious band. 7 

By the September 8 publication day both the Register and 
Star were able to give a more correct account. The Star gave 
over two and a half columns to material taken from the Rich- 
mond Compiler of August 30 and September 3. The Register, 
however, once again ran a locally prepared account. This was 
based on official dispatches published in the Richmond papers 
"and a number of letters written from the scene of action." 
Some of the errors that had appeared in the September 1 
story were specifically corrected, and events up to the latest 

7 Richmond Enquirer (Virginia), August 26, 1831. 

Nat Turner Insurrection 7 

date possible for them, approximately September 3, were 
covered. The Galeses reported that "the scene of the late 
murders is perfectly quiet," and that officials in Southampton 
were convinced "that there existed no concert among the 
slaves, except in the immediate vicinity of its origin." They 
mentioned that "about thirty negroes were slain during the 
excitement, some of them probably innocent"; but, as they 
explained, "the people are wound up to a high pitch of rage, 
and precaution is even necessary to protect the lives of the 

Under a separate head, the Register editors printed a letter 
"addressed to a gentleman in [Raleigh], by a member of the 
Bar of Southampton county, whose statement of facts is en- 
titled to full credence." This was an eyewitness account, for 
this "gentleman" had been among those who had dispersed 
the "rebel party, consisting of about 40 blacks," on Tuesday 
morning, August 23. He described Nat Turner as "a complete 
fanatic," and stated "that the singular appearance of the sun 
some short time since, was the immediate cause of the in- 
surrection breaking out at the time it did, though," he added, 
"from the accounts of his wife" Turner had been considering 
it for years. 

The Register also reprinted a story from the Edenton Ga- 
zette which reported "no signs or symptoms of an insurrec- 
tionary spirit" in that area. This account, while recommending 
"vigilance" to its readers, suggested "that they should not suf- 
fer the present excitement, to cause them to deviate from 
their accustomed mild & moderate treatment to the slaves. 
The innocent should not suffer on account of the wicked," the 
Edenton paper declared, "nor the just be confounded with 
the unjust." 

Meanwhile, in Fayetteville, Edward J. Hale, who published 
his Carolina Observer on Wednesday of each week, was 
handicapped by the additional distance in getting an early 
report of the Southampton uprising. Also, one of those infer- 
nal "freshets" had caused the streams in and around his area 
to rise, complicating mail delivery. He may have carried an 
early report in his edition of August 31, but this issue was not 

8 The North Carolina Historical Review 

available to the writer. At any rate, by September 7 he had 
enough material to fill up two and a quarter columns, run 
under the customary label heads— "The Insurrection," "Yes- 
terday's Despatch," etc. This consisted altogether of reports 
lifted from the Richmond Enquirer through the September 2 
edition, and the Raleigh Register of September 1. Thus Hale's 
readers had a fairly coherent, though inaccurate, account of 
what had taken place. 

The next week's Observer, that of September 14, contained 
a two-column story written for the Daily Richmond Whig by 
its senior editor, John Hampden Pleasants. Editor Pleasants 
had been a member of the Richmond Dragoons, a cavalry 
troop dispatched from Richmond to Jerusalem by Governor 
John Floyd of Virginia, the night of August 23. Pleasant's 
lead throws further light on newspaper reporting in these 
days of limited communication. He wrote: 

We have been astonished since our return from Southampton 
... in looking over the mass of exchange papers accumulated 
in our absence, to see the number of false, absurd, and idle 
rumors, circulated by the Press, touching the insurrection in 
that county. — Editors seem to have applied themselves to the 
task of alarming the public mind as much as possible. . . . 

The Whig editor then proceeded to do his part in getting 
everybody excited. His vivid account of the beginning of the 
insurrection, with Nat dispatching with his own hand mem- 
bers of the Travis family, through the heroic stand of the gout- 
ridden Dr. Blount and his fifteen-year old son, "whom we 
take leave to recommend to General Jackson, for a warrant 
in the navy or West Point," to the "bloody and horribly awful'* 
slaughter of the Vaughans, was designed to raise the blood 
pressure of white southerners to a fever pitch; far different 
from the sober and factual accounts that appeared in the 
Register or Star. Pleasants reported, however, "the slaughter 
of many blacks without trial, and under circumstances of 
great barbarity." He told of meeting one "individual of intel- 
ligence, who stated that he himself had killed between 10 
and 15." It was Pleasants' conclusion that the Southampton 
"insurrection [read] some salutary lessons: to the whites, the 

Nat Turner Insurrection 9 

propriety of incessant vigilance; to the blacks, the madness of 
all attempts such as that in Southampton; . . . another insur- 
rection would be followed by putting the whole race to the 

The senior editor of the Whig also had a grievance, and he 
regretted "to be under the necessity of adverting" to it; but 
the conduct of a Henry B. Vaughan he thought deserved ex- 
posure and chastisement. Vaughan was the owner of the 
tavern in Jerusalem where the Richmond troop established 
headquarters. He had no family and was quite wealthy, but 
"a base and sordid love of pelf" prompted him to speculate 
upon the men from Richmond. Thus, though his service was 
meager and his guests "furnished with the coarsest" fare, he 
presented a bill exceeding $800. "To state the fact," Trooper 
Pleasants declared, "is to inflict on him, the severest punish- 
ment, the indignation of the public." 8 

Whatever effect the story of John Pleasants may have had 
on the readers of the Observer was probably lost, because on 
the opposite page Hale reported "that there is no doubt of a 
conspiracy having been formed among a portion of the slaves 
in the counties of Sampson and Duplin, in this State." He then 
laid out the facts as he had been able to determine them. A 
trusted slave, the property of the sheriff of Sampson, Thomas 
K. Morrissey, had been arrested on suspicion. On examination 
he "confessed that he and six or seven others had designed to 
bring about an insurrection on the 1st of October ensuing." 
Their plan was to muster what forces they could in Duplin 
and Sampson counties, "and thence to proceed to Wilming- 
ton, where they expected to collect a large force." All were 
arrested and committed for trial. 

Of this much Hale was certain. What followed he hoped 
was "greatly exaggerated"; however, he did "not feel at lib- 
erty to withhold it from" his readers. The preceding Monday 
evening, September 12, he wrote, an express had arrived in 
Fayetteville "bringing letters from a respectable gentleman 
in Clinton," the county seat of Sampson. These letters stated, 
"upon the authority of two persons, names not mentioned, 

8 Raleigh Register, September 15, 1831. 

10 The North Carolina Historical Review 

who had come express to Clinton" the night before, that a 
group of Negroes "to the number of 500" had gathered at a 
point about seventeen miles from Clinton. Their destination 
was unknown, but warnings had been sent to Clinton and 

Then on Tuesday the Wilmington stage arrived. It had 
reached Wilmington the morning before and was "immedi- 
ately despatched back without any mail except a letter from" 
the postmaster there to the postmaster at Fayetteville. This 
letter reported that Wilmington was under martial law, "in 
consequence of information received" that morning that Neg- 
roes "to the number of 200, had encamped on Sunday night, 
at Rockfish Bridge, in Duplin, 40 miles from Wilmington, and 
about 50 miles from" Fayetteville. They were expected to 
arrive at any moment, and the postmaster wrote that he "had 
been under arms all the morning." 

It was evident, Hale pointed out, that the account received 
in Fayetteville "and that which produced such excitement at 
Wilmington, proceeded from the same source," suspected by 
Hale to be Sheriff Morrissey himself. Thus, he declared, "our 
readers may conjecture how much both accounts are exag- 
gerated." For his part, Hale trusted "it is nothing more than 
a false alarm, growing out of the arrests" of the Negroes im- 
plicated with Sheriff Morrissey's slave. He stated that in 
Fayetteville "there is not the slightest cause for apprehen- 
sion," but, he admitted, "the authorities . . . have taken and 
are now taking prompt steps for security." Several men, he 
reported, had left Fayetteville for Clinton Monday night with 
arms and ammunition. From them he expected at any hour 
"correct information." 9 

Fayetteville, then, was apparently calm as its citizens 
waited for further information. Not so was Raleigh! The Reg- 
ister for September 15 carried the alarming news; Raleigh for 
"the last twenty-four hours had been in a state of considerable 
excitement, in consequence of the reception of intelligence, 
from such a source as leaves no doubt of its truth, that the 
slaves of Duplin and Sampson counties . . . have risen in re- 

9 Carolina Observer (Fayetteville), September 14, 1831, hereinafter cited 
as Carolina Observer. 

Nat Turner Insurrection 11 

bellion against the whites, and have committed many horrid 
butcheries." Reports also included New Hanover and Bladen, 
the story declared, "but the probability as to these is not so 
strong." The number of insurgents, "the extent of their mur- 
ders, the names of their victims, or their ultimate destination" 
was as yet unknown; however, the "most recent account 
[stated] the number of families murdered at seventeen]" 
Raleigh had been "put in a state of complete defence, for 
the purpose either of suppressing disturbances at home or 
meeting danger from abroad." Meanwhile, everyone was "in 
momentary expectation of particulars." 

Lawrence and Lemay, at the Star, were not so excited. They 
began their story by stating that the Edenton Gazette had 
reported, "upon information received from an undoubted 
source," that there had been killed in Southampton "upwards 
of one hundred negroes, consequent upon the late insurrec- 
tion in that county." They also understood that about twenty- 
one Negroes had "been committed to jail in Edenton, on a 
charge of having been concerned in concerting a project of 
rebellion." Only then did the editors write that a slave has 
"been arrested and imprisoned in Duplin county, upon a 
similar allegation." And finally they casually remarked that 
"Serious reports in relation to a revolt of slaves in Wilmington 
and Sampson county" reached Raleigh "by the way of Smith- 
field, on Monday night and Tuesday morning last." These 
reports were fortified, Lawrence and Lemay admitted, on 
Tuesday evening, when "certain intelligence from various 
sources reached us of an insurrection having occurred on Sun- 
day night last in a part of Sampson and Duplin counties." 
But, they continued, "its extent or the damage done is un- 
known to us." However, they reported that "energetic meas- 
ures" had been adopted for the security of Raleigh. 10 

The news of this insurrection attempt in North Carolina 
was sufficient to eclipse the Southampton affair so far as the 
Register was concerned. But the Star considered it still im- 
portant enough to give a half column to reprints from the 
Richmond Compiler devoted to reports of the trials then in 
progress. The editors also printed a letter, from the same 


Star, September 15, 1831. 

12 The North Carolina Historical Review 

source, by an irate Baptist who complained about the news- 
papers "improperly" representing Nat Turner as a Baptist 
preacher, and demanded that this be corrected. 11 

When Hale issued the Observer on Wednesday, Septem- 
ber 14, he included an extra for such subscribers as could be 
reached containing "particulars, collected by one of [his] 
townsmen on the spot." According to this account, which was 
reprinted in the Observer for September 21, "the first intima- 
tion of the contemplated rising of the Blacks" in Sampson and 
Duplin came when a free mulatto told a citizen of Washing- 
ton that he had been approached to join the conspiracy. This 
Negro said that the blacks "in Sampson, Duplin, and New 
Hanover, were regularly organized and prepared to rise on 
the 4th October." On the basis of this tip, Dave, the slave of 
Sheriff Morrissey, was arrested. He admitted that he and five 
others in Sampson and Duplin, along with several others in 
Wilmington, were the ring-leaders. He named several fami- 
lies they intended to murder, and said that "their object was 
to march by two routes to Wilmington, spreading destruction 
and murder on their way. At Wilmington they expected to 
be reinforced by 2000, to supply themselves with arms and 
ammunition and then return." The account concluded by 
reporting that a number of Negroes had been arrested in Dup- 
lin and Sampson counties, and in Wilmington. All were in 
jail awaiting trial. Several, including Dave, had been exe- 
cuted. The reporter added that "the excitement among the 
people in Sampson county is very great, and increasing"; also 
that no evidence could be found "respecting a large force 
having been seen collected together, though there seems no 
doubt but that small armed bands have been seen." 

The most important information that Hale could add to this 
account, when it appeared in the Observer on the twenty- 
first, was the "fact, that not a single party of negroes, nay, not 
a single individual, has been found in arms or in rebellion, in 
any of the counties." This did not mean that he doubted the 
fact of the planned insurrection, for he thought that "The dis- 
covery of the plot [had] completely" overthrown the design 
of the Negroes. 

n Star, September 15, 1831. 

Nat Turner Insurrection 13 

Hale expressed surprise at the "effects of the reports 
abroad. Women and children in several of the counties," he 
wrote, "have fled to the swamps, from which, after a day or 
two they emerged, wet, muddy, and half starved. —Wagon- 
ers .. . discharged their loads at some house on the road, and 
returned home." In the upper counties of the State, "which 
might have been supposed beyond the influence of the sup- 
posed danger," thousands of militia were assembled. But, he 
conceded, "it is accounted for when we state that the most 
extravagant reports, not having the shadow of foundation, 
somehow gained extensive circulation"; reports such as the 
capture and destruction of Wilmington and Clinton, or the 
blowing up of "the fine bridge across the Cape Fear to pre- 
vent the banditti from coming into" Fayetteville. "How it 
was possible," Hale wondered, "for any one of these reports 
to gain a moments's credence, we cannot conceive, but we 
must learn that they have even got into the papers to the 
north of us." 

One of the papers that Hale must have had in mind was 
the Register, and, apparently, the Galeses felt they had over- 
played the story. In their edition of September 22 they ad- 
mitted that their account in the previous week's issue was 
"highly exaggerated"; their explanation: it was based on in- 
formation "derived from despatches forwarded to the Gov- 
ernor, and confirmed by expresses, travelling gentlemen and 
private letters," Indeed, they wrote, "it may truly be said . . . 

The flying rumors gather'd as they rolPd, 
Scarce any tale was sooner heard than told, 
And all who told it added something new, 
And all who heard it, made enlargement too: 
In every ear it spread, on every tongue it grew." 

With this confession out of the way, the Register editors pro- 
ceeded to recount what actually had taken place; a report 
substantially the same as that which appeared in the Ob- 
server of September 21. 

It was also revealed in this Register story that the "reports 
which reached Hillsborough, were of such a character as to 

14 The North Carolina Historical Review 

induce the belief that [Raleigh] was in imminent danger of 
an attack from the insurgents." Acting on this information, a 
group, "comprising some of the most respectable citizens of 
that place," immediately left for Raleigh, determined to lend 
aid to the beleagured city. They proceeded as far as Chapel 
Hill before learning that the reports were false. This gallant 
conduct by the citizens of Hillsboro "will long be gratefully 
remembered in this community," the Galeses declared. 

A partial corrective to the Registers exaggerated account 
of September 15 was supplied by the Star on September 16, 
when they issued a local extra. 12 This brief bulletin contained 
a denial of the "alarming reports now circulating through the 
country, about the burning of property and massacre of sev- 
eral white families." But while this report no doubt eased the 
minds of Raleigh citizens, Lawrence and Lemay insisted that 
"Prompt steps for security should ... be every where taken 
and steadily presevered in." They ran this extra again in their 
edition of September 22, followed by the eyewitness account 
which had appeared in the Fayetteville Observer extra Sep- 
tember 14. Mention was also made of the march from Hills- 
boro to relieve Raleigh. 

September 22 was the climax for insurrection news. Related 
stories, of course, continued to appear. Nat Turner was still 
at large, and this was basis for any number of stories report- 
ing his capture, usually false. Most of these stories were re- 
prints from exchange papers. Often enough, the editors were 
victimized as was the Norfolk Herald, reported in the Fay- 
etteville Observer of October 5 and 12. In the first instance 
the Herald reported that " a gentleman had arrived in Nor- 
folk, who gave information of the capture of this monster 
[Turner]," stating that "he saw Nat when he was brought 
into Jerusalem." In the next edition the Herald editors re- 
gretted to report that the capture was a "sheer fabrication." 
Disgustedly they added, the "lie was so much like the truth 
that we could not doubt it, and so were imposed on." Experi- 
ences like this tended to make editors wary, as indicated in 
the statement made by the Galeses to preface a report of Nat's 

"Star, September 22, 1831. 

Nat Turner Insurrection 15 

capture in Botetourt County, Virginia. They wrote: "The fol- 
lowing from the Richmond Compiler, may be entitled to 
[some] credit, but we doubt it." 13 

The Star, with its usual conservatism, refrained from pub- 
lishing any of these reports until October 27, when it ran a 
summary of all the reports "to satisfy public curiosity." In 
this account the editors reported that Nat had been seen and 
shot at in southeastern Virginia, had drowned while attempt- 
ing to cross the New River in western Virginia, and last "and 
most probable (though we doubt the truth of all)," he had 
been sighted in Southampton County. As it turned out this 
last story was correct, and the Star and Register of Novem- 
ber 10, and the Observer of November 9, carried full ac- 
counts of Nat's capture on October 30, near Cross Keys, 
complete with letters from responsible officials substantiat- 
ing the fact. 

Aside from the false reports of Nat's capture, there were 
also rumors of other insurrectionary attempts. One that at- 
tracted more than usual attention was the "meditated Insur- 
rection . . . discovered amongst the Slaves engaged in the 
Gold Mines of Rutherford and Burke," 14 the last week of 
September. The Register and Observer gave some space to 
this, though nothing like that allotted to the disturbance in 
eastern North Carolina, but the Star largely ignored it. As for 
other accounts, and there were many even up into Delaware 
and Maryland, Hale in the Observer expressed what must 
have been the attitude of his fellow editors. In mentioning a 
rumored insurrection in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, he 
wrote: "We receive reports at present with a good deal of 
caution; and place no reliance on this." 

All of this agitation, both the real and the fancied, pre- 
sented the South with the question of why it had happened. 
Turner and his followers had been well treated; this manv of 
them including Nat himself admitted. Dave, the leader of 
the abortive Sampson affair, was the trusted servant of his 
master. Why, then, had these men turned so viciously against 
their owners? The newspapers supplied the answer— they 

M Raleigh Register, October 13, 1831. 
14 Raleigh Register, October 6, 1831. 

16 The North Carolina Historical Review 

were incited by outsiders. A writer in the T arbor o Free Press 
pointed this out. It was no accident, he argued, that the South- 
ampton rebellion followed only a few weeks the discovery of 
"the notorious 'Walker Pamphlet' 3 circulating in southern 
counties. Nor was there any doubt in his mind that "An in- 
cendiary paper, 'The Liberator' can probably be found 
"among the slaves" in every county of the State. 15 In Wash- 
ington, D. C, the National Intelligencer took this idea up and 
in a long editorial, reprinted by the Register, Star and Ob- 
server, appealed to the people of New England, specifically 
to the mayor of Boston, to seek some means whereby such 
"diabolical papers" as Mr. Garrison's Liberator could be sup- 
pressed. 16 Then in October, Garrison was indicted by the 
Grand Jury in Raleigh, followed later that month by the same 
body in New Bern. 17 

Finally, there were the reports of the trials of Negroes 
accused of conspiracy. Practically every issue of the three 
newspapers from the last week of September through Novem- 
ber carried a brief notice of a trial. Those in Southampton 
began almost as soon as the insurrection was over, and, with 
the exception of Nat's trial, ended by the final week in Sep- 
tember. The Observer of September 28 reported this fact, 
stating that twenty-one slaves were condemned, of whom 
nine were "recommended for reprieve and transportation"; 
the others to be hanged. It was this sentence of transporta- 
tion that prompted the governor of Louisiana to call into 
session his legislature, on the grounds, the New Orleans Ar- 
gus stated, "that in all probability attempts will be made to 
introduce to [Louisiana] . . . slaves of vicious habits . . ., 
participators in the late horrible scenes at Southampton." 18 
Of the Negroes seized in North Carolina, four were lynched 
by the enraged citizenry of Wilmington, "a measure indis- 
pensable to the safety of the community," the Wilmington 
Cape Fear Recorder declared, 19 and no other editor objected. 

M Carolina Observer, September 21, 1831. 

16 Carolina Observer, September 21, 1831; Raleigh Register, September 
22, 1831; Star, September 29, 1831. 

17 Raleigh Register, October 13, 1831. 
M Carolina Observer, October 26, 1831. 
"Raleigh Register, October 26, 1831. 

Nat Turner Insurrection 17 

Other Negroes were more fortunate. In Edenton, where a 
number had been arrested on suspicion, the Register of Nov- 
ember 10 reported "not the slightest evidence was adduced 
to warrant the belief of their participation in any plot." The 
Superior Court freed them. However, of the six arraigned in 
Duplin County, the Star of October 13 related that three were 
convicted and sentenced to be executed, though one obtained 
a reprieve from the governor. But these stories were no prob- 
lem to report; it was simply a matter of recording an official 

In this fashion three North Carolina newspapers attempted 
to "supply news" of an unusual event to their readers. By 
modern standards they probably did a poor job. There was 
not much objectiveness in the way the editors wrote their 
stories, but no one should complain that they lacked color. 
Such supercharged expletives as "soul harrowing," "murder- 
ous fiends," "blood thirsty infatuation" were mixed with such 
judgments as "the deluded wretches who are concerned in 
the diabolical attempt will be made to suffer severely for 
their temerity," as these men prepared their accounts. But 
there were no flaming headlines to excite the reader, so that 
the effect was no greater, perhaps, than present-day accounts. 
However, there were those who charged that these news- 
papers did much to spread "the black terror." One was George 
Badger, leader of Whig forces in the State. He advised Gov- 
ernor Montfort Stokes not to give information of suspected 
plots to the newspapers. "Such is the impudence and incon- 
sideration of editors," Badger charged, that any suspicion is 
"soon blazoned forth in their papers and magnified into actual 
rebellion and murder." 20 Perhaps so, but "News-hunger is 
fundamental in human nature," Frank Luther Mott has ob- 
served, 21 and man will get it by one means or another. How 
he reacts is, of course, another matter. 

In defense of these "impudent editors," might not Edward 
Hale's careful reporting of the rumored revolt in Sampson 
and Duplin counties have had something to do with the calm 

20 Quoted in Clement Eaton, Freedom of Thought in the Old South 
(Durham, 1940), 95. 
"Frank Luther Mott, The News In America (Cambridge, Mass.: 1952), 1. 

18 The North Carolina Historical Review 

which prevailed in Fayetteville; or perhaps the extra issued 
by the Star checked the panic raging in Raleigh as the result 
of this same affair. Who can say? At any rate, a newspaper 
deals in news, and it is evident that the editors here treated 
were determined to peddle a commodity always in demand. 


By Ina W. Van Noppen * 


The State of North Carolina has erected a marker in each 
of the towns and villages where Stoneman's Cavalry camped, 
fed, or skirmished during his last raid. Millions of tourists 
pass at least one of these markers every summer. People in 
the Piedmont and Mountain sections of the State grow up 
seeing the markers and knowing nothing of the nature of the 
raid mentioned thereon. General Stoneman is scarcely re- 
ferred to in accounts of the military phases of the war, in the 
most widely used textbook on the Civil War; in more speci- 
alized works of several volumes, a mere sentence or a foot- 
note is deemed sufficient to sum up this officer's career. A 
historical imperative is an account of Stoneman's Last Raid 
in perspective. It is called Stoneman's last raid because he 
first made an abortive raid in Georgia in which he was inglor- 
iously captured by home guards. Later he led a successful 
raid against the saltworks in Virginia. His enduring fame in 
the North and ignominy in the South will, however, rest upon 
his last raid. This was a splendidly conceived, ably executed 
attack upon the war potential and the civilian population of 
the South as well as upon its military resources. It was one 
of the early examples of total war. Stoneman's raid not only 
did incalculable military damage, but it destroyed the war- 
making capacity of a whole region. Most significantly as 
Stoneman and his raiders passed through eastern Tennessee, 
western North Carolina, and the North Carolina and Vir- 
ginia Piedmont we obtain revealing glimpses of how the war 
had been felt and interpreted by the people of these regions 
who were its innocent victims. 

* Dr. Ina W. Van Noppen is a Professor of History, Appalachian State 
Teachers College, Boone. 


20 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina comprise a 
region of divided loyalties. There is an old Roman saying that 
mountaineers are always free. The mountaineers of this 
region certainly felt free to choose sides, to give their loyal- 
ties to the side in which they believed, and to resist courage- 
ously coercion by either side. It was quite obvious that many 
deeply loved the Union and refused to fight against it. Others 
felt that it was not their fight, or refused to fight to defend the 
slave system in which they did not believe and the slavocracy 
which they resented. They therefore had refused to enlist and 
had evaded Confederate conscription, throughout the war. 
Others, generally the more prosperous well-to-do, were loyal 
to their State and region and did all in their power to further 
the efforts of the Confederacy. This resulted in war, some- 
times cold, sometimes hot, on ten thousand fronts and in a 
thousand communities. In eastern Tennessee northern sym- 
pathizers were in the majority, but southern adherents held 
the power and sought to coerce their neighbors, arousing 
bitter resentment and ill-concealed desires for revenge. In 
western North Carolina sympathies were more evenly divid- 
ed, but the coercive military might of the South was nearer, 
and opposition to the Confederacy was less vocal and more 
deeply repressed. Nevertheless it was there in many hearts. 
Many fled through Tennessee and joined the Union forces. 
Many others remained at home, resisting passively every 
effort to enlist their co-operation with the southern cause. 
Their pro-southern neighbors resented their attitude as un- 
patriotic and many animosities and smoldering enmities re- 

When Stoneman's raiders came through, these enmities and 
esentments, having been repressed for four years, burst into 
sudden flame; and now that they had the upper hand those 
who had opposed or been lukewarm to the South had their 
revenge. Pillaging, burning, robbery, and every form of inter- 
necine warfare resulted, and the southern adherents reaped 
the whirlwind which they had sowed. For by far the worst 
depredations and crimes were committed by neighbor against 
neighbor and by the North Carolina and Tennessee soldiers 




Lossing, A History of the Civil War 
Section XIV, p. U22 

"Major-General George Stoneman" 

Stoneman's Last Raid 21 

in Stoneman's Army. The latter were called "home Yankees," 
southerners fighting with the Yankees. Many of these men 
had fled to escape conscription and the necessity of fighting 
for that in which they did not believe. Among them were men 
from almost every mountain community and they knew the 
attitudes and opinions of their former neighbors. Therefore 
as Stoneman's men passed through the various towns and 
counties, we see that those who had been favorable to the 
North were usually left unmolested while southern partisans 
had their property stolen or burned. All this is most conclu- 
sive evidence that in this region the "War Between the States" 
was indeed a Civil War. Those loyal to the South felt that 
they were fighting for their homeland and for a glorious 
cause, but an almost equal number of their neighbors be- 
lieved that they had an undeniable right to their opinions and 
were willing to defend them with "the last full measure of 
their devotion." 


[On March 21, 1865] We started from Knoxville in an ordinary 
rainstorm, which increased in intensity during the day, and at 
night had developed into a furious hailstorm. We are in the 
lightest marching order, and our shelter tents are a poor pro- 
tection at such a time. [We] Encamped at night at Strawberry 
Plains, where we were joined by the other Regiments of our 
brigade. l 

The Fifteenth Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry Regiment 
had received orders just one week earlier at Huntsville, Ala- 
bama, to prepare for what "smacked" of a hard campaign. 
Two pack mules for each company was to be the only trans- 

1 H. K. Weand, "Our Last Campaign and Pursuit of Jeff Davis," Charles 
H. Kirk (ed.), History of the Fifteenth Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry 
(Philadelphia: Historical Committee of the Society of the Fifteenth 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, 1906), 492, hereinafter cited as Weand, "Our Last 
Campaign." The volume will hereinafter be cited as Kirk, History of the 
Fifteenth Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry. The memoirs in this volume 
are compiled from old diaries and letters, and verified by official documents, 

22 The North Carolina Historical Review 

portation allowed, one for carrying ammunition, the other 
for the use of the officers' mess and for carrying such cooking 
utensils as would be absolutely required for the company. Of- 
ficers were to take only such baggage as they could carry on 
their horses; the men must carry sixty-three rounds of ammu- 
nition in all, four horseshoes and the necessary nails; no bag- 
gage was to be allowed except overcoats. 2 

The above-mentioned cavalry regiment had been organized 
in 1862 by William J. Palmer, private secretary to the presi- 
dent of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Palmer became 
the colonel of the Regiment. A carefully selected body of 
young men who had been required to establish evidence of 
ability and of good standing in their home communities be- 
fore they were accepted, the Regiment had been planned for 
special service under General Buell at Louisville, and its 
experience had been almost entirely in the mountains of Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. When General Stanley, at Huntsville 
in 1865, received orders to have the Fifteenth Pennsylvania 
Cavalry report at Knoxville, he wrote that Colonel Palmer 
was worth a whole brigade of most cavalry. 3 

The march in which the Regiment was to participate was 
one that was to fit like a link in the chain that was to tighten 
around the Confederacy and end the Civil War. In the fall of 
1864 the United States Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, 
had described to Congress where the Confederate strong- 
holds were: General Robert E. Lee defended Richmond and 
Petersburg; General John B. Hood was moving north to in- 
vade Tennessee and Kentucky; west of the Mississippi Gen- 
eral Kirby Smith commanded a large force. The ports of 
Wilmington, Charleston, Savannah, and Mobile were strongly 
garrisoned and fortified. 4 Several changes took place during 
the next six months. Mobile, the last port in the cotton States 
to remain in Confederate hands, was attacked by General 

2 Charles M. Betts, "Circular Order," Kirk, History of the Fifteenth 
Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry, 695. Major Betts said "two horseshoes," 
while General Gillem's Report specified "four horseshoes." 

3 The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of 
the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, D. C: Government 
Printing Office, 70 volumes [127 books, atlases, and index], 1880-1901), 
Series I, XLIX, Part I, 647, hereinafter cited as Official Records. 

4 Official Records, Series III, V, 494. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 23 

Canby in August; General Hood was totally defeated in Ten- 
nessee in December; Wilmington fell in January; General 
Thomas was preparing to send out two large and well- 
appointed cavalry expeditions— one from Middle Tennessee 
under Brevet Major General James H. Wilson against the 
Confederacy's vital points in Alabama; the other under Major- 
General George Stoneman, toward Lynchburg. General 
Philip H. Sheridan's cavalry completed its raid in the Shenan- 
doah Valley and moved to White House on the Pamunkey. 
The armies of General William T. Sherman had marched 
through Georgia to Savannah, then north through South Car- 
olina into North Carolina; reinforced by that of General John 
M. Schofield, they were at Goldsboro in March, 1865. Gen- 
eral John Pope was preparing for a spring campaign against 
Generals Kirby Smith and Sterling Price west of the Missis- 
sippi River; the armies of the Potomac and the James con- 
fronted the Confederate troops under General Robert E. Lee, 
who defended Petersburg and Richmond. 5 

General George Stoneman, who was chosen to command 
one of the large-scale cavalry raids, was a native of New 
York, a West Point graduate, and a veteran of the Mexican 
War. Stationed at Fort Brown, Texas, at the start of the Civil 
War, he had refused to surrender to Confederate troops when 
General D. E. Twiggs, his immediate superior, did. Escaping 
with his command he continued to serve the Union Army as 
a commander of cavalry under McClellan, in West Virginia, 
and with the Army of the Potomac. After various other as- 
signments, in 1864 he was assigned to the Department of the 
Mississippi under General William T. Sherman, and in March, 
as commander of the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Ohio, 
he took part in the Atlanta campaign. His command was to 
attempt to liberate the Union prisoners at Macon and Ander- 
sonville, Georgia. Moving toward Macon by way of the rail- 
road bed, Stoneman's cavalry tore up the tracks, racing with 
a force of Confederate cavalry that was riding on a railway 
train. As Stoneman destroyed, the Confederate cavalry re- 
paired. It was a contest that lasted until Stoneman had almost 

6 Official Records, Series III, V, 494. 

24 The North Carolina Historical Review 

reached Macon, when at Clinton, Georgia, he and seven hun- 
dred of his men were humiliatingly captured by Confederate 
Home Guards. 6 Stoneman was taken prisoner, exchanged, and 
released for duty in October, 1864. This time he was assigned 
to serve as second in command of the Army of the Ohio under 
General Schofield; there he redeemed his reputation as a 
master of the art of the cavalry raid by conducting a very 
destructive one against Bristol and Saltville, Virginia, in De- 
cember, 1864. This raid into southwestern Virginia was under- 
taken at his own suggestion. At that time he sent to Schofield 
a plan which he wished to execute, which would have as its 
first objective the destruction of the Tennessee and Virginia 
Railroad from Bristol to Wytheville, with a detour to destroy 
the saltworks at Saltville, and as its second goal a movement 
toward Salisbury and from thence either north or south as 
conditions warranted. He proposed that "the foot" and a 
small proportion of the cavalry cover his movements. He 

I hope you will not disapprove of . . . [my plan] as I think 
I can see very important results from its execution. I owe the 
Southern Confederacy a debt I am very anxious to liquidate, and 
this offers a propitious occasion. . . . 7 

The reply which he received from General Schofield, dated 
December 6, 1864, told him to carry out the first part of his 
plan as outlined but to postpone the second phase until fur- 
ther orders were sent to him. 8 Meantime, on December 5, the 
Secretary of War and General Grant ordered that Stoneman 
be relieved from duty with the Army of the Ohio because of 
his failure in Georgia; Schofield abstained from delivering 
the order to Stoneman and finally succeeded in having it re- 
voked. After Stoneman's successful raid in Virginia Scho- 
field told him of the revoked order and added that he had 
now vindicated his reputation as a general. 9 

6 Bell I Wiley (ed.), "Co. Aytch" Maury Grays Tennessee Regiment or a 
Side Show of the Big Show. By Sam R. Watkins (Jackson, Tennessee: 
McCowat-Mercer Press [Reprint], 1952), 191. 

'Official Records, Series I, XLV, Part I, 1,074. 

8 Official Records, Series I, XLV, Part I, 810. 

• Official Records, Series I, XLV, Part II, 402. 

Lossing, A History of the Civil War 
Section IX, p. 265 

"Gen. Stoneman and Staff" 

Stoneman's Last Raid 25 

In February, 1865, Stoneman was made Commander of 
the District of East Tennessee; General Grant was ready for 
Stoneman to attempt to carry out the second part of the plan 
which he had outlined to General Schofield the previous No- 
vember. General Sherman had not at that time reached 
Columbia, South Carolina. Grant wrote to General Thomas, 
Stoneman's superior officer: 

Stoneman might penetrate South Carolina well down toward 
Columbia, destroying the railroad and military resources of the 
country, thus visiting a portion of the State which will not be 
reached by Sherman's forces. He might also be able to return 
to East Tennessee by way of Salisbury, North Carolina, thus 
releasing some of our prisoners of war in rebel hands. . . . 
Sherman's movements will attract the attention of all the force 
the enemy can collect, thus facilitating the execution of this. 10 

General Thomas was authorized to order the expedition, 
instructing Stoneman to destroy but not to fight battles, espec- 
ially against anything like equal forces. "To destroy but not 
to right battles" was a most unusual command; few people 
realized then that such an order had been given to Stoneman, 
and on many occasions Confederate observers called him cow- 
ardly and easily discouraged. The order "to destroy" might be 
considered contrary to Paragraph Number 44 of "Instructions 
for the Government of Armies of the United States in the 
Field," which admonished: ". . . all robbery, all pillage and 
sacking, ... all rape, wounding, maiming, or killing of such 
inhabitants, are prohibited under the penalty of death. . . ." n 
On the other hand, Paragraph Number 156 stated: ". . . [in a 
war of rebellion] The commander will throw the burden of 
the war, as much as lies within his power, on the disloyal 
citizens of the revolted portion or province. . . ." 12 

The instructions issued, for the conduct of the raids by 
Wilson and Stoneman, represent General Sherman's victory 
over objections raised by President Lincoln and General 
Grant in respect to another campaign, in 1864. 13 At that time 

10 Officials Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 616-617. 

^Official Records, Series III, III, 153. 

u Official Records, Series III, III, 153. 

M Official Records, Series I, XXXIX, Part III, 202, 222. 

26 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Sherman was contemplating a march through Georgia, in pre- 
ference to a pursuit of Hood's army which, after its defeat 
at Atlanta, had turned northward into Tennessee. Sherman 
defended his plan in two messages to General Grant: 

Until we can repopulate Georgia, it is useless to occupy it, 
but the utter destruction of its roads, houses, and people will 
cripple their military resources. By attempting to hold the roads 
we will lose 1,000 men monthly, and will gain no result. I can 
make the march [to Savannah] and make Georgia howl. . . . We 
can forage in the interior of the State. . . . 14 

[I will]. . . push into Georgia, and break up all the railroads 
and depots, capture its horses and negroes, make desolation 
everywhere. ... Of course I will subsist on the bountiful corn- 
fields and potato patches, as I am now doing luxuriously. 15 

A recent study of Sherman's philosophy of war calls this 
plan "total war," and likens it to methods used during World 
War II. It "paralyzed the enemy's economy and destroyed 
the ability to supply armies; despoiled and scattered families 
of the soldiers, thus undermining morale of military forces. 
. . ." Sherman held that every man, woman, and child in the 
South was "armed and at war." 16 

After Sherman had reached Savannah and prepared to 
invade South Carolina he wrote to General Thomas that the 
latter should send an army into Alabama to destroy Tusca- 
loosa and Selma, and gather horses and mules ( wagons were 
to be burned); all iron-foundries, mills, and factories ought 
to be destroyed. He reasoned: 

It is nonsense to suppose that the people of the South are 
enraged or united by such movements. They reason very dif- 
ferently. They see in them the sure and inevitable destruction 
of property. They realize that the Confederate armies cannot 
protect them, and they see in the repetition of such raids the 
inevitable result of starvation and misery. . . , 17 

14 Official Records, Series I, XXXIX, Part III, 162. 

16 Official Records, Series I, XXXIX, Part III, 395. 

"John Bennett Walters, "General William T. Sherman and Total War," 
Journal of Southern History, XIV (November, 1948), 148-164. 

17 Official Records, Series I, XLV, Part II, 622. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 27 

As a result of correspondence between Generals Grant, 
Sherman, and Thomas, the two cavalry raids from Tennessee, 
Wilson's into Alabama and Stoneman's into North and South 
Carolina, to destroy railroads and military resources, and to 
release prisoners of war in Confederate hands, took shape. 

Stoneman's command was to be assembled from the cavalry 
forces in the District of East Tennessee: the Fifteenth Penn- 
sylvania, the Tenth Michigan, the Twelfth Ohio, and three 
Tennessee cavalry regiments— the Eighth, Ninth, and Thir- 
teenth. 18 Many young men from the mountainous counties 
of North Carolina were members of the Thirteenth Tennessee 
Cavalry Regiment. These three Tennessee Regiments had 
composed a brigade commanded by Brigadier General Alvan 
C. Gillem, a "Home Yankee," (a resident of Tennessee) to 
whom Stoneman wrote: "I have just received orders from 
General Grant directing a movement, in which your fine body 
of Cossacks is to play a very important part." 19 

Three regiments of cavalry from the Department of Ken- 
tucky, the Eleventh Kentucky, Twelfth Kentucky, and 
Eleventh Michigan, that had served under Stoneman in his 
very successful raid of southwest Virginia, were to be trans- 
ferred to his new command; but it would be necessary to 
procure other horses to replace those broken down and killed 
in the earlier raid. General Stoneman hastened to Louisville 
to assemble the three regiments and to obtain horses, but he 
did not get away from Kentucky as early as General Grant 
had hoped he would. On February 21 Stoneman reported to 
General Thomas: 

The cavalry in Kentucky was very much scattered through the 
State, but will, I hope, be concentrated here by Sunday next. . . . 
Horses coming in slowly. . . . Will be able to get together about 
1,800 men. The remainder are out of hand. 20 

On March 1 Stoneman, still in Louisville, received an im- 
patient telegram from General Grant, to whom he sent the 
following conciliatory reply: 

18 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 325. 

19 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 663. 
30 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 753. 

28 The North Carolina Historical Review 

You cannot be more anxious to have me get off than I am to go. 
The delay has been due entirely to the difficulty in collecting 
together the troops, which were very much scattered over Ken- 
tucky, and to the deficiency in horses. . . . The last is now being 
fitted out and will be ready day after tomorrow. All will go by 
railroad and water, as this will be the quickest route; will 
prevent the horses from being broken down by a long march 
over the mountains at this season of the year. . . and will disguise 
from the enemy our objects and destination. ... I leave for 
Knoxville tomorrow. 21 

In the meantime General Sherman reached Columbia, 
South Carolina, on February 17. No longer was it necessary 
for Stoneman to destroy in South Carolina, as Sherman's army 
took care of that. A new objective had developed which Gen- 
eral Thomas stated to be "dismantling the country to obstruct 
Lee's retreat." General Thomas changed the plan for Stone- 
man's raid, ordering him to pass out of Tennessee by the head 
of the New River Valley, then down that valley to Christians- 
burg, to destroy the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad 
beyond Christiansburg. 22 This road was the one over which 
General Robert E. Lee would no doubt attempt to reach a 
place of safety for his army when and if General Grant suc- 
ceeded in forcing him to evacuate Richmond and Petersburg. 
Grant, exasperated at Stoneman's delay in starting, wired 
General Thomas on March 19: 

If Stoneman has not got off on his expedition, start him at 
once with whatever force you can give him. He will not meet 
with opposition now that cannot be overcome with 1,500 men. If 
I am not mistaken, he will be able to come within fifty miles 
of Lynchburg. 23 

Finally the machinery for the raid was in motion. On 
March 18 General Alvan Gillem took command of the nine 
regiments to carry out the instructions of General Stoneman. 
There were three brigades of three regiments each, the first 
commanded by Colonel William J. Palmer, the second com- 
manded by Brevet Brigadier General Simeon B. Brown, and 

■ Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 810. 
93 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part II, 17. 
" Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part II, 28. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 29 

the third commanded by Colonel John K. Miller. The artillery 
was directed by Lieutenant James M. Regan. 

On March 23 the nine regiments of cavalry marched into 
Morristown, Tennessee, where the loyal citizens gave them a 
hearty welcome. "These people came from all the surrounding 
country to see us, and while perched on their rail fences 
greeted us with smiles and many a ludicrous expression/' 24 

From the earliest history of its statehood Tennessee had 
been like two separate States. In 1797 Francis Baily, a 
Frenchman who toured the unsettled parts of North America, 
wrote: "You will observe that this state may be divided into 
two parts, the eastern and western, which are separated from 
each other by a wilderness which is possessed by the 
Indians." 25 

Although no unsettled forest divided the two parts in 1861, 
this partition was apparent at the time Tennessee voted to 
secede from the Union, the eastern counties being Unionist. 
The opposition to secession was so strong that leaders at- 
tempted secession from the State. William Blount Carter 
wrote to General George H. Thomas in October, 1861: 

This whole country is in a wretched condition ; a perfect despot- 
ism reigns here. The Union men of East Tennessee are longing 
and praying for the hour when they can break their fetters. . . . 
Men and women weep for joy when I merely hint to them that 
the day of deliverance is at hand. ... I can assure you that who- 
ever is the leader of a successful expedition into East Tennessee 
will receive from these people a crown of glory of which any one 
might well be proud. 26 

At Morristown the four horseshoes and nails and five days* 
rations were issued to each man, and at Bull's Gap in the 
ridge east of Morristown, the command divided, one group 
marching directly east, the other taking a route to the left 
by way of Carter's Station on the Watauga River, to get be- 

"Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 493. 

35 Francis Baily, Journal of a Tour in the Unsettled Parts of North 
America in 1796 and 1797 (London, 1856), 413. 
28 Official Records, Series II, I, 890. 

30 The North Carolina Historical Review 

hind the portion of Confederate forces in the vicinity of 
Jonesboro. 27 

Met the first rebel force to-day, consisting of about sixty men 
of General Vaughan's command. Company E of our Regiment 
[the Fifteenth Pennsylvania] had the advance, and charged 
with such spirit that they were driven off, leaving four prisoners 
in our hands. . . . 

As we get nearer to the mountain forage becomes more scarce, 
and to-day our horses went hungry. 28 

The First and Second Brigades were following the Babb's 
Mill Road; on March 25 they encamped ten miles west of 
Jonesboro; there a wagon train came up and the men drew all 
the rations they could carry conventiently. The next morning 
the commond cut loose from all encumbrances in the way of 
trains; only one wagon, ten ambulances, and four guns with 
their caissons accompanied the expedition. 

Colonel Miller rejoined the other two brigades at Jonesboro, 
reporting that the railroad bridge over the Watauga had been 
damaged, preventing trains from running south for some 
days; that the Confederate forces had fallen back but that 
the country was full of stragglers and deserters. 29 Beginning 
in November, 1861, when six or eight bridges on this rail- 
road had been burned by "tories" encouraged by the Federal 
Army, a reign of terror had existed in this portion of the 
State. 30 As Colonel Leadbetter of the Confederate Army had 
described the situation: 

At the farm houses along the more open valleys no men were to 
be seen and it is believed that nearly the whole male population 
of the country were lurking in the hills on account of disaffection 
or fear. The women in some cases were greatly alarmed throwing 
themselves on the ground and wailing like savages. Indeed the 
population is savage. . . . 31 

What these people had feared was Confederate scouts who 
combed the mountains for disloyal men, especially after the 

27 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 330. 

88 Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 493. 

29 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 330. 

90 Official Records, Series II, I, 892. 

81 Official Records, Series II, I, 353. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 31 

Congress of the Confederate States passed the first conscrip- 
tion law in 1862. An officer in the First North Carolina Cav- 
alry in October, 1862, wrote of his duties in East Tennessee: 

We arrived at this camp [near Taylorsville, now Mountain 
City, Tennessee] . . day before yesterday. Our orders are I 
guess to arrest all Union men, which operation we have com- 
menced. I had the honor of opening the ball. Night before last 
Col. Folk sent me out with Twenty-five men to bring in some 
renegade N. Carolinians who have been skulking about here 
all summer. They being thoroughly skilled in the art of dodg- 
ing — got wind of us being in the neighborhood and skeedaddled 
prior to the going-down of the Sun. I arrested the parties who 
had been harboring them and brought them to camp. . . . The 
Col. says he is going to send them to Salisbury, N. C. . . . The 
next expedition . . . returned with 18 prisoners including a 
female one commissioned Lieut. Col., commissioned by Abraham 
[Lincoln] to raise troops for service. . . , 32 

Careful plans were laid to prevent Stoneman from being 
attacked from the rear by Confederate troops, once the raid 
was underway. Brigadier General Davis Tillson, command- 
ing the Fourth Division, Department of the Cumberland, was 
to follow Stoneman, occupying all of the mountain passes in 
northwestern North Carolina. 33 As food for the men and for- 
age for the livestock were non-existent in northeastern Ten- 
nessee, such supplies for Tillson's forces would necessarily 
have to be transported, so work on the railroad from Chatta- 
nooga to Bristol was hastened. Major General David S. Stan- 
ley, commanding the Fourth Army Corps, was transferred 
from Huntsville, Alabama, to East Tennessee, with two 
divisions to occupy the positions back of General Tillson's 
divisions, to protect the railroad workers and to lay railroad 
crossties for the construction gang. 34 

At last a campaign was to be made through North Caro- 
lina's mountains, a strategy that had long been considered 
but never executed. A number of dirt roads crossed the Blue 
Ridge Mountains from west to east— making it possible for 

33 Letter written by J. W. Gash, Mary Gash and Family Papers, State 
Department of Archives and History, Raleigh. 
83 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 337. 
81 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 19. 

32 The North Carolina Historical Review 

wheeled vehicles to cross by way of several of the gaps— but 
the roads were so bad that a movement of infantry and artil- 
lery had never seemed feasible, in spite of the fact that a 
large part of the population of some areas was Unionist in 

After the victory at Chattanooga in November, 1863, Gen- 
eral Grant had considered following it up by sending 50,000 
men into the mountain country, 10,000 up the Little Ten- 
nessee River, 10,000 to Waynesville, 10,000 up the French 
Broad to Asheville and Burnsville, and 20,000 toward Bris- 
tol, Virginia, and the saltworks at Saltville, Virginia, but after 
a tortuous ride of 175 miles he had abandoned the plan be- 
cause of the dangerous roads. 35 

The Confederacy had realized the importance of the North 
Carolina mountain passes, but there had never been enough 
soldiers to defend them properly. Colonel William Holland 
Thomas of southwestern North Carolina had anticipated 
such a campaign as that which Grant had considered, as a 
likely route to upper Georgia and South Carolina and to the 
southwestern part of Virginia; he had believed also that Lee 
might wish to use the mountains as a stronghold where he 
could have a firm base of operations. Early in the war 
Thomas's legion of Indians and Highlanders had been raised 
to guard the bridges of the East Tennessee and Georgia Rail- 
road and to do other provost duties; and later when East Ten- 
nessee was surrendered to the Union, Thomas and the In- 
dians had fallen back to the Smoky Mountains toward 
Waynesville and Webster to check the progress of Union 
forces. 36 A few other units of Home Guards had been organ- 
ized in the mountain area: Woodfin's Battalion had guarded 
in the French Broad region and Madison County had been 
patrolled by one company of cavalry; in Watauga County 
Major Harvey Bingham had organized two companies and 
Captain Price had formed a small company in Ashe County. 
Yancey and Mitchell counties had remained practically un- 

* Walter Clark (ed.), Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions 
from North Carolina in the Great War, 1861-'65 (Raleigh, 5 volumes, 1901), 
IV, 109, hereinafter cited as Clark, Histories of the North Carolina 

m Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, IV, 109. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 33 

guarded. 37 In March, 1865, Major A. C. Avery was attempt- 
ing to organize a regiment of these local companies for the 
protection of the frontier. It will be seen that General Stone- 
man with his thousands of cavalrymen had no need to fear 
an encounter with a formidable force in this area. 

The Union Army had been making good use of the little- 
known mountain passes where only experienced guides could 
find their way. These mountains sheltered fugitives from the 
Confederate Army who hid by day and foraged by night, 
often moving in bands of as many as twenty men for pro- 
tection. Through both northern and southern portions of the 
North Carolina mountains were paths followed by those who 
had escaped from Confederate prisons in making their way 
to Union lines in Tennessee. Those fleeing from Salisbury 
followed the Yadkin River to Wilkes County, said to be prob- 
ably the strongest Union county in North Carolina; the Con- 
federates called it "Old United States" and declared it 
irrepressible. 38 The Unionists fed and sheltered escapees and 
guided them across the Blue Ridge to Banner Elk, where the 
second relay of guides helped them to Tennessee. "Keith" 
Blalock and Harrison Church were well known in this activ- 
ity; and George Kirk is said to have begun his military career 
as a member of the Union underground by piloting men 
from Salisbury Prison through the mountains into the Federal 
lines in Tennessee. 39 

Union soldiers escaping from the prison at Columbia usu- 
ally had made their way across South Carolina and through 
Saluda Gap to Hendersonville, North Carolina, where they 
were relayed to Asheville. In this area Dan Ellis, a native of 
Carter County, Tennessee, was the best-known guide as he 
was well acquainted with the more obscure passes. 40 One 
group of prisoners following this route reported having been 
hidden for four days by the girls of a family near Flat Rock. 
The girls were daughters of a Confederate father and a "home 

w Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, IV, 371. 

"Junius Henri Brown, Four Years in Secessia (Hartford, 1865). 

88 Shepherd M. Dugger, The War Trails of the Blue Ridge (Banner Elk, 
1932), 111-133, hereinafter cited as Dugger, War Trails. 

40 Dan Ellis, Thrilling Adventures of Dan Ellis, Written by Himself 
(New York, 1867). This book is said to have been "ghost-written." 

34 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Yankee" mother. The father did not learn of the presence of 
the fugitives in his home. The guides engaged by the girls to 
lead these men through the mountains lived by roaming over 
the country "sacking" every "fine house," taking money, jew- 
elry, and silverware, which they hid in a cave. 41 

On March 27, 1865, a member of Stoneman's command 

Moved early to find something for our horses to eat, and 
found a short feed for them on the South bank of the Watauga 
River. Marched eighteen miles, and bivouacked on the mountain 
pass near the top of Stone Mountain at 4 a.m., on the 28th. Our 
march this night was one that those who participated in it will 
never forget. The road at times ran close to dangerous precipices, 
over which occasionally a horse or mule would fall, and in like 
manner we lost one of the artillery caissons, but no man was 
hurt. Many loyal citizens built fires along the road and at dan- 
gerous places, and also at difficult fords over the mountain 
streams. Looking back as we toiled up the mountain the scene 
was grand and imposing as the march of the column was shown 
by the trail of fire along the road. Occasionally an old pine tree 
would take fire and blaze up almost instantaneously, looking 
like a column of fire. It was an impromptu illumination, and 
the sight of it repaid us after the toilsome night march. 42 

Another cavalryman wrote: 

General Gillem [has] about 4000 or 5000 [men] — Stoneman 
. . . commanding the whole. . . . The Fifteenth, with General 
Palmer, 43 takes advance, followed by the Tenth Michigan and 
the Twelfth Ohio, . . . Stoneman and Gillem with the other 
troops bringing up the rear. . . . The fires were lighting every- 
thing around about, and the troopers looked like mounted 
specters, moving silently along. On the one side were the 
troopers, taking up nearly the whole road; on the other was a 
dark ravine below, with the tree tops coming up nearly on a level 
with the road. On a steady hand and a surefooted horse depended 
your safety. . . . 44 

a Seven Months a Prisoner: or Thirty-Six Days in the Woods (Indiana- 
polis, 1868), 106. 

^Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 493. 

43 Palmer was Brevet Brigadier General at the close of the war, and in 
their memoirs his men referred to him as "General Palmer." 

44 Howard A. Buzby, "With Gillem's Tennesseans on the Yadkin," Kirk, 
History of the Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, 520-522, hereinafter cited 
as Buzby, "With Gillem's Tennesseans." 

Stoneman's Last Raid 35 

Thus the cavalry and artillery traveled until four a.m. on 
March 28; after a rest of only four hours they resumed the 
march and continued until one p.m., halted at Sugar Grove, 
North Carolina, for an hour's rest, and started on again. In 
the portion of Watauga County through which they were 
passing, there were a good many Union sympathizers who 
had refused to obey the Confederate conscription act. At 
least sixteen from Cove Creek Township had crossed the State 
line, and had made their way across Tennessee to join the 
Union Army, 45 but the Confederate Home Guard had kept a 
careful watch of all roads into Tennessee, arresting all that 
they could catch evading conscription. A young man named 
W. H. Younce, from this area, with three companions under 
the leadership of "a good old Baptist preacher," had started 
on horseback to East Tennessee in 1862. Younce was arrested 
by the militia, and to escape punishment he enlisted in the 
Confederate Army. His service was punctuated by unsuc- 
cessful ecorts to escape, until he finally succeeded in the fall 
of 1863. Hiding out during the daytime, and at night hiking 
along the tops of mountain ridges until he eventually reached 
Jonesboro, Tennessee, then held by Union troops, he joined 
that army and finished the war with them. He had recruited 
twenty men from the mountains near his home. Younce wrote 
understandingly of the Union sympathizers in his home 

My vocabulary is too limited to attempt a portrayal of the 
horrors and sufferings of those poor Union people. Civil law 
and courts of justice had been abolished; monarchy and ruin 
reigned supreme ; men and neighbors who had always passed as 
good men, and who had turned to be rebels, were transformed 
into demons, murderers and savages. Conscripts were hunted 
like wild animals and often shot and murdered. 

Their homes were often destroyed by the torch, and if spared 
were robbed of everything they had, and their families left 
without a crust of bread. . . . 

40 Eleventh Census of the United States, 1890. Schedules Enumerating 
Union Veterans and Widows of Union Veterans of the Civil War, Micro- 
film copy, National Archives, Washington, D. C. A careful study of these 
schedules by townships revealed the degree to which Unionism prevailed in 
the mountainous counties of North Carolina. This reference will hereinafter 
be cited as Eleventh Census, 1890, Schedule of Union Veterans, 

36 The North Carolina Historical Review 

I knew men personally that lay in those mountains during the 
three years of war after they were conscripted, and were never 
captured ; but they had to lie in the mountains like wild animals, 
their beard and hair grew down to their shoulders, and they 
were really like wild men. 48 

To the south of the cavalry's line of march lay the village 
of Banner Elk, which had furnished thirteen men to the Fed- 
eral service and only one to the Confederate. Some of the 
older villagers who favored the Union had kept on good terms 
with both armies: the Union force respecting them because 
they fed and furnished shoes for soldiers escaping from the 
Salisbury Prison and acted as go-between in providing the 
latter with guides through the mountains; and the Confeder- 
ate Home Guard sparing them because the old men made 
wrought iron at Cranberry Forge, nearby, for the South 
throughout the war. On the road from Valle Crucis, on the 
Watauga River, to Banner Elk, there was only one family of 
Confederates. 47 

General Stoneman's advance guard, a detachment of the 
Twelfth Kentucky cavalry under Major Keogy, surprised the 
Home Guard which was assembling in Boone. Stoneman's 
official mention of Boone is brief: "We arrived here this a.m., 
. . . captured the place, killing nine, capturing sixty-two home 
guards and 40 horses. . . . Our advance is the first indication 
the people have had of our movements." 48 

And indeed the people of Boone had been surprised. Just 
a few weeks earlier at Camp Mast ( Sugar Grove ) where the 
two companies of Home Guards had alternated in service, 
one company remaining in camp while members of the other 
returned home to catch up with their farm work, Captain 
James Champion of the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, 
United States Army, had assembled about twenty-five Union 
men on leave in Watauga County with their war equipment, 
and fifty scouts with muskets, shotguns, and hog rifles. Having 
built a line of campfires at daybreak, long enough to warm 

49 W. H. Younce, "The Adventures of a Conscript," unpublished manu- 
script brought to the author by a student who was a kinsman of Younce, 
hereinafter referred to as Younce, "Adventures." 

47 Dugger, War Trails, 204. 

48 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part II, 112. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 37 

a large army, the invaders surprised the sleeping camp and 
misled the Home Guards into believing that they were being 
attacked by a formidable force; the camp voted for surrender 
and marched out in military formation, only to discover that 
two-thirds of their captors were their neighbors. 49 

Now, on March 28, the men of the other company of Home 
Guards were assembling in Boone when Major Keogy at- 
tacked. Believing this was another feinted assault, the Home 
Guards fired a few shots at Stoneman's advance and precipi- 
tated a fight. One account says that when Stoneman's detach- 
ment approached, the men on the muster field were not 
prepared to fight, but that someone accidentally pulled a trig- 
ger, let it fall on a cap, and fired on one of the raiders, after 
which they returned the fire. This account says that one of 
Stoneman's men was killed, as were three of the Home Guard, 
instead of the nine that Stoneman claimed. Among the 
troops in the Home Guard were Ephraim Norris, who was 
killed, and his son Elijah who escaped along with most of 
the others. They faded into the woods, to be fed surrepti- 
tiously by families and friends during the following trying 
days. Either Stoneman's men were unable to find them, or 
his major strategy was more important that scouring the 
mountains for a few Home Guards. 50 

Others who were killed in Boone that day were Jacob 
M. Councill and Warren Green. Councill was a man too old 
for service, who had taken no part in the skirmish. He had 
been plowing when the Federal troops approached, and 
had hastily taken his horse to the barn when one of Stoneman's 
men shot him in spite of his protests. 51 

Steel Frazier, a lad of fifteen, was charged by a squad of 
half a dozen raiders. He ran, climbed over a fence, waited 
until his attackers were fairly in range, and then fired and 

*" Dugger, War Trails, 111-133. 

60 Jack Norris recently deceased, said that he had heard this many times 
from veterans. His father, Elijah, enjoyed the reunions held for both Union 
and Confederate veterans in Boone, and usually brought some of the old 
soldiers home to spend the nights during such meetings. 

n John Preston Arthur, A History of Watauga County, North Carolina 
(Richmond: Everett Waddey Co., 1915), 178, hereinafter cited as Arthur, 
Watauga County. 

38 The North Carolina Historical Review 

shot one, reloaded and killed another, and finally escaped 
into the woods. 52 

Five wounded men were treated that night by the Federal 
surgeon, the house of J. D. Councill being converted into 
a hospital. 53 

Mrs. James Councill, a young matron of Boone, hearing 
the noise, stepped onto the piazza to learn what was hap- 
pening. "Immediately a volley of balls splintered into the 
wood all around her." She escaped unhurt. Calvin Greene 
surrendered, but the attackers left him for dead after shoot- 
ing him down, and he recovered. 54 

The jail was burned by order of General Gillem, and all 
of the county records at Boone were destroyed. Gillem was 
sternly rebuked for this action by General Stoneman. 55 

Among the older residents of Watauga County are many 
who remember tales their fathers and grandfathers told 
them of Stoneman's raid. An elderly lady recollects hearing 
how the prisoners taken at Boone were sent over the moun- 
tains to Tennessee under guard and from there were sent by 
rail to Camp Chase, Ohio. She says that the troops were 
marched westward by way of the Watauga River, and that on 
Beach Mountain, her father, Lemis Farthing, dashed into a 
clump of laurel, dropped his blanket over a bush, and escaped, 
his blanket being shot full of holes before the discovery was 
made that he was not under it. Farthing believed that most 
of his comrades who were sent to Camp Chase died there. 56 

Dr. R. L. Beall of Lenoir wrote: "After the place [Boone] 
was sacked and the raiders were leaving, the citizens were 

62 R. L. Beall to Cornelia Phillips Spencer, August (?), 1866, David 
L. Swain Papers, Southern Historical Collection, University of North 
Carolina, Chapel Hill. Mrs. Spencer was encouraged by ex-Governor Swain 
to write The Last Ninety Days of the Civil War in North Carolina in 
1866. She obtained a number of narratives from residents of different 
parts of the State. Dr. R. L. Beall was a graduate of the University of North 
Carolina, class of 1852. His wife and her brother, William Finley Harper, 
assisted him in preparing a manuscript for Mrs. Spencer for which inci- 
dents were contributed by intelligent onlookers. This work will hereinafter 
be cited as Beall, "Narrative." 

53 Arthur, Watauga County, 177. 

54 Beall, "Narrative." 
65 Beall, "Narrative." 

58 Mrs. Nora Norris in a personal interview, Beaver Dam Community of 
Watauga County. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 39 

consoled by the assurance that Kirk was to follow and 'clean 
out all the rebel nests in the country/ " 57 

General Stoneman found it necessary to alter the pro- 
posed route on account of the great scarcity of forage and 
subsistence for the men. His command divided in Boone, 
General Stoneman with Colonel Palmer and the First Brigade 
marching eastward over Deep Gap in the Blue Ridge to 
Wilkesboro. The other two brigades went to Wilkesboro by 
a different route. After Stoneman had moved on, General 
Tillson ordered Colonel George Kirk to move the Second 
and Third North Carolina Mounted Infantry from the mouth 
of Roan Creek, Tennessee, to Boone on April 3, and Tillson 
followed with infantry and artillery to hold the mountain 
passes near there securely. 

Among the Union officers most feared and disliked by 
Confederates in Western North Carolina was Colonel Kirk, 
whose headquarters were in Greeneville, Tennessee. In Feb- 
ruary, 1864, he had been ordered to recruit a company of 
North Carolina volunteers of the deserters, bushwackers, 
and Union sympathizers. 58 Later he was instructed to organ- 
ize a whole regiment. In July, 1864, Colonel Kirk, commander 
of the Third North Carolina and Tennessee Federal Volun- 
teers, had "swooped down on Camp Vance," a post near 
Morganton where Junior Reserves (white boys between the 
ages of 17 and 18), conscripted under the act of the Con- 
federate Congress of February 17, 1864, were assembled 
and drilled. "... like an eagle snatching its prey, . . . [Kirk] 
carried away its one hundred reserves in its talons. His pilot 
was David Ellis . . . who for twenty years following the war, 
was a powerful minister of the Christian Church in East 
Tennessee and western North Carolina." 59 

Kirk was sent in January, 1865, to scour the mountain 
region in North Carolina and Tennessee and clear it of 

It was on Saturday, March 3, 1865, that Kirk came to Waynes- 
ville from Tennessee, across the Sterling and Catalooche Moun- 

OT Beall, "Narrative." 

68 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 810. 

"Dugger, War Trails, 126. 

40 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tains, up Jonathan Creek, by Dellwood. ... He had robbed 
every house up the Jonathan Creek Valley, and killed [a] man 
at Dellwood. . . . Kirk reached town and burned the jail. . . . 
Next they burned the Love House, and attempted to burn the 
Welch House, also, . . . but this was prevented, because some 
friends of the Welch family were among the raiders." 60 

It was obvious that Kirk's men had showed favoritism, 
selecting as their victims families whom the soldiers knew 
as loyal to the Confederacy. An examination of the com- 
position of the Third North Carolina Mounted Volunteer 
Infantry reveals that all of the mountainous counties were 
represented in Kirk's regiment: 

Ashe County 


Madison County 


Buncombe County 


Polk County 


Caldwell County 


Swain County 


Cherokee County 


Transylvania County 


Clay County 


Watauga County 


Haywood County 


Wikes County 


Henderson County 


Yancey County 


As these figures represent veterans or their widows still 
living in 1890, the numbers recruited by Kirk were probably 
much larger. 61 With the exception of twelve corporals, ten 
sergeants, one drummer, one musician, and two second 
lieutenants, all of these men were privates. 

When Kirk moved toward Boone on April 3, he also com- 
manded the Second North Carolina Mounted Volunteer In- 
fantry, which contained about the same proportion of troops 
from these counties as did the Third, except that Henderson 
County furnished sixty men and Wilkes and Watauga only 
one each, to the Second Regiment. As Younce wrote, "There 
was a disposition on the part of the boys to commit depra- 
dations of some kind on . . . rebels [who] lived around in that 
part of the country, in way of revenge for the many mean 
things they had done to them." 62 To the Confederates Kirk 
was an outlaw leading fellow ruffians against their homeland; 

* R. T. Underwood, "Historic Scrap of 1865," Reminiscences of Con- 
federate Veterans and Women of the Confederacy, compiled by United 
Daughters of the Confederacy of North Carolina, in typescript. 

01 Eleventh Census, 1890, Schedule of Union Veterans. Counties named 
are those that had been created before 1890. 

M Younce, "Adventures." 

Stoneman's Last Raid 41 

in the annals of the Union Army he was a colonel doing neces- 
sary work. It should be observed that both armies enrolled 
partisans or guerrillas, and that the warfare practiced by 
such armies was total war; civilian populations were made 
to suffer in order to break their morale and lead them to 
ask for peace. 

Kirk arrived at Boone on April 6. His task was to barricade 
roads in Watauga County over which "rebel" cavalry might 
follow Stoneman. The leader of the Second and Third North 
Carolina Mounted Infantry did not feel that it was necessary 
to barricade the road from Banner Elk; his own men were 
well acquainted with the prevailing sentiment of the different 
townships. "Kirk's men seemed to have a special spite at 
Boone and the citizens of Watauga County, generally speak- 
ing," wrote R. L. Beall. 63 

They knew personally of earlier incidents such as one 
described by W. R. Younce, in which an old man named 
Price, two of his sons, and a nephew, were hanged by a mob. 
The boys were conscripts who had never been captured. 
The Home Guards had camped on Price's land, robbed him 
of everything he owned, and finally captured all four when 
they slipped in from the mountains to grind corn for bread, 
and took them to jail at their county seat. The next morning 
a mob led by a Confederate major took the four prisoners 
to a wood near the town. They put one of the conscripts on 
a horse behind one of the mob, tied his hands behind him, 
put a rope around his neck and threw the end to a man on 
the limb of a tree, who tied it to the limb; the man on the 
horse rode out from under the victim, leaving him dangling 
in mid-air. One after another the three young men and the 
one old one were hanged. 64 

Kirk made his headquarters at the home of J. D. Councill, 
where Stoneman had stayed during his brief stop in Boone. 
The contrast in the manners of the two men was great. Gen- 
eral Stoneman had been courteous to the occupants of the 
home, but when he returned three weeks later to the same 
house, he found that Kirk had kept Mrs. Councill a close 

"Beall, "Narrative." 
04 Younce, "Adventures." 

42 The North Carolina Historical Review 

prisoner in her room, and his men had left the place a ruin— 
"the fencing gone— the flowers and shrubbery trampled bare, 
the yard covered with beef hides, and sheep skins, chicken 
feathers, and pieces of putrid meat." 65 

It was necessary for the troops stationed in Watauga Coun- 
ty to find their own subsistence, and homes were ransacked 
for meat. One old-timer recalled that troops took her grand- 
father's "deer hams" which had been hanging in his attic; 
another recounted that in the Beaver Dam section they rifled 
her grandfather's home, took all of his livestock and poultry 
except one Shanghai rooster (gamecock) which was in a 
hole under the house. One described the ingenious way in 
which residents of the Howard's Creek section took their 
hams out to their mountain pastures, placed them on big 
boulders, and camouflaged them by covering them with 

moss. 66 

Colonel Kirk fortified the courthouse in Boone by cutting 
loopholes in the walls and erecting a stockade of timbers. 67 

In the meantime Brigadier General Tillson lost a squad 
of his cavalry as he attempted to establish his command 
at Taylorsville (now Mountain City), Tennessee. He suc- 
ceeded in stationing 964 men of the First United States 
Colored Heavy Artillery at the crossroads two miles south- 
east of Taylorsville, which town had just been evacuated by 
the Confederate Army under Colonel Prentice. On April 6 
Tillson started on to Boone, to lay out plans for barricading 
the gaps in Watauga County. He stationed the Second North 
Carolina Mounted Infantry at Deep Gap, where rough field 
works were constructed. Colonel Kirk was instructed to 
thoroughly barricade the Meat Camp Road, leading through 
State Gap, and also a road not laid down on the map, leading 
through Sampson Gap, between Deep and Watauga gaps. 
The Meat Camp Road had been the scene of considerable 
violence prior to this time, Confederates accusing those who 
styled themselves Unionists of using the war as an excuse 
for robbing their neighbors. A. C. Allen who operated a farm 

65 Beall, "Narrative." 

66 Interviews by the author with various residents of Watauga County. 
87 John Preston Arthur, Western North Carolina: A History (Asheville, 

1914), 617, hereinafter cited as Arthur, Western North Carolina. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 43 

at Meat Camp for the owner, Hamilton Brown of Wilkesboro, 
had written his landlord in September, 1864: 

I aimed to come down last week but Wm. had to be gone 
fighting Torys and I had to wach as well as Prey. All things 
is getting along very well. . . . Tories taken away 12 head 
from Watauga last week. . . .We captured Granville Smoot and 
Brooks. . . . Smoot and Brooks will not trouble you any more 
they went up the spout. ... I am compeld to use all Exertions 
to keep our property safe. . . . 

Yours respectfully, 
A. C. Allen 68 

Two hundred of Kirk's men were stationed at Watauga 
Gap. 69 Kirk built a fort by setting timbers on end, at the gap 
where the road crossed the mountain near Green Park. 70 
These timbers were obtained by pulling down the summer 
house of a man named Harper of Lenoir. 71 On Friday, April 
7, news reached Lenoir that Kirk and three hundred men 
were on the mountain. Residents of Caldwell County feared 
Kirk. They remembered his raid of Camp Vance in 1864, 
and several smaller raids which he had made later in the 
Globe section of Caldwell County, where he had a pair of 
able assistants in "Keith" (L. M.) Blalock and his wife, Ma- 
linda known as "Sam." This couple had served for a time in 
the Confederate Army, Malinda disguised as a boy; later they 
lived in a hut on Grandfather Mountain to enable "Keith" 
to dodge the conscription officers, and they guided numbers 
of Union sympathizers across the mountains to Tennessee. 
The Blalocks were feared as much as was Kirk by people in 
this section of the Blue Ridge. Now apprehension of serious 
raids was rife. Major A. C. Avery, whose brigade defended 
the passes of northwestern North Carolina, said that Kirk 
sent out only one raiding party from Blowing Rock: "That 
party had gone but a short distance below the head of 
John River when they found that a squad [of Miller's cav- 

68 A. C. Allen to Hamilton Brown, Hamilton Brown Papers, Southern 
Historical Collection. 

69 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 337. 
TO Dugger, War Trails, 125. 

71 M. I. Gilpin to Lindsay Patterson, Salem, June, 1865, Lindsay Patterson 
Papers, Southern Historical Collection. 

44 The North Carolina Historical Review 

airy] . . . could beat them at their own game of 
bushwhacking." 72 

Major Avery went to Salisbury to get men to join him in an 
attack on Kirk's camp at Blowing Rock, but troops were not 

73 Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, IV, 371-377. 

[To be continued] 


By A. Elizabeth Taylor* 


As was true of most southern States, the woman suffrage 
movement in North Carolina occurred chiefly in the twen- 
tieth century. Not until that time did the general public be- 
come interested in the suffrage issue. Yet, as was true of 
most of the southern States, the movement had its begin- 
ning in the nineteenth century. 

As early as 1863 the justice of denying women the fran- 
chise was questioned in North Carolina. During that year a 
convention met to write a constitution for the State. When 
the convention's committee on suffrage made its report, it 
recommended that all adult male citizens be allowed to vote. 
This, of course, included the recently freed Negroes. A minor- 
ity report, however, denied that the franchise was a "natural 
or inherent" right and questioned the wisdom of enfran- 
chising Negroes. It stated that women were not allowed to 
vote and asked: "Is there any reason why negroes should be 
advanced to a higher position?" * This protest went unheeded, 
however, and the convention granted suffrage to males only. 

Several years later, in 1884, the National Woman Suffrage 
Association held a convention in Washington, D. C. One 
North Carolina woman, Margaret Richardson, attended. 2 
Since there were no suffrage organizations in North Carolina 
at that time, Miss Richardson attended not as a delegate 
but as an "interested individual." She was probably the first 
North Carolina woman to attend a national suffrage con- 

* Dr. A. Elizabeth Taylor is an Associate Professor of History at Texas 
Woman's University, Denton. 

1 Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of North Carolina 
at its Session 1868 (Raleigh, 1868), 236. 

8 National Woman Suffrage Association: Report of the Sixteenth Annual 
Washington Convention (Rochester, 1884), 75. 


46 The North Carolina Historical Review 

As late as 1893 there were no woman suffrage clubs in 
North Carolina. During that year Mrs. Virginia Durant 
Young, the founder of the woman suffrage association of 
South Carolina, toured the State. 3 Mrs. Young felt that there 
was "suffrage sentiment" in North Carolina but that it 
needed to be brought into focus. Apparently her judgment 
was sound for during the year that followed North Carolina's 
first woman suffrage organization came into being. 

The person responsible was Helen Morris Lewis of Ashe- 
ville who arranged a public meeting at the Buncombe County 
Courthouse in November, 1894. Mayor Thomas W. Patton 
of Asheville conducted this meeting at which Miss Lewis 
and Floride Cunningham spoke. There was "a surprisingly 
good attendance of ladies, business men, and people in every 
walk of life, and the speakers of the occasion were given the 
closest attention." 4 Mayor Patton declared himself an advo- 
cate of woman's enfranchisement and invited all interested 
persons to meet at his home to form an equal suffrage as- 
sociation. Forty-five men and women accepted this invitation 
and organized the North Carolina Equal Suffrage Association. 
They elected Helen Morris Lewis president. 5 

As president of the new organization, Miss Lewis crusaded 
actively. During 1895 she gave suffrage speeches "in several 
mountain towns with large audiences and good results." 
At Hendersonville she addressed an audience of three hun- 
dred people and "was listened to with marked attention and 
appreciation." On that occasion twenty-eight persons ex- 
pressed interest in forming a suffrage league, but the organi- 
zation never materialized. At Tryon she spoke to one hundred 
people, twenty-two of whom went on record as favoring votes 
for women. 6 

At the request of the Woman s Journal of Boston, Miss 
Lewis formulated a statement of her reasons for being a 

3 Proceedings of the Twenty-sixth Annual Convention of the National 
American Woman Suffrage Association, 1894, 46, hereinafter cited as 
Proceedings, with the year of the convention added. 

* Woman's Journal (Boston and Chicago, 1870-1917), XXV (November, 
24, 1894), 372, hereinafter cited as Woman's Journal. 

G Mrs. Sarah A. Russell, "North Carolina," History of Woman Suffrage 
(New York: 6 volumes, 1881-1922), IV, 874, hereinafter cited as History 
of Woman Suffrage. 

''Woman's Journal, XXVI (June 15, 1895), 192. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 47 

suffragist. Her statement was then published as one of a 
series entitled "Why Southern Women Desire the Ballot." 
Miss Lewis based her argument on the justice of her cause. 
She said: 

It matters not whether women desire to be emancipated or 
not; that has nothing to do with the justice of the question. 
When a convict's term has expired, the law does not consult 
him as to his preference of liberty or imprisonment. A man is 
not argued with as to his approval of his right to the ballot, it 
is given to him as the birthright of an American citizen. 

Some women, through a lack of enlightenment, prefer to be 
aliens in their own land, but this is no excuse for a government 
to grind under its heels the most God-given law of justice. All 
the professions, occupations and higher education to which 
women are now entitled have been gained by rooting out preju- 
dice and superstitution. 7 

Also, in 1895, several prominent suffragists from other 
States lectured in North Carolina. Among them were Laura 
Clay of Kentucky, Belle Kearney of Mississippi, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Upham Yates of Maine, and Frances Willard of the 
National Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 8 

This activity undoubtedly helped acquaint the public 
with arguments in favor of women's enfranchisement. It 
failed, however, to increase the strength of the suffrage or- 
ganization. At the end of the year the club at Asheville was 
still the only one in the State, and it had only forty members. 9 

During 1896 Miss Lewis made suffrage speeches at eight 
different places. She reported that "some of the old preju- 
dices were wearing away" and added that, although she was 
not a candidate, five men voted for her for Congress. 10 

In February, 1897 a woman suffrage bill was introduced 
in the North Carolina Senate. The bill was sponsored by 
J. L. Hyatt, a Republican from Burns ville in Yancey County. 

"Woman's Journal, XXVI (January 26, 1895), 32. 

8 Nell Battle Lewis, "How North Carolina Women Secured the Suffrage 
Over Protest of a Democratic Legislature of Their State," The News and 
Observer (Raleigh), May 10, 1925. This paper will hereinafter be cited 
as The News and Observer and the article as Lewis, "How North Carolina 
Women Secured Suffrage." 

9 Proceedings, 1896, 151. 
M Proceedings, 1897, 89. 

48 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Hyatt considered himself a philosophical follower of Abra- 
ham Lincoln, who, he said, favored votes for women. This 
bill "to provide for woman suffrage" was referred to the com- 
mittee on insane asylums, of which Hyatt was chairman. 11 
Hyatt appealed to his fellow senators to refer the bill to 
another committee but in vain. He said that he "tried Re- 
publicans and Democrats . . . but they would do nothing. 
It was plain that they thought the right committee had the 
bill." 12 Thus ended a pioneer attempt to enfranchise North 
Carolina women. 

In 1899 Helen Morris Lewis ran for the office of water 
superintendent of the City of Asheville. She found the gen- 
eral reaction to her candidacy both "startling and amusing." 
She said that many people could not conceive "the audacity 
of a woman, a disfranchised creature, aspiring to high mu- 
nicipal office. . . ." She did not expect to be elected and 
doubted that she would have been allowed to fill the posi- 
tion if she had been. She considered her attempt worthwhile, 
however, especially since several men told her that they 
considered women capable of holding public office and that 
they wished that she could be elected. 13 

After 1899 the movement in North Carolina entered an 
inactive phase. Apparently the suffragists became discour- 
aged, relaxed their efforts, and did little to sustain interest 
in the cause. This period of inactivity continued until the 
summer of 1913. 

In July, 1913, interest revived when a "handful of en- 
thusiastic women" organized a league at Morganton. 14 Soon 
thereafter a suffrage club was formed in Greenville. 15 Evi- 
dently North Carolina women were becoming conscious of 
their need of the ballot, for the formation of the Greenville 
club was followed by the organization of a State suffrage 

n Journal of the Senate of the General Assembly of North Carolina at its 
session of 1897, 295, hereinafter cited as Senate Journal 

13 Greensboro Daily News, August 9, 1920. 

u Woman's Journal, XXX (June 3, 1899), 176. 

"Ida Clyde Clarke (ed.), Suffrage in the Southern States (Nashville, 
Tenn.: 1914), 62, hereinafter cited as Clarke, Suffrage in Southern States. 
Mrs. F. W. Hosfeldt was elected President and Kate Persall, Treasurer of 
the Morganton league. 

M Clara Booth Byrd, "North Carolina," History of Woman Suffrage, VI, 
490, hereinafter cited as Byrd, "North Carolina." 

Woman Suffrage Movement 49 

The North Carolina Equal Suffrage League was organized 
largely through the efforts of Anna Forbes Liddell and Sus- 
anne Bynum. The league was chartered by the State of 
North Carolina and began with forty-nine members from 
six North Carolina towns. At the organizational meeting in 
Charlotte in November, 1913, Mrs. Archibald Henderson of 
Chapel Hill was elected President and Mrs. J. E. Reilley of 
Charlotte, Vice-President. 16 The speaker on that occasion 
was Mrs. Lila Meade Valentine, President of the Equal Suf- 
frage Association of Virginia, who told of the need of twen- 
tieth-century women for the ballot. 17 

Soon after the formation of the State league a local suf- 
frage club was organized in Charlotte. This club began with 
seven members but soon had many more. Also, in 1913, a club 
was organized at Bakersville, making a total of four local 
clubs in the State. 18 

During the following year the State league sponsored a 
tour by Lavina Engle of Baltimore, Maryland. Miss Engle, 
a professional organizer for the National American Women 
Suffrage Association, spent several weeks lecturing and or- 
ganizing new leagues. On April 18 she delivered an address 
in Raleigh. On that occasion she was introduced by Dr. Archi- 
bald Henderson of the University of North Carolina, husband 
of the president of the state suffrage league. 19 In his presen- 
tation speech Dr. Henderson said: "A government is not yet 
complete that withholds from its most enlightened women 
what it freely gives to its benighted men. . . . The right of 
women to vote does and should rest upon the same basis as 
does the right of man to vote. . . . The simple question of 
abstract justice proves that women should not be discrimi- 
nated against on account of sex/ 


10 Organization of the Equal Suffrage League of North Carolina, Inc., 
manuscript in the possession of Mary Henderson of Chapel Hill. 

17 Charlotte Daily Observer, November 2, 1913. 

18 Clarke, Suffrage in Southern States, 62. 

19 Barbara Bynum Henderson, President of the Equal Suffrage League of 
North Carolina, was the daughter of an Episcopal minister. She was 
educated at the University of North Carolina, where she earned both 
Bachelors and Masters degrees and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. She 
was an accomplished housewife and the mother of two children. 

90 The News and Observer, April 19, 1914. 

50 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Miss Engle told her audience that "women had never 
gone out after politics" but that politics had come into the 
life of women. As a result of changed conditions, women 
needed the vote to protect their homes and their families. 
She maintained that there was no "dirty politics," only "dirty 
politicians" and assured her listeners that women would not 
vote for such undesirable men. Miss Engle denied that en- 
franchisement would cause women to neglect their homes 
and explained: "Please remember that votes for women does 
not mean that every woman is going to run for president of 
the United States or any other office. There aren't enough 
offices for that. And remember, too, that it is not our purpose 
to begin voting Monday morning and continue 'till Saturday 
night. I never saw a man with the voting habit quite so bad 
as that. Fact is, they don't all vote when they can. 21 

After Miss Engle's speech, sixty-seven persons indicated 
interest in forming a suffrage club, and a few days later the 
Raleigh Equal Suffrage League was organized with Mrs. 
Russell C. Langdon as President. 22 

Two days after the Raleigh lecture, Miss Engle spoke in 
Goldsboro. As a result a league of twenty members was 
formed there. 23 She continued her tour, and the enthusiam 
and interest she aroused stimulated the organization of sev- 
eral other leagues. 

Besides sponsoring Miss Engle the State league tried in 
other ways to promote the movement. Mrs. Henderson sent 
letters of inquiry to likely prospects. A typical letter stated: 
"Have you ever considered the question of Equal Suffrage? 
If you have, you have probably taken a stand with or against 
it. In either case you want to be conversant on the subject, 
and the Membership Committee of the Equal Suffrage 
League of North Carolina will gladly furnish any information 
desired and will send literature on request." 24 Other letters 
urged women to form suffrage clubs in their communities, 

21 The News and Observer, April 19, 1914. 
a The News and Observer, April 19, 1914. 

23 Notebook in the possession of Gertrude Weil of Goldsboro. 

34 Form letter distributed in 1914 by the Equal Suffrage League of North 
Carolina. Barbara Henderson Papers in the possession of Archibald Hen- 
derson of Chapel Hill, hereinafter cited as Barbara Henderson Papers. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 51 

or, if that seemed impossible, to join the State league as 

As a result of these activities, the number of suffragists in- 
creased. By November, 1914, there were clubs in the fol- 
lowing towns: Charlotte, Morganton, Hickory, Salisbury, 
Asheville, High Point, Henderson, Kinston, New Bern, Green- 
ville, Goldsboro, Chapel Hill, Raleigh, Reidsville, and 
Washington. 25 These organizations usually held monthly 
meetings and sometimes sponsored "open meetings" for the 
general public. On one occasion the Goldsboro league served 
an "old fashioned barbecue." Under the leadership of Suz- 
anne Bynum the Charlotte league sponsored a float in a 
parade. The float, described as being "beautifully decorated," 
was a tableau entitled "Signing the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence of 1914". The float's banners bore such in- 
scriptions as "Votes for Women" and "Taxation Without 
Representation is Tyranny." This occasion, in May, 1914, was 
the first on which the suffragists of North Carolina partici- 
pated in a parade. 26 

Those suffragists living in places where there were no 
clubs joined the State organization as "members-at-large." In 
November, 1914, it was reported that there was a "large 
number" of such members and that the number was "con- 
stantly growing." 27 Besides the enrolled members, there 
were persons who were suffragists by conviction but who 
"were too timid to join the movement." 28 Others did not 
join because they felt that their positions in their communities 
made affiliation unwise. An illustration is the case of Katha- 
rine B. Rondthaler, wife of the President of Salem College, 
who wrote: "It seems very difficult to get the women of 
Winston-Salem to take an active part in the movement. I 
do not understand why there is so much conservatism in the 
matter. I am personally greatly interested but am held back 
by our Board of Trustees and their general attitude, not 

26 President's Report, November, 1914, Barbara Henderson Papers. 

26 Charlotte Daily Observer, May 21, 1914. 

27 President's Report, November, 1914, Barbara Henderson Papers. 
88 Interview with Mary Henderson of Chapel Hill, July 16, 1957. 

52 The North Carolina Historical Review 

wishing me to appear publicly in committee work on ac- 
count of the College." 29 

Both men and women were members of the suffrage or- 
ganizations. The Charlotte league, for example had "men 
and women enrolled from the start." 30 In September, 1914, 
the league at Chapel Hill had twenty-nine members, fourteen 
of whom were men. 31 The Reidsville league had a man presi- 
dent, T. Wingate Andrews, superintendent of schools. In 
November, 1914, Mrs. Henderson stated that the member- 
ship was "made up of almost, if not quite, as many men as 
women." 32 She commented: "The women of North Carolina 
have been always the friends and helpers of the men; and 
these men have now awakened to the fact that simple justice 
demands that women have a voice in making the laws which 
govern them and their children." 33 Throughout its history, 
the woman suffrage movement in North Carolina had much 
masculine support, but the majority of the suffragists were 
always women. 

Whenever possible, the suffragists advertised their cause 
in the newspapers. During 1913 the Charlotte Daily Obser- 
ver and The News and Observer announced their approval 
of woman's enfranchisement and were, therefore, generous 
with their publicity. 34 In September, 1914, John B. Greer of 
Moravian Falls announced his intention of publishing a mon- 
thly suffrage paper. He entitled his publication The Dixie 
Suffragist and advertised it as the "Only Exclusive Woman 
Suffrage Advocate Published in the South." 35 The subscrip- 
tion price was thirty cents per year. Greer's project, though 
worthy, was overly ambitious, and it lasted less than a year. 
When The Dixie Suffragist ceased appearing, its subscrip- 
tion list was taken over by the Woman s Journal of Boston. 36 

29 Katharine B. Rondthaler to Mary Henderson, November 7, 1914. Mary 
Henderson Papers. 

80 Unsigned letter to Eugenia Clark of Raleigh, February 10, 1918. Bar- 
bara Henderson Papers. 

81 List of Members of the Chapel Hill Equal Suffrage League, September, 
1914, Barbara Henderson Papers. 

83 President's Report, November, 1914, Barbara Henderson Papers. 
88 Clarke, Suffrage in Southern States, 65. 

84 Lewis, "How North Carolina Women Secured Suffrage," The News and 
Observer, May 10, 1925. 

"Woman's Journal, XLV (Oct. 17, 1914), 278. 

88 Mrs. W. H. Jasspon to Agnes E. Ryan, May 11, 1915, Barbara Hender- 
son Papers. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 53 

Perhaps the most significant newspaper publicity during 
1914 was a special edition of the Daily Observer relative to 
the State convention in Charlotte. This publication included 
statements of prominent North Carolinians, descriptions of 
the suffrage leagues, and other information designed to a- 
rouse interest in the issue. A clever type of argument was the 
"suffrage jingle," one of which stated: 

While you are voting Curly Locks mine 

Who will wash dishes and go feed the swine? 

You needn't worry about it, my dear, 

I shall not vote every day in the year. 87 

An effective bit of suffrage propaganda was Mrs. Hender- 
son's convention call, in which she stated: 

Women of Carolina: Your state needs your service. For the 
sake of your homes and your children, lay aside your smaller 
tasks for the time and flock to the standard of a larger service. 

Men of Carolina : Your State needs the service of its women, 
who are with you, co-workers for the glory of the Old North 
State. Your women need your help. They call to you today for 
the freedom your fathers and our own laid down their lives 
to gain. 

So long as the women are enslaved, the Nation can not be 
free. The status of its women is the measure of a Nation's 
freedom. 38 

The State convention assembled in Charlotte on November 
9, 1914. Its most outstanding speaker was Chief Justice Wal- 
ter Clark of the North Carolina Supreme Court. 39 Judge 
Clark asked his audience: 

Why should the mothers, the daughters, the wives, and sisters 
of the white voters of North Carolina be thus grouped with 

87 Charlotte Daily Observer, November 1, 1914. 

38 Charlotte Daliy Observer, November 1, 1914. 

39 Judge Clark was one of the movement's staunchest supporters and often 
wrote and spoke in its behalf. Throughout its entire history he used his 
influence to promote the cause of votes-for-women. In the issue of Octo- 
ber 14, 1916, the Woman's Journal printed the following statement about 
him: "In his private life he does yeoman work for the cause, and in his 
public life, wherever the occasion arises, he speaks with a passionate zeal 
for the rights of women. Far from losing any of the proverbial dignity of 
a judge, Chief Justice Clark has won the respect of all for his sincerity 
and democracy." 

54 The North Carolina Historical Review 

idiots, lunatics, convicts, and the negroes? They are not moral 
defectives for we all know from the records of our courts, jails, 
and penitentiaries that there are thirty men tried for criminal 
offenses for every woman. Are they mental defectives? The 
answer to the movement to confer the right of suffrage upon 
women depends upon the real opinion of the majority of men 
upon that single question, whether women are competent to 
vote intelligently. 40 

Judge Clark stated that the opponents of woman suffrage 
were the liquor interests and political machines, both of 
whom feared the woman's vote. Other opponents were those 
who said that women were too occupied with home duties 
to vote and those who said that women did not want to vote. 
Judge Clark commented that if home duties were that bur- 
densome women evidently needed the vote very badly. As 
for women's not wanting to vote, he denied that anti-suf- 
fragists had the authority to say what women wanted. 41 

In summarizing the year's achievements Mrs. Henderson 
stated that there were fifteen local suffrage clubs in North 
Carolina and that three more were in the process of being 
organized. She reported: "The chief work of the year has 
been the effort to arouse interest throughout the State with- 
out arousing opposition. . . . The work has consisted in large 
measure of every possible form of propaganda: meetings, 
addresses, distribution of literature, 42 writing hundreds of 
personal letters, and keeping in touch with the National 
Association." 43 

Most of the convention delegates felt that their cause had 
made substantial progress, and they demonstrated their con- 
fidence in Mrs. Henderson's leadership by re-electing her 
to the presidency of State league. 

During 1915 the suffragists appealed to the North Caro- 
lina legislature for enfranchisement through an amendment 

40 Charlotte Daily Observer, November 10, 1914. Other convention speakers 
were Mayor Charles A. Bland, Dr. Archibald Henderson, and Suzanne 

41 Charlotte Daily Observer, November 10, 1914. Several of Clark's 
speeches were reprinted and distributed by the suffrage league. Among them 
were "Ballots for Both," "Votes for Women: Why and Why Not," "Equal 
Suffrage," and "Why Women Should Vote." 

42 Mrs. Henderson edited several woman suffrage pamphlets. They were 
"Woman and the Home," "Woman and Fair Play," "Nine Questions and 
Answers," and "Why We Want the Vote." 

43 President's Report, November, 1914, Barbara Henderson Papers. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 55 

to the State constitution. 44 Mary Henderson of Salisbury 
served as chairman of a committee on legislative work. 45 Miss 
Henderson's committee endeavored to learn the sentiments 
of the legislators relative to votes for women. It secured per- 
sonal interviews with about half of them and wrote letters 
to the remainder. 46 Nineteen stated that they favored woman 
suffrage, fifteen said that they were opposed, and the others 
were undecided. 47 Statements in opposition ranged from such 
objections as "You [women] have more privileges than we 
do anyway" to more thoughtful comments such as: "My own 
judgment is firmly against Woman Suffrage. I am entirely 
satisfied that its attainment will have a tendency to lower 
the standard of the home, and I am sorry it seems likely to 
become a prominent issue in this State at this time." 48 Sever- 
al stated that they did not believe that the majority of women 
wanted to vote. Actually many of the men who claimed to be 
undecided were really anti-suffragists who hoped to avoid 
being drawn into the controversy. 

When the legislature convened in Raleigh, the suffragists 
established headquarters at the Yarborough Hotel and began 
lobbying in behalf of their bill. They tried to influence the 
lawmakers through personal contacts and the distribution of 
literature. One of their most effective pieces of propaganda 
was a large map of the United States on display at their 
headquarters. This map showed the status of woman suffrage 
in each of the forty-eight States. 49 

On January 23, 1915, bills to enfranchise women were in- 
troduced in both houses. 50 Several days later the issue re- 
ceived a boost when William Jennings Bryan, then United 
States Secretary of State, addressed the legislature. Bryan 

44 In 1913 Representative D. M. Clark had introduced in the House a 
bill to confer municipal suffrage on women. This measure received little 
attention and was finally tabled. 

46 Mary Henderson is a sister of Archibald Henderson and is a daughter 
of John S. Henderson, who represented North Carolina in the United States 
House of Representatives from 1885 to 1895. 

48 Manuscript, Mary Henderson Papers. 

47 Lewis, "How North Carolina Women Secured the Suffrage/' The News 
and Observer, May 10, 1925. 

48 Henry A. Page to Mrs. M. M. Bell, November 23, 1914, Mary Henderson 

49 The News and Observer, January 11, 1915. 

60 The sponsors of these bills were Gallatin Roberts of Asheville in the 
House and F. P. Hobgood of Greensboro in the Senate. 

56 The North Carolina Historical Review 

told its members that woman suffrage was coming and that 
they might as well get ready to accept it. He considered 
women eminently qualified to vote. To substantiate this 
claim he pointed out that the majority of criminals were men 
but the majority of church-goers were women. He com- 
mented: "If the women have sense enough to keep out of the 
penitentiary and morals enough to go to church, who will 
say that they are not fit to go to the polls?" He maintained 
that the woman's vote would be a vote for peace for, in his 
opinion, women suffered more in war than men. He said: 
"If there is any one question that I think woman ought to 
have a voice in it is whether war should destroy her home 
and leave her the mother of fatherless children." 51 Bryan 
concluded by reminding the legislators that no State that had 
tried woman suffrage had ever abolished it. 52 

On February 2, committees from both houses held a joint 
hearing on the suffrage question. On this occasion Mrs. Arch- 
ibald Henderson of Chapel Hill accused those women who 
were indifferent to the ballot of shirking their responsibili- 
ties. "Women were not given a social conscience by God," 
she said, "to be deprived of that conscience by man." Mrs. 
T. W. Lingle of Davidson considered herself a happily married 
woman but still she felt the need of the ballot. If she felt this 
need, women less fortunately situated must feel it even more 
acutely. Mrs. T. Adelaide Goodno, State President of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, remarked that in 
the past temperance workers had relied on "entreaties and 
prayers" but now they looked to the ballot as an instrument 
of reform. 53 Mrs. Al Fairbrother, President of the Greensboro 
league, pointed out that the suffragists had no quarrel with 
men but that they merely wanted their political rights. 54 Mrs. 
Eugene Reilley, an ex-President of the North Carolina Fed- 
eration of Women's Clubs, denied that enfranchisement 
would lessen men's respect for women and asked: "Does any 

™The News and Observer, January 31, 1915. 
62 Greensboro Daily News, January 31, 1915. 

ra The News and Observer, February 3, 1915. On February 3, 1915, The 
News and Observer published a four-page woman suffrage supplement. 
64 Greensboro Daily News, February 3, 1915. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 57 

man believe that he has been degraded by casting an honest 
vote?" 55 

The occasion's most outstanding speaker was Dr. Anna 
Howard Shaw, President of the National American Woman 
Suffrage Association. Dr. Shaw stated: "On the fourth of July 
they tell us that the voice of the people is the voice of God. 
. . . But in the accompaniment of God there is a soprano as 
well as a bass. And what men have been calling the voice of 
God is nothing but a bass solo. . . .When Emperor William 
[of Germany] ascended to power he declared he was ruler by 
divine right, and the papers made much fun of him. But I 
don't think he was more ridiculous than our American divine 
right of sex." 56 

Dr. Shaw's address made a notable impression on the audi- 
ence. Mary Henderson stated: "Even some of our most stolid 
opponents thought her wonderful, though they still voted 
against us. One of them told me in a rather aggrieved tone 
that he didn't know there was such a woman in the world." 57 

In spite of these eloquent appeals, the suffragists were soon 
disappointed for both the house and senate committees voted 
to report their bills unfavorably. 58 

While in Raleigh, Dr. Shaw delivered an evening lecture in 
the Olivia Rainey Library. She told of her experiences as a 
minister in the slums of Boston, of her decision to become a 
medical doctor, and then to devote her energies to lecturing 
and crusading. She thought that woman suffrage would better 
social conditions and improve the lot of working women. 
"Women have not deserted their homes voluntarily," she said, 
but "are following the work of their grandmothers into the 
factory where men have carried it." She denied that enfran- 
chisement would "unsex" women and stated that "the ballot 
box was the one place where sex consciousness found no ex- 
pression." 59 Dr. Shaw injected a humorous note into her lec- 
ture when she said: "God had to make some women foolish 

55 The News and Observer, February 3, 1915. 

56 Greensboro Daily News, February 3, 1915. 

57 Manuscript, Mary Henderson Papers. 

58 The News and Observer, February 3, 1915. The senate committee's vote 
was four to three against the measure, and the house committee's was six 
to three. 

59 Greensboro Daily News, February 3, 1915. 

58 The North Carolina Historical Review 

to match the men. If a man wants to say the meanest thing 
he can about another man, what does he call him? Why, he 
says to him, 'You old woman, you/ ' 60 

On February 4 the House debated the woman suffrage 
issue. Gallatin Roberts of Buncombe County 61 made the chief 
speech in its behalf. He said that three-fourths of the House 
was probably against it but predicted: "All of you will live to 
see the day when women will be voting in every nook and 
corner of North Carolina." 62 

Several representatives spoke against the measure. Jordan 
Carawan of Pamlico "thought it would be a sad day in North 
Carolina when women were allowed the ballot" and quoted 
the Bible to support his objections. John H. Currie of Cum- 
berland said that enfranchisement would "besmirch the pure 
robes of womanhood." He thought that woman's place was 
in the home "where she had more influence in shaping society 
than she would at the ballot box." A. N. Benton of Columbus 
agreed that "the place of women was in the home and not at 
the polls," while Henry A. Page of Moore said that he knew 
only one woman who wanted to vote and he considered her 
incapable. 63 

R. A. Doughton of Alleghany moved that the measure be 
postponed indefinitely. Roberts demanded a roll call. The 
House then agreed to postponement by a vote of sixty-seven 
to thirty-eight. 64 

When the North Carolina Senate discussed woman suffrage 
on February 18, F. P. Hobgood of Greensboro spoke for it. 65 
He said that the measure would probably be defeated but 
that there was "no reason why it should not be discussed." He 
traced the history of the movement in the United States and 
quoted many famous persons who favored it. He considered 
suffrage a "right and not a privilege" and accused the op- 
ponents of the measure of being backward. 66 

T. T. Speight of Tarboro did not want women to "soil their 
skirts in politics" and said that women were more honored 

60 The News and Observer, February 3, 1915. 

61 The names of the home counties of representatives are given. 
83 The News and Observer, February 5, 1915. 

68 The News and Observer, February 5, 1915. 
M House Journal, regular session, 1915, 212. 
• The names of home cities of senators are given. 
00 The News and Observer, February 19, 1915. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 59 

now than they would ever be "down on the level with men 
in corrupt politics." R. D. Johnson of Warsaw said that votes 
for women meant jury servce for women. He described "the 
scene of the household disrupted" as follows: "Mrs. Jones 
is in the jury box sitting beside the negro nurse and the negro 
cook, also women and also voters, while Mr. Jones, hubby, 
is at home rocking the cradle." Johnson called the movement 
"trash" and "urged that its proponents wear skirts and take in 

After listening to these arguments the Senate tabled the 
measure. 68 Thus ended all hopes of enfranchisement through 
action of the 1915 legislature. 

In the spring of 1915 Mrs. Desha Breckinridge gave a series 
of talks in North Carolina. Mrs. Breckinridge was a great- 
granddaughter of Henry Clay and was one of the leaders of 
the suffrage movement in Kentucky. She spoke in Raleigh, 
Charlotte, and several other cities. The Charlotte News called 
her address "one of the best ever delivered in this city by man 
or woman" and described it as "exhaustive and logical in 
argument, splendidly constructed, scintillating in wit, charm- 
ing in delivery and characterized by the dignity of a woman 
of gentle birth, high refinement, exceptional intellectuality 
and charming personality." 69 

In the fall the suffragists sponsored a booth at the State 
Fair in Raleigh. It attracted much attention and afforded an 
opportunity for distributing literature. Of those visiting the 
booth, almost three hundred signed statements that they 
favored equal suffrage, while many others, who hesitated to 
sign their names, expressed sympathy for the cause. 70 

In October, 1915, the Suffragists held a State convention 
in Asheville. Eleven delegates from seven North Carolina 

67 The News and Observer, February 19, 1915. 

68 The Senate committee on election laws had reported the woman suffrage 
bill unfavorably. A minority report recommended that it be passed. Hob- 
good endeavored to persuade the senate to accept the minority report, but 
the vote was eleven to thirty-seven against it. Under the rules the bill then 
lay on the table. See Senate Journal, regular session, 1915, 311-312. 

69 Charlotte News, March 30, 1915. 

70 Proceedings of the Second Annual Convention of the Equal Suffrage 
Association of North Carolina, 1915, 4, 18, hereinafter cited as North Caro- 
lina Proceedings. Although the organization was chartered as the Equal 
Suffrage League of North Carolina, the term "association" was often used 
in lieu of league. 

60 The North Carolina Historical Review 

towns attended. 71 The occasion's chief speakers were Mrs. 
Archibald Henderson of Chapel Hill and United States Con- 
gressman J. J. Britt of Asheville. Mrs. Henderson said that 
there were many reasons for favoring woman suffrage. She 
explained: "I could urge upon you woman's right to the bal- 
lot on the ground of simple human justice, of mere humanity; 
I could discuss her rights as a taxpayer, or her need of pro- 
tection in industry. I could show woman's intellectual and 
moral fitness for the ballot— her peculiar interest in matters 
concerning civics, health, education and morals. I could make 
an appeal through her need of protection in matters which 
concern her dearest interests— the things that affect her chil- 
dren and the conduct of her home." She said that suffrage 
sentiment was growing in North Carolina and that twenty 
local clubs were affiliated with the State association. 72 

Congressman Britt explained that his views on suffrage 
were entirely personal and that he was speaking neither as a 
Republican nor as a congressman but as a private citizen. He 
favored equal suffrage because "women possess too large a 
share of the intelligence and goodness of society to be omitted 
from the voting equation." He told the convention that it did 
little good to argue the issue with a confirmed "anti" and 
advised the suffragists to direct their appeals to the "thinking 
man. ' 

An out-of-state convention visitor was Mrs. Nellie Nugent 
Somerville, of Mississippi, who gave the executive committee 
practical suggestions about suffrage work. Mrs. Somerville 
said that outside speakers were stimulating but that local 
women were the heart of the movement. She advised that 
they use methods suited to local conditions, even if such 
methods seemed unorthodox at first. She warned that there 
would be lulls in suffrage activities, for no movement could 
be "at white heat all of the time." She said that money could 
be raised through donations and advised that no one be 
dropped from membership because of non-payment of dues. 

71 North Carolina Proceedings, 2. 

73 Asheville Citizen, October 29, 1915. To affiliate a local league had to 
have at least five members. 

73 Asheville Citizen, October 29, 1915. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 61 

She explained: "You want all of the names you can get on 
your membership lists, whether active members or not." 74 

After due consideration the suffragists decided to abandon, 
temporarily, their crusade for full enfranchisement and to 
seek presidential and municipal suffrage from the next legis- 
lature. 75 They elected officers for the coming year and named 
Mrs. Charles Malcolm Piatt of Asheville president. 76 

The State league held no convention in 1916 but met in 
Greensboro in January, 1917. Sixteen delegates from nine 
cities attended. 77 The main speakers were Mrs. Walter Mc- 
Nab Miller of the National American Woman Suffrage Asso- 
ciation and Mrs. Charles Malcolm Piatt of the North Carolina 
Equal Suffrage League. Mrs. Miller said that "women were 
not seeking the ballot because they thought they could run 
politics better than men . . ." but because they felt they should 
assume their share of the responsibility for proper govern- 
ment. Mrs. Piatt considered the apathy of women a greater 
obstacle to enfranchisement than the opposition of the men. 
She suggested that women might be aroused if they realized 
that under North Carolina law the father alone is the recog- 
nized guardian of the children. 78 

In her reports of the year's activities Mrs. Piatt stated that 
the league had written many letters and distributed much 
literature. 79 Two outstanding suffragists, Mrs. Pattie Ruffner 
Jacobs of Alabama and Gertrude Watkins of Arkansas, had 
lectured in the State. Six new suffrage clubs had been formed 
but the total membership in the State was only one hundred 
and seventy-five. She regretted that no convention had been 
held during 1916 and accused some of the officers of negli- 
gence in the performance of their duties. 80 

The convention adopted a resolution urging the North 
Carolina legislature to confer presidential and municipal 

7 * North Carolina Proceedings, 1915, 13. 

75 North Carolina Proceedings, 1915, 10-11. 

78 North Carolina Proceedings, 1915, 3. 

77 North Carolina Proceedings, 1917 (January), 3. 

78 Greensboro Daily News, January 13, 1917. 

79 During the summer Mrs. Piatt sent sixty-nine letters of inquiry to 
candidates in the Democratic primary. Twenty-six replied that they favored 
woman suffrage, three opposed it, and the remainder did not answer. 

80 North Carolina Proceedings, January 1917, 4-5. 

62 The North Carolina Historical Review 

suffrage on women. Officers for the coming year were elected, 
and Mrs. John S. Cunningham of Durham was chosen presi- 
dent. 81 

81 North Carolina Proceedings, January, 1917, 4-5. 

[To be concluded] 


Edited by John Bowen Hamilton ? 


Thomas Miles Garrett was born on June 13, 1830, 1 in Hert- 
ford County, North Carolina, but was brought up near 
Colerain in Bertie County. 2 He had a half-brother, Joseph S. 
Hays, one half-sister, Sarah, and one full brother who was 
the great-grandfather of Mrs. E. M. Denbo (nee Dorothy 
Garrett) of Durham, North Carolina, whose public-spirited 
generosity resulted in the deposit of the original manuscript 
of Garrett's diary in the Southern Historical Collection of 
the University Library. 3 He was prepared for college by Pro- 
fessor John Kimberley at Buckhorn Academy. When he ma- 
triculated at the University of North Carolina in 1848, he was 
the legal ward of another brother, Preston, and financially 
dependent on an uncle (apparently maternal), Augustus 
Holley, and his unnamed wife. 4 His parents were probably 
both dead when he entered the University; he wrote in his 

* Dr. John Bowen Hamilton is an Associate Professor of English, Rollins 
College, Winter Park, Florida. 

1 Information is from the diary unless otherwise stated. 

2 Benjamin B. Winborne, The Colonial and State History of Hertford 
County, N. C. (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton, 1904), 192, hereinafter 
cited as Winborne, History of Hertford County. 

3 The editor is indebted in many other ways to the kindness of Mrs. Denbo 
for many details related to the diary, as well as to Mrs. R. L. (nee Addie 
Garrett) Hays of New Bern, for additional information about Garrett's 
family and descendants. Garrett's half-sister Sarah married the Rev. Joshua 
Leigh Garrett (no relation) of Gloucester County, Virginia, in 1865, with 
the following living descendants (November, 1958) : John Hays Garrett, 
82, of Richmond, Virginia; Mrs. Kate Livernon, 76, and Mrs. R. L. Hays, 
78, both of New Bern. 

* Two Holleys, James and George Stanley, from Bertie County, graduated 
from the University in 1832 and 1837 respectively, and may have been 
related to Garrett. Kemp P. Battle, Sketches of the History of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, together with a Catalogue of Officers and Students, 
1789-1889 (n.p.: Published by the University, 1889), 147, hereinafter cited 
as Battle, Sketches; and Kemp P. Battle, History of the University of 
North Carolina from Its Beginning to the Death of President Swain, 1789- 
1868 (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton, 2 volumes, 1907), I, 433, 796, 
hereinafter cited as Battle, History of the University. Garrett's brother 
Preston is mentioned by name only once, and alluded to twice. See diary 
entries for July 12 and November 7, 1849, and March 4, 1850. 


64 The North Carolina Historical Review 

diary on November 7, 1849: "I own that I am free of any of 
those childish whims which make many long for home. I 
know too that that for me is not a place of comfort and 
happiness, that I can easily forget the joys but not the sorrows 
connected with my home." Besides the legal guardianship 
of his brother, he implied that his uncle and aunt, the 
Augustus Holleys, stood in loco parentis. 

If one is to understand some of the attitudes and state- 
ments of this ambitious young man, a reminder about the 
community of the University is illuminating. The eye-witness 
account which Garrett wrote on August 1, 1859, of the 
drunken behavior and rough-and-ready politics is not exag- 
gerated. Chapel Hill in 1848 was a rough, rural village, pos- 
sessing few of its present attractions; the student body much 
of the time was as rough as the village; besides study, recita- 
tion, and parsing of Latin verbs, gun and knife fights were 
fairly common, along with sporadic violent attacks on the 
faculty, resulting in part from restrictive regulations govern- 
ing student-faculty relations. University bylaws of 1826 re- 
quired a professor to live in the building with the students 
from nine to twelve noon, and from two to five in the after- 
noon, daily except Sunday, to aid in discipline and help the 
students with studies; these faculty members had to visit each 
student's room at least three times a week. The historian of 
the University describes the scene thus: 

. . . The halls and campus were not lighted, and occasionally 
stones and cold water were thrown at an unwelcome visitor. . . . 
Signals were invented which showed to the listening students 
the progress of the professor, so that card-players would have 
time to open their dictionaries, and the corn-whiskey bottle 
could be safely hid. When the word DOGS ! or FACULTY ! was 
shouted from the window of one building, it was the sign that 
those in another might expect at once the professorial police- 
men. While the manners of some professors were so agreeable 
that they were usually welcomed, others were so rough that 
they became odious. Every species of disorder was prevalent 
in the recitation rooms of these latter, partly in the spirit of 
childish fun, but mainly for the annoyance of the instructor. 

The professors vigorously protested against the mandatory 
provision in regard to spending their mornings and afternoons 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 65 

in the College buildings, and nightly visitation of rooms. ... It 
was unfortunate that the professors were not consulted, as they 
are in the position of both witnesses and lawyers. . . . The stu- 
dents will not consult professors about their studies, as was 
found by experience at Yale and at Chapel Hill. They are afraid 
of the jeers of their fellows. . . . 5 

A manuscript report from Tutor of Mathematics Charles 
Phillips to the President of the University, dated Tuesday, 
August 13, 1850, relates an attempt by Phillips, Professor 
Elisha Mitchell, and Professor Manuel Fetter to investigate 
an affray going on in the south end of West Building about 
nine-thirty the preceding evening. Entering the room of two 
students, they found an obviously recently emptied stone 
whiskey jug on the floor near the bed, the floor splashed with 
whiskey, and the room in disorder. A series of events fol- 
lowed, including numerous volleys of stones and brickbats, 
with Phillips and Fetter, now separated from Mitchell, being 
forced to take cover in another room and to bar the door with 
a chair. After an ingenious and determined attacker removed 
a hinge-pin from the door to force open enough space to 
throw more stones, a student finally came to the rescue and 
proposed an agreement whereby the two besieged members 
of the faculty would be allowed to leave uninjured if the in- 
spection tour were discontinued. To extricate themselves, 
Phillips and Fetter agreed, but when they reported the matter 
to the President the entire available faculty was called out 
and an inspection made of every room in the building; the 
inspection was completed about 3:00 a.m., whereupon the 
building presumably settled down for the night. 6 

In spite of such distractions as these in a student body of 
less than two hundred between 1848 and 1851, Garrett's 
record is a good one. In the senior graduation listing for June, 
1851, he received a grade of "good" in all grades in "senior 
gradation," and second distinction in scholarship, and next 
most punctual" in class attendance and deportment. In De- 
cember, 1849, he also received second distinction in scholar- 
ship, and in this year his class markings ranged from "good" 

'Battle, History of the University, I, 304-305. 

8 Report, University of North Carolina Papers, August 13, 1850. 

66 The North Carolina Historical Review 

to "very respectable" to "very good," in such subjects as 
rhetoric, French, Bible, Latin, and mathematics; his best 
grades were always in rhetoric. In the sophomore class for 
June, 1849, he received second distinction in scholarship; in 
deportment, "next most punctual." Since there were only 
three "honors" distinctions made, Garrett's consistent record 
is relatively conspicuously high. The Faculty Journals list no 
deficiencies for Garrett during his entire stay at the Univer- 
sity. 7 

Considering the temptations to a student in these days, as 
well as the academic limitations of the University, its library, 
equipment, and staff, Garrett's record was such from which 
one might reasonably expect a good and even distinguished 
career as a lawyer. As may be seen below, his military career 
bears out this reason for hope, until his death in the battle at 
Spotsylvania Court House, May 5, 1864. There is every rea- 
son to believe that North Carolina would have benefited by 
the tragically wasted abilities of this young man. 

The post-collegiate career of Garrett must, like his pre- 
college life, be pieced together from many sources. The Ber- 
tie County Census of 1860 lists Thomas M. Garrett, lawyer, 
male, age 29, as owning real estate valued at $650.00, and 
personal estate valued at $1,200.00. 8 The historian of Hert- 
ford County 9 records that Garrett was an attorney in a then- 
famous lawsuit of 1854 (only three years after Garrett's 
graduation from the University ) involving a Hertford County 
political committee of the Know-nothing Party, which sued 
one of the disgruntled members for $10,000 because of a de- 
nunciatory attack published in the Murfreesboro Gazette. 
Garrett represented the defendant and won the suit for his 
client who was awarded a token payment of a few dollars. 

An interesting but grim aspect of Garrett's post-collegiate 
career is furnished by the Minute Book of the Pleas and Quar- 
ter Sessions in Hertford County containing a record of wills 

7 Faculty Journal, 1849-1855, University of North Carolina Archives, 
Chapel Hill. 

8 Eighth Census of the United States, 1860, microfilm copy, State Depart- 
ment of Archives and History. 

9 Winborne, History of Hertford County, 191-192. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 67 

and accounts of sales of estates. Garrett's will reads as 

The last will and testament of Thomas M. Garrett, written 
by his own hand. 

I give and devise and bequeath to my brother Joseph S. Hays 
all my estate and property of every kind, nature, and description 
after the payment of just debts. 

If my brother and myself both die or are killed in the war 
now raging in the country, then it is my wish and desire that 
my sister Sarah shall succeed to all the estate and property given 
to my brother. 

I nominate constitute and appoint my brother, Joseph S. Hays, 
my executor to this my last will and testament. Written at 
Winton this Friday the 3rd day of May 1861 and placed with 
valuable papers that this may be established as a holograph. 
[Signed] Thomas M. Garrett. 10 

The handwriting of the will, is of course, identical with 
that of the diary. Accompanying the will is a note by the 
Clerk of Court William Gurley that the will was accepted on 
oath of ". . . David Outlaw; J[?] and Thomas T. Holly who 
say that they were well acquainted with the handwriting of 
Thomas M. Garrett and testified that this is his will in his 
handwriting." n The will was recorded on November 8, 1864, 
six months after Garrett's death on May 5 at Spotsylvania 
Court House. 

It is impossible not to wish that Garrett had had time to 
keep a wartime diary of his thoughts when fate wrote a tragic 
footnote to his will. His brother, Joseph S. Hays, Lieutenant, 
Fifth North Carolina Infantry, from Hertford County, North 
Carolina, was killed in the engagement at Lee's Mill, Vir- 
ginia, April 16, 1862, in combat against a common enemy. 12 
At the time of his brother's death, Garrett was a captain in 
the Fifth North Carolina; later he became Colonel, and was 
second in command at the time of his own death. 

10 Minute Book of the Pleas and Quarter Session in Hertford County, 
Winton, 1830-1867, microfilm copy, State Department of Archives and 

11 Minute Book, Hertford County, Record of Wills, Account of Sales of 

12 The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the 
Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, D. C. : Government Printing 
Office, 70 volumes [127 books, atlases, and index], 1880-1901), Series I, XI, 
Part I, 1,075, hereinafter cited as Official Records. 

68 The North Carolina Historical Review 

This brings us to the last, and tragic, phase of Garrett's 
career, his record as a Confederate officer, beginning with his 
entry as a captain and ending with two dramatic events: 
recommendation for promotion to brigadier general, and his 
death about eight weeks later. That the promotion was never 
made may be due to a long-standing quarrel between Zebu- 
Ion Vance, Governor of North Carolina, and Jefferson Davis, 
President of the Confederacy, over pre-war convictions about 
which would have been the valid course: secession or pre- 
servation of the Union. On this issue Garrett took a firm 
stand as a student at the University, and recorded his con- 
victions in clear, concise terms in his diary. 

According to Moore's Roster 13 Garrett was enlisted in the 
Fifth North Carolina Infantry Regiment from Bertie County, 
North Carolina, as a captain, promoted from captain to major, 
and from major to colonel. Pertinent records 14 show that 
the Fifth North Carolina participated in many vital engage- 
ments in Virginia and North and South Carolina. Clark's 
Histories 15 published a picture of Garrett identical with a 
daguerreotype owned by Mrs. Denbo, donor of the diary, 
and shows that Garrett was first promoted while in Com- 
pany "F" from Bertie County. 

A battle report written by Garrett gives proof that there 
was a carry-over from rhetoric classes at the University to 
the battlefield; the battle was that fought at Sharpsburg, Vir- 
ginia, on September 17, 1862; the report by Garrett was 
written from camp on October 11, 1862. However, between 
this battle and Garrett's report, he was taken prisoner and 
exchanged. General Order No. 147, September 30, 1862, lists 
Captain James Bense, of the Sixth Ohio Volunteers as being 

"John W. Moore, Roster of the North Carolina Troops in the War Be- 
tween the States (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton [for Ashe and Gatling], 
4 volumes, 1882), I, 156, 157. 

14 Official Records, see Index. Of the recurrent mentions of Garrett's name 
in official dispatches, the earliest is in a report on the Battle of Bull Run, 
by Lt. Col. J. P. Jones of the Fifth North Carolina Infantry to General 
Longstreet, dated July 22, 1861, in which Garrett is singled out for atten- 
tion because of the fact that he behaved well throughout the whole day's 
duty on a day marred by disgraceful conduct and unwarranted retreat by 
both officers and men. Official Records, Series I, LI, Part I, 32-33. 

u Walter Clark (ed.), Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions 
from North Carolina in the Great War, 1861-65 (Raleigh and Goldsboro: 
State of North Carolina, 5 volumes, 1901), V, xii. This reference will here- 
inafter be cited as Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments. 


Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 69 

exchanged for Captain Thomas Miles Garrett of the Fifth 
North Carolina. 16 Part of Garrett's report of the battle at 
Sharpsburg is quite worth quoting, not only to see the orderly 
procession of events described in carefully and economically 
phrased sentences, but to see the personality of the writer 
emerge, with his fine eye for telling details, his sense of the 
importance of what he is writing and its possible effect on 
others— all of which were both engendered and fostered by 
debates in the halls of the Philanthropic Society more than a 
decade earlier at the University. 

At an early hour in the morning and shortly after the battle 
had opened with musketry, the regiment was moved along with 
the brigade by the left flank across the open field north of the 
town in the direction of the firing. The brigade was halted upon 
the left of the "burning house," and formed in line of battle. 
While halted here for a few minutes, and while passing to our 
position, we were subjected to a very severe cross-fire from the 
enemy's artillery, and had the misfortune to lose for the day 
Lieut. Charles R. King, commanding Company H, who was 
wounded severely in the arm by the fragment of a shell. The 
regiment, being formed in line on the right of the brigade, was 
moved forward rapidly across the open field and over a fence 
into the woods in front. Here a state of confusion ensued which 
it is difficult to portray. Various conflicting orders (mere sug- 
gestions, perhaps, taking that shape) were passed down the 
line, the men in the ranks being allowed by the officers to join 
in repeating them, so that it became utterly impossible to 
understand which emanated from the proper authority. The 
regiment, following the movements of the brigade, which were 
vacillating and unsteady, obliquing to the right and left, came 
upon a ledge of rock and earth, forming a fine natural breast- 
work. Under the cover of this the regiment, following the 
example of those on the left, fell down and sought shelter. 
Seeing a regiment of the enemy coming up in the open field in 
our front and somewhat on the flank, and the breastwork turning 
where the right of the regiment rested in such a manner as to 
expose a few files of men of my regiment, I ordered these to 
deploy as flankers to the right and take shelter behind the trees. 
At this moment, and while directing this movement, Captain 
[T. P.] Thomson, Company G, came up to me, and in a very 
excited manner and tone cried out to me, "They are flanking 
us ! See, yonder's a whole brigade !" I ordered him to keep 


Official Records, Series II, IV, 578. 

70 The North Carolina Historical Review 

silence and return to his place. The men before this were far 
from being cool, but, when this act of indiscretion occurred, a 
panic ensued, and, despite the efforts of file-closers and officers, 
they began to break and run. I have employed this language in 
regard to Captain Thomson's conduct because he remained 
upon the ground and exerted himself to rally the men, and, 
while it manifests clearly a want of capacity to command, my 
observation of him did not produce a conviction that it pro- 
ceeded from a cowardly temper. I gave an order to the few men 
who remained — not more than 10 in number — to retire, and 
called upon the few officers who were around me to rally behind 
the fence in our rear. . . . 

Garrett continues and later reports an orderly retreat, a meet- 
ing with General Lee on the road behind, with Lee giving 
him an order to fall back to join in the command of Colonel 
Iverson of the Twentieth North Carolina. Later he is sepa- 
rated from his troops by a wound and forced to drop out of 
the fight. 17 

Wounds and mortal danger seemed to deter Garrett but 
little; after being wounded at Sharpsburg, captured, and ex- 
changed, he returned to action, but was again wounded, this 
time being left to the mercies of the enemy on the open bat- 
tlefield on May 2, 1863. 18 General Iverson (recently pro- 
moted ) in his report of the Chancellorsville Campaign, says, 
"I observed him during the evening in front of his regiment, 
impetuously leading it to the fight and stimulating his men 
by his example." 19 Further, in a report by Major General 
R. E. Rhodes, commanding D. H. Hill's Division in May, 
1863, Garrett is cited for conspicuous gallantry. However, 
the citation must have been an irksome one to Garrett, in a 
way, because of the incident that terminated the action. The 
citation reads, "Colonel [Thomas M.] Garrett of the 5th 
North Carolina who had behaved most gallantly on the first 
day, was, unfortunately, wounded by one of our own men, 
after the close of the day's fight. . . ." 20 

Clark mentions that Garrett was recommended for promo- 
tion to Brigadier General at a time when he was Colonel of 

17 Official Records, Series I, XIX, Part I, 1,043-1,045. 

18 Official Records, Series I, XXV, Part I, 947. 
59 Official Records, Series I, XXV, Part I, 985. 
20 Official Records, Series I, XXV, Part I, 946, 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 71 

the Fifth North Carolina Infantry Regiment under the com- 
mand of Brigadier General Iverson's Brigade in the Chancel- 
lors ville Campaign. 21 The recommended promotion was never 
made. According to Jefferson Davis, President of the Con- 
federacy, and the Secretary of War, Judah P. Benjamin, the 
recommendation never reached the War Office. The reasons 
may well lie in the Garrett revealed in the diary: Garrett the 
believer in free expression of opinion, Garrett the outspoken 
defender of the rights of minorities, Garrett the conservative 
believer in the strength of the Union when all men around 
him were crying, "Secede!" It was this Garrett who, after 
reading in English history, expressed in his diary admiration 
for the forcefulness of Queen Elizabeth I when internal dis- 
sension threatened the progress and success of the English 
Renaissance. That Garrett was willing to fight for the prin- 
ciple of self-determination for the South is obvious; however, 
his old political persuasion about the strength of the Union 
perhaps prevented his promotion to Brigadier General after 
a distinguished combat record. Such, at least, was the belief 
of Zebulon Vance, Governor of North Carolina. 

Vance, sometime bitter opponent of Jefferson Davis, 22 
wrote a series of almost inflammatory letters to Davis, accus- 
ing him of making promotions in the Confederate forces on 
the basis of the political rather than the military record of the 
officers involved. Governor Vance accused Jefferson Davis of 
making Thomas Miles Garrett one of these victims, in a letter 
written from the Executive Department, Raleigh, March 9, 
1864, two months before Garrett was killed in action. 

... It is, of course, impossible for me to prove [Vance asserts 
to Davis] that any other than military considerations have 
governed your army appointments; but I desire to call your 
attention to the fact that out of some twenty-five or thirty gen- 
erals appointed from North Carolina only three anti-secession- 
ists, two of whom — Gatlin and Baker — were old Army officers, 
and the other was my brother, a civilian. Now, does it not seem 
strange, when it is remembered that two-thirds of the people of 

21 Clark, Histories of the North Carolina Regiments, V, xii. 

28 J. G. Randall, The Civil War and Reconstruction (New York: D. C. 
Heath and Company, 1937), 352-356; and Frontis W. Johnston, "Zebulon 
Baird Vance: A Personality Sketch," The North Carolina Historical Re- 
view, XXX (April, 1953), 178-190. 

72 The North Carolina Historical Review 

this state were opposed to secession until Lincoln's proclamation, 
that God should have endowed the remaining one-third with 
all the military talents; that "military considerations" should 
divest two-thirds of our citizens, however brave, patriotic, and 
intelligent, of the capacity to serve their country except in the 
ranks or as subordinate officers? Branch, Clingman, Scales, 
Ransom, and Gordon — all politicians — are promoted at once. 
What representative of the old Unionists was thought fit to 
receive similar favors ? Col. McRae, of the Fifth North Carolina 
Regiment, was the senior colonel of his brigade. On the first 
vacancy a junior officer from another state was put over him. 
He was a Douglas Democrat. Colonel Garrett, his successor, was 
an old Union Whig previous to the war; had fought for three 
years, and was covered with wounds. On the next vacancy in 
the brigadiership Lieutenant-Colonel [Robert D.] Johnston, a 
secessionist, was put over him. . . . 23 

Vance then goes on to cite another instance which, to him, 
was equally glaring, and then comments, sarcastically, "... I 
make no complaint against any of these gentlemen, but only 
wonder at the passing strangeness of this singular freak of 
nature in so partially and arbitrarily distributing the military 
capacity of the country." He concludes by citing a number 
of civil officers from which anti-secessionists were excluded 

Davis answered Vance's letter, asserting first that he did 
not know the political antecedents of the persons involved; 
second, that McRae, though an "outsider" was elected to his 
colonelcy by North Carolina officers and men, and that his 
promotion was fully concurred in by his immediate superiors, 
including the commanding General, Robert E. Lee; and 
finally, that not only is there no recommendation for Colonel 
Garrett's promotion on file in the War Office, but that Lt. Col. 
Johnston was recommended for promotion to the brigadier- 
ship by his immediate superior, Major General Rhodes, and 
that Johnston was ". . . by right the colonel of the Twenty- 
third North Carolina, in consequence of the death of Colonel 
Christie"; finally, that Johnston's promotion was concurred in 
by Lt. Gen. Ewell, corps commander, and General Lee, com- 
manding general. Included with the letter to Vance was a 
certificate of the Secretary of War that there was no record 

53 Official Records, Series I, LI, Part II, 830-833. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 73 

in the War Office of a recommendation for promotion of 
Colonel Garrett. In the letter, Davis specifically denies the 
general allegation of making civil appointments and military 
promotions based on political persuasions held prior to the 
War. 24 

The matter cannot be positively settled because of absence 
of all the necessary evidence; yet, Garrett may have, ironi- 
cally, predicted his own fate. At the Charter Centennial of 
1889, the class of 1851 was represented at its reunion by only 
one member, Peter E. Smith; he stated that Garrett himself 
had remarked that he *\ . . would come out of the fight a 
Brigadier-General or a dead Colonel." 25 At any rate, it is 
clear that Garrett went from anti-secessionist to Confederate 
officer— not to say, secessionist. Since history is replete with 
examples of men who have joined armies and been killed for 
reasons other than political opinions, one cannot safely say 
without evidence that Garrett became a fire-eating seces- 
sionist. He did, however, die—and for his own reasons, all of 
which are not apparent. Certainly he joined the battle for the 
right to secede, and lost his life defending the rights of 
minorities. This is a view he shared, and expressed, in com- 
mon with Henry David Thoreau, the great exponent of trans- 
cendentalism in politics; Garrett expressed his own views 
eloquently, only a month after Thoreau's famous essay on 
"Civil Disobedience" was issued in Boston, in 1849 26 ( see, 
for example, the entry in the diary for October 26, 1849 ) . 

Garrett began his diary on his birthday, June 13, 1849, one 
year after he matriculated at the University. His stated pur- 
pose for keeping it is plain: to transcribe his thought more 
than his acts, to record his relationships with his classmates, 
to keep a "memory record" for himself, and to provide a place 
for exercise in composition. As described, the idea is not 
exactly original, however, the diary has uses for others besides 
Garrett. For the modern reader it is, besides being one of the 
few coherent and revealing records of University life in the 

34 Official Records, Series I, LI, Part II, 844-846. 

25 Battle, History of the University, II, 416. Battle is in error in reporting 
Garrett to be a general in the Confederate forces, History of the University, 
II, 828. 

28 Henry David Thoreau, "Resistance to Civil Government," in Elizabeth 
Palmer Peabody (ed.), Aesthetic Essays (Boston, 1849). 

74 The North Carolina Historical Review 

period involved, 27 an amplification of some of our existing 
records: first, of pre-Civil War University life in general; 
second, of pre-Civil War educational means and objectives; 
third, of specific strengths and weaknesses of teaching meth- 
ods and results in the first half-century of the nation's oldest 
State university; fourth, of the influence and use of certain 
"extracurricular" activities and their relationship to the whole 
educational program; fifth, of the influence of and reaction to 
religion in the University; and finally, of personalities such as 
President Swain, Professor Elisha Mitchell, and others. 

The diary is of even more interest to the modern reader 
as a human record of a personality, typical of many in its 
time but for whom actual records as vivid and self-explana- 
tory as this are missing or incomplete. Yet, Garrett's person- 
ality shows many striking atypical characteristics which make 
its loss one of the many such tragedies of the period. Garrett 
was a young, vigorous man with strong and courageously ex- 
pressed convictions— political, spiritual, and social; he was an 
idealist, ethically, but motivated by the rational approach in 
human affairs; however, when his emotions became deeply 
involved he acted emotionally as other men. He was a pro- 
found believer in fair play and in human rights, including 
the rights of the minority, yet he had an equally profound 
distrust of the mob; he was usually intellectually honest about 
himself, but given on occasions to expressions of stuffiness 
and self-satisfaction, and of his own superiority. Neverthe- 
less, clear indications are present that, had he lived, he would 
have risen well above his fellows in achievement, and still 
retained some sense of humility. His dread of ridicule is in- 
consistent with his contempt for the mob, but there is no 
denying the presence of both as motivating factors on some 
of his activities. His keen, sincere love of learning may have 
been spurred by a real sense of isolation from family and 
friends. Capable of intense loneliness, he never gave way to 

27 For a similar diary a decade earlier, see John L. Sanders (ed.), "The 
Journal of Ruffin Wirt Tomlinson, 1841-1842," The North Carolina His- 
torical Review, XXX (January and April, 1953), 86-114 and 233-260. Gar- 
rett's diary is superior in the quality of the writing, clarity, organization, 
and in revelation of intellectual currents of the period, though it has rela- 
tively few of the racy, gossipy touches, and none of the occasional bawdry, 
which may delight the reader of Tomlinson's record. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 75 

despair and self-pity. He arrived at the University intellectu- 
ally well-prepared but socially and emotionally immature; 
when his college life approached its relatively distinguished 
close, he was straining at the classroom leash, anxious to get 
into "real" life and what he doubtless regarded as more im- 
portant battles. He was also matured considerably by educa- 
tion and experience, and had gained a wiser sense of values 
from both books and men. No one would have agreed more 
with Emerson than Garrett, that books are for the scholar's 
idle times; actually, Garrett was an intensely hard-working 
and self-disciplined student. The "idle" times of University 
life at Chapel Hill can be clearly seen as shaping the future 
lawyer and Army officer; his expectations in both areas were 
high when, on the battlefield at Spotsylvania Court House in 
the spring, 1864, he felt on his shoulder the hand of the ". . . 
fell sergeant, Death, . . . strict in his arrest." 

Finally, therefore, Garrett's diary serves as a minute foot- 
note to history, revealing more details about how civilian life 
of the pre-Civil War period moved as a continuum into the 
military involvements, and how military action is often deter- 
mined by events long preceding the clash of men and guns. 

In preparing the diary for publication, 28 no corrections in 
spelling or punctuation have been made except where the 
original clearly clouds the obviously intended meaning. The 
original manuscript has been most painstakingly compared 
with an exceptionally accurate typescript on file in the South- 
ern Historical Collection of the University of North Carolina 
Library, and any errors ( four in number, and insignificant in 
nature) have been corrected in the published edition. The 

28 The editing- of the diary was begun by the editor's wife, Roberta Mac- 
kenzie Hamilton, while she was a research-fellow under the direction of 
the late Kenan Professor of Education at the University of North Carolina, 
Edgar Wallace Knight, assisting him in research for his A Documentary 
History of Education in the South before 1860 (Chapel Hill: The Univer- 
sity of North Carolina Press, 5 volumes, 1949 — 1953), I, vii, hereinafter 
cited as Knight, Documentary History of Education. The present editor 
continued and carried out the work already begun ; therefore the conventional 
acknowledgement under which scholars' wives' labors are usually buried is 
a gross understatement and a miscarriage of editorial justice in this case. 
The editor is grateful to her, a skilled scholar in her own right. I wish to 
thank, besides Mrs. Denbo, donor of the manuscript, and the entire staff of 
the Southern Historical Collection of the University of North Carolina 
Library, particularly Dr. Carolyn Wallace and Dr. James W. Patton, and 
especially the Southern Fellowships Fund with offices in Chapel Hill, which 
made completion of the work possible with a summer grant-in-aid. 

76 The North Carolina Historical Review 

original manuscript has no pagination, and therefore the 
bracketed numbers in this published text indicate pagination 
of the completely reliable typescript. 

Certain deletions have been made, the majority of them 
to avoid repetition or to eliminate passages of no historical or 
human interest value. Deletions are indicated by the familiar 
ellipsis mark within a given dated passage, or by a gap in the 
dated entries of the continuous record, since Garrett did not 
skip a single day once he began, until the final months. Gar- 
rett's omissions have been indicated by bracketed references. 
The diary as a whole is a relatively long one, approximately 
28,000 words; as published it has been cut to approximately 
one-third of its original length. In the earlier portions pub- 
lished below, a very few passages of little interest have been 
deliberately included to show the kind of entry which Gar- 
rett made a great deal of (see, for example, the entry for 
June 15, 1849); in subsequent sections this kind of entry 
accounts for the majority of the excisions. Where a parti- 
cularly long excision is made, a bracketed note of explanation 
is included. 

Chapel Hill N. C. June 13th 1849 

I have long had the idea of keeping a journal or diary. This 
was suggested to me by a lady of my acquaintance in Hertford 
County who related to me the history of an old man who once 
lived at Murfreesboro and the immense advantage he derived 
from his journal and what advantage it happened to be to the 
citizens of that place. I promised her that at some time I would 
begin my journal, to which she persuaded me verry warmly 
And should it ever profit me any thing, or should I ever derive 
any pleasure from it, all the honor is due to her, and I confess 
that were I free from the binding obligation of promise to a 
lady I might allow my disinclination to get the better of my will. 
I am so subject to break the vows which I make, especially those 
made to myself. The plan upon which I shall conduct this work 
is not yet determined, and will perhaps be more than otherwise 
the work of chance. I shall nevertheless endeavor to make it 
more the transcript of my thoughts than acts, for in my present 
situation my acts are quite unimportant, and in truth so are 
my thoughts, yet as I am attending now more to the development 
of my mental than physical organization, my thoughts become 
by this much the more important. I shall endeavor to incorporate 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 77 

some relation of my intercourse with the friends and associates 
whom I may have around me, and by this render the work more 
agreeable, and at the same time furnish myself with a record 
which it will dear [?] to me to preserve, as containing the re- 
membrance of those incidents in my life which [2] will be 
undoubtedly the most pleasant and in which in after life, through 
the medium of memory, I may "live more and have my continued 
being". 29 It may happen that at some time I may be induced to 
make observations upon the deeds of others, and probably criti- 
cize their opinions &c; But I have something to fear from this. 
For although these observations would be locked up in secrecy 
and no danger could result from them from the resentment which 
might be offered to my self -constituted criticisms, if disclosed. 30 
I find so much in the actions of men to disgust me, that my 
opinion upon them might become after some time too acrimon- 
ious to make a verry agrable impression upon my own tempera- 
ment, since the more intent became my observation, the more I 
should find to disgust me, and the more to despise. If I can call 
enough circumspection to my command and defence against this 
evil I may be induced to make this at least a small part of the 
object of this work. I can not close these prefatory remarks 
without expressing sincere obligations to the lady whom I have 
had the extreme pleasure of suggesting to me the propriety 
and inducing me by her persuasion to undertake this work, and 
I shall not feel my obligations absolved untill I shall have ac- 
complished it to my great satisfaction. 

[3] June 13th 1849. 

It may seem strange that I should put the above date over the 
first page of my journal. Surely this, one might say is a verry 
inappropriate time for the beginning of any work. The first of 
the year is assuradly the time for all new things, when one 
having thrown aside all the concerns of the past year, having 
made a settlement and disposed affairs for a prosperous setting 
out on the new year, lays plans, and enters new engagements. 
But this morning ushered in my nineteenth year, and I thought 
this would be so far as I am concerned a time as fitting, if not 
more so, and that if the great regulations of nature and mankind 
do produce discepancy with this, no reproach can be justly im- 

99 The quotation may be an echo of many passages in the poetry of Wil- 
liam Wordsworth, but I have found no specific source. 

80 This kind of sentence, generally unacceptable at the formal level, and 
known to modern grammarians as a sentence fragment, occurs from time 
to time in the earlier part of the diary, but is less frequently seen after the 
first few months at the University. It is well to remember that most diarists, 
those posterity-conscious and otherwise, conventionally use the fragmentary 
sentence as a time and space saving device. 

78 The North Carolina Historical Review 

puted to any one for making those private regulations, which 
are more congenial to his taste, while they conflict not with the 
great concerns of man, or influence not the intercourse which 
he may have with the world at large. 31 I hope then I may be 
allowed to gratify my inclination in this although it be but a 
small matter. It is natural that I, after spending this por- 
tion of my life, whose incidents are only written but faintly 
upon my memory, should take a little retrospect, when I am 
about to begin the record of the days I shall pass in future, but 
no distinct outline is now so clear that I may trace it with profit 
here. A mass of confusion is the pile which I have left and al- 
though I have endeavored to pursue some systematic plan, so 
many are the freaks of fortune which disturbed it that system 
is not at a predominant feature It presents as much system as 
is commonly observable in the [4] workings of a part of nature 
disconnected with the remainder which strives at first to follow 
her great laws, but is soon disturbed, when the chain which was 
wont to produce harmony is found to have a broken link. It 
rather presents the aspect of a machine, which, from the har- 
mony which seems to reighn in all its parts, gives sanguine 
hopes to the inventer of its entire success, and promises fame 
and fortune, but when motion is applied begins to jar, and 
finally is torn and shattered into fragments. This portion of my 
life is a pathway scattered with fragments torn-off sections of 
grand machinery, while upon the summits of the hills which 
occasionally rise in their ruggedness about, may be seen many a 
demolished aerial castle, which pride and vanity had built. 
Nevertheless I "lay the flatering unction to my soul," 32 that I 
have done nothing so criminal as to meet with verry great cen- 
sure from those who are accustomed to give me advice, and that 
hope of a bright future is not yet extinct. This day I have passed 
quite pleasantly though quietly. I do not suppose assuredly that 
any one would feel sufficient interest in the celebration of my 
birth day, and rather than be disappointed in not receiving that 
attention, I preferred to remain silent with regard to it, and not 
have its quiet peace disturbed by the usual bustle of such an 
occasion. I have passed the day in reading, in the morning 
Lismondi's Italian Republics, and in the evening Prescott's 
Ferdinand and Isabella. 33 I shall attempt to relate any important 

31 The meaning of this rambling sentence is not clear; it gives evidence 
of Garrett's feeling for sentence structure as well as his groping attempts 
to evolve a coherent style; he was also perhaps not sure what he was trying 
to say. 

32 Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act III, Scene 4, lines 145-146. 

83 Jean Charles-Leonard Simonde de Sismonde, A History of the Italian 
Republics ; Being a View of the Rise, Progress, and Fall of Italian Free- 
dom; and William H. Prescott, History of the Reign of Ferdinand and 
Isabell, the Catholic. 

Original in possession of Mrs. E. M. 
(Dorothy Garrett) Denbo, Durham 

Thomas Miles Garrett, 1830-1864 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 79 

events, as I wish to elivate the tone of this work above frivolty. 
I shall accordingly pass over the events of this day — not of an 
important character. 

[5] June 14th 

This morning I was awaken by what appeard to me at first 
verry incomprehensible. I heard a wonderful tinkling of a little 
bell which contrasted verry singularly with the large one of the 
College wrung so often in my ears. 34 I sprang from my bed and 
ran to the window expecting to find a bell cow, sheep, or some 
other animal accustomed to wear a bell, in the Campus, but 
behold ! One of Miss Nancey's servants was standing in the 
middle of the Campus ringing the bell for breakfast, which be 
it said to my credit come off a little earlier this morning than 
usual. 35 1 made my toilet in a bustle and hurried off to breakfast, 
which in despite of my haste was almost over. I have spent the 
day quite pleasantly though laboring under slight indisposition 
from the head-ache. I could find no company verry lively or 

34 The first mention of a bell, the "large one" referred to here is in the 
bylaws of 1810 which states that, "At the first ringing of the bell in the 
morning all should rise. At the Second, all should go to the Chapel." Battle, 
History of the University, I, 192. The bell was also used to mark class 
meetings; a bylaw of 1834 required tutors to go to recitation rooms "... a 
reasonable time before the bell rings and teach the whole hour, unless the 
bell for dismission should sound earlier." Battle says further, "The Uni- 
versity bells of the early period were very inferior. A second was bought 
in 1813. We are told that this was bought in Fayetteville; it, however, was 
so inferior that seven years afterwards another was procured. This latter 
on the procurement of the new was hung in the back yard of Dr. [Elisha] 
Mitchell's lot to be used when the clapper of the other was stolen or in 
hiding." Battle, History of the University, I, 242. Shortly after Garrett 
graduated, in 1856, an outburst of a sport of throwing fireballs, balls, or 
strips of cloth soaked in alcohol or kerosene, resulted in the burning of 
the old belfry and ruining of the bell! Battle, History of the University, 
I, 653. 

35 Nancy Hilliard's epitaph in the Chapel Hill cemetery reads, "Born in 
Granville County, October 16, 1798. Died in Chapel Hill, November 8, 1873." 
She presided over the one hotel in the village, known as The Eagle. "Her 
table was bountiful and the food well cooked, and wonder was how receipts 
could balance expenses. She was accustomed to say that she lost on the 
students, but the travelers and the rich harvests at Commencements more 
than supplied the deficiency. How much her uncollected dues from students 
unable or unwilling to pay, amounted to, will never be known, but they were 
very large. When the University was prosperous, having no help but that 
of a good-natured but improvident brother-in-law, Benton Utley, she sold 
her hotel interest to Col. Hugh B. Guthrie and took charge of the North 
Carolina Railroad eating-house at Company shops, now Burlington." Battle, 
History of the University, I, 612. Since Garrett is at this point reading dur- 
ing the vacation period, Steward's Hall, the regular University dining room, 
was closed and perforce — as well as through choice, no doubt, — he ate at 
the Eagle Hotel. 

80 The North Carolina Historical Review 

agreeable and so I retired to my room, and went to reading. 36 I 
find Lismondi a verry pleasant author, and his subject posses 
a novelty to me, as I have verry little knowledge of Italian 
History. Their politics, which all admit present in their countless 
intricacies, and ramifications a tangled web, he entirely unravels, 
and in a philosophical manner discuses the various refinements 
of policy, makes a verry harmonious picture, and leaves an 
agreeable impression upon the mind. I have had occasion to 
remak the noble character of the Republic of Florence, which 
exercises a great influance upon her sister republics I was 
peculiarly struck with courage, and generous love of liberty 
which seem inconquerable, their magnanimous call to the other 
states to recover their liberty from the tryany and oppression 
[6] of the powerful Visconti. The end of this struggle for liberty 
I hope to find as triumphant as the beginnig is noble, to which 
I have not arrived in the course of the narative. 37 
I had the company of old Mr. Hooper this morning an hour before 
dinner. 38 This old man is residing here now for the purpose of 
using the libraries for reference in a biography which he is 
writing of General Ash, and also of Genl. Howe, if I mistake 
not. From his extreme age, which is beginning to work ostensibly 
upon his intellect and the entire abstraction of his mind to one 
subject, - that of his history, he has become very pedantic. He 
converses almost incessantly upon this topic which has become 
so common to the students that they all attribute to him more 
or less the character of a "bore" The hour passed with him to 
day was verry pleasant. I managed to get him upon a diferant 
subject which to me possed some interest. - the characters of 
several destinguished men of this state, their rise, and self- 

86 The summer vacation began the first Thursday in June, and lasted for 
six weeks. Battle states that fewer students elected to remain in the village 
in the summer than in the winter, since in winter they faced, on return, the 
dreary prospect of getting back over miry roads. Battle, History of the 
University, I, 593. Garrett seems to take it as a matter of course that he 
will spend his vacations reading; he apparently was most conscientious and 
perusal of the Appendix A on his reading reveals how little of what is 
now known as "recreational reading" it contained. 

87 Garrett devotes many pages in subsequent sections of the diary to 
criticisms and analyses of the struggle for liberty and democracy in various 
historical eras; he writes a number of "deep purple patches" on the sub- 
ject, and doubtless heard and spoke others in the various debates and 
speeches before the Philanthropic Society of which he was a member. The 
approaching Civil War was not the least of the causes of this interest. 

88 Archibald MacLaine Hooper, 1775-1853, one of the founders of the 
Chapel Hill Episcopal Church, biographer of General Robert Howe (1732- 
1786), and General John Ashe (1720-1781). Sketches from Hooper's biog- 
raphies appeared in The University Magazine in 1852-1861. Battle, History 
of the University, I, 633-634. Howe was from Bladen, North Carolina, a 
rice planter, who served six terms in the Assembly; Ashe, born in Bruns- 
wick County, North Carolina, Whig speaker in the Colonial Assembly, died 
almost in disgrace as a result of a battle on the Savannah River in 1778. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 81 

achieved victories, the energy and firmness which some of them 
desplayed. I spent the evening as usual in the library, reading 
the History of Ferdnand and Isabella - I hope I may be prepared 
to say something in reference to the noble character of this 
people and their sovreighns to-morrow. . . . 

[7] June 15th 

... I kept my room as usual in the morning, and read Lismondi 39 
Although my hopes expressed yesterday were not so abundantly 
satiated in the success of Florence. I have still the more agreable 
thought, in finding her constant in virtue. An unanticipated turn 
of affairs diverted her attention from this - the war of Liberty 
at Rome - to her own preservation, which she triumphly and 
gloriously secured. The idea of equality among her own citizens, 
comons as well as nobles, and the grand scheme of the balance 
of power among the Italian states, present two prominent char- 
acteristics of her policy - two which perhaps operated more 
affectiually than all others to the preservation of her own 
liberty, and to the political regeneration of Itila from the be- 
gining the 14* century. In the evening I occupied my time in 
reading Ferdinand & Isabella. I need not say that I find the auth- 
or of this work verry agreable, an opinion which I would dare ex- 
press, if I did not have numerous public coincide with; but 
aside from the facinations of style of the [8] author, this his- 
tory presents a grand, even sublime picture. I have always had 
a sympathy for an old Spaniard, which is heightened by sight of 
their noble character and national sufferings. Unfortunately for 
Spain too much enthusiam and zeal, too much elivated thought 
took possesion of her people at the age when she so far out- 
striped the other nations of Europe in liberty and political ad- 
vancement. If the wise and glorious reighn of Isabella could 
have been reserved for a more advanced age, when her career 
might have been paraled with others, Spain might have been 
freed from some of the calamities to which she is and has always 
been subject. But far from this, while dawn had scarcely broke 

89 This passage of relatively commonplace reflections on history is included 
as a representative example of many other such passages, excised in later 
sections of the diary as being both repetitious and of less historical interest 
than those included. Often Garrett did little more than summarize what he 
had been reading, but there is no evidence one way or the other that the 
summary was made with the books before him ; the editor's general impres- 
sion is to the contrary. In any event, the diary seems to be a study device 
for Garrett, common to the rhetorical instruction of the period, wherein the 
student read and then extemporaneously wrote — or spoke — on what he had 
been reading, somewhat like the technique recommended by Bacon in his 
famous essay, "Of Studies." In this connection, note Garrett's illustration 
of this method in a study of Bacon's essay in the entry for September 20, 

82 The North Carolina Historical Review 

upon the surrounding nations she had been aroused from her 
lair with a vigour which presents so sublime a constrast to the 
feeble efforts of the rest of Europe she sprang forward in the 
course, exulting in pride and booyancy of feeling. Guided by 
wisdom in counsel, energy in action, while the virtue of her 
citizens was but the material of which were wrought by the 
unequal skill of their sovreighns those springs of action which 
moderation would have tempered to perfection, no elivation 
seemed too high for her aspirations. But the enthusiam of her 
people overleaped itself, and their zeal degenerated, from the 
lamitable influence which Catholicism xxxxxxx [indecipherable 
word struck out] at that period into bigotry, and thus with wild 
excitement the nation plunged herself into and abyss of misery 
unparaleled. That balance of power, which would of necessity 
have imposed a salutary check upon her precocious development 
of power, could not [9] be afforded in the lethargy which fol- 
lowed the energy so characteristic of the rest of Europe in later 
times. . . . 

June 16 * 

This morning I perfomed a feat of moral courage, I rose at 
five O'clock, and despite of the distance, and the almost horrible 
idea of a cold bath, I stemed the current of disinclination man- 
fully. 40 I have spent the whole day upon finishing the History 
of Ferdinand and Isabella. . . . 

[11] June 17 * Sunday 

This day being devoted exclusively to religious exercises I 
have refrained from breaking its holiness by any departure 
from the commandment - "keep the Sabbath day holy". But that 

40 Bathing facilities were primitive, to say the least. There is an amusing 
and enlightening contrast between a speculation on the bathing facilities 
by a notable man of letters who was not there, Archibald Henderson, The 
Campus of the First State University (Chapel Hill: The University of 
North Carolina Press, 1949), 57, and Garrett's comment (one who was 
there). Garrett used the "delightful" open-air shower bath. Henderson 
says, "The Twin Sisters, two small brooks arising in springs located on pres- 
ent Cobb Terrace were canalized by troughs and delightedly used by the 
University students as an open-air shower bath." Garrett seems not to 
have been too delighted by the spring or the idea. Battle records that Gov- 
ernor William D. Moseley, in a letter written in 1853, recalled Rock Spring, 
southeast of the campus, now Brickyard Spring, and the Twin Sisters, north 
of the village, the latter conducted through a gutter, having a fall of about 
ten feet onto the bather. Battle, History, I, 273. There were practically 
no bathrooms and no baths except at these aforementioned springs. Most 
of the students used bathtubs in their rooms. When the weather was warm 
a few resorted to swimming in King's Pond (afterward Valley Pond), at 
Merritt's Mill, at Scott's Hole (named after a drowning victim) and 
Sutter's Pond, all of which ranged from one and one-half to two and one- 
half miles from the dormitories. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 83 

I have done many sinful things is natural for what man not a 
professor of religion, or I had better said a religious man does 
"keep all the commandments of the law [12] to do them" I 
imagine every hour of every man's life even of the most pious 
is filled with sinfulness I can say no more for myself than that I 
conformed to the custom of the country. I even done better 
than some of those around me, for I do claim the merit of at- 
tendance upon Divine Worship twice during the day, while 
some of my fellow companions did not attend at all I must leave 
this, nevertheless to the all searching eye of God; whether I 
have done any thing good or worthy, I shall not, I trust be 
dealt with more severly than others, for God is no respecter 
of persons. . . . 

June 18 t 

I have been resolving in my mind for several days the subject 
of contention and strife which have arisen of late in this coun- 
try, and as I have made up some definite opinions upon it, its 
probable results &c. I shall here transcribe them in order that 
I may have a record of them, which I may compare with the 
results when they shall have transpired - I predict the disolution 
of the Union 41 - If this however was a mere image of the imagi- 
nation conjured up by terrror, or the suspicious fear which love 
of country often inspires I might be deemed a madman. If how- 
ever this prediction is [13] verified it will not procede im- 
mediately from Slavery or at least if a remedy had been 
heretofore provided, or could now be provided for an error in 
the Constitution, the instution of slavery could not at all effect 
the permenance of the Union. Whatever of importance I may 
attach to my [opinion] and however I assert it with boldness, 
I would not do irreverance to the founders of the government 
of whose wisdom it stands as the great monument. The error 
however to which I allude is the want of a sufficient safe-guard 
against the tyranny of the majority. Doubtless in the formation 
of the Constitution, those venerable men trusted too much to 
the unity of sentiment and feeling which was expected to exist 
amongst the states of the Union. They doubless supposed that 
the time would never arise when one portion of the country 
should become so isolated in interest, or feeling or that such 

41 This prediction was common during these years, and not particularly- 
original. Garrett's comment is interesting for another reason, however; it 
contains the same idea as that found in Henry David Thoreau's essay, first 
published in 1849 — the same year the entry in the diary was made, and 
published just a month previous to Garrett's entry — "Resistance to Civil 
Government." The basic idea is a denunciation of destruction of minorities 
by the tyranny of the majority. The discussion is continued in the entry 
of June 20. 

84 The North Carolina Historical Review 

an universal spirit of opposition should pevade two destinct 
and compact portions of the country as to force one portion to 
oppress the other because of its power guarentied by the Con- 
stitution. They, giving vent to this train of reasoning and feeling 
adopted the principle of universal application "that the will of 
the majority should rule". They trusted only to those moral 
restraints which a sense of justice and love of country beget. 
But we have had evidence that when these restraints have 
acted with their full force upon the mind of monarch, or at 
least with as much force as it is possible for them to act upon 
the mind of the multitude, tyranny has been [14] the lot of the 
people, and we must show in addition to this that the mind of 
the multitude is as capricious, equally as subject to ambition of 
power as that of the prince, while the multitude is as easily 
swayed. But, if these facts rested upon this reasoning they 
might be liable to controvercy, or perhaps refutation, we might 
not hassard to state them. We have evidences that the tyranny 
of the majority had well nigh wrecked the Union, in the re- 
sistance which it met in nulification of S. Carolina, the wrecks 
of which would ere now have been scattered in wild confusion 
along the shores of the Atlantic and Pacific had not the Neptune- 
like Clay raised his head above the waves and with moderation 
in his main commanded them cease their lashing and strife. 
And did not the Legislature of Virginia discuss with worth the 
devision of that state : which alone was prevented by the efforts 
of one man. But I do not by this declare myself for nulification, 
but the whole south would not fail to have aided S. Carolina, 
if the contest had not been quieted so early, and while this may 
not afford an example of the tyranny of the majority, it cer- 
tainly affords an evidence that in the formation of the consti- 
tution too much confidence was placed in unity of sentiment 
and feeling and that motives of interest and love of right are 
more powerful than any of loyalty and patrotism. In view of 
these facts it becomes evident any rash measure upon the part 
of any section of the country although shielded by the authority 
of law and the Constitution will [15] meet with opposition, 
when it conflicts with the interest of any other portion. But 
since the application of this universal principle "that the majori- 
ty should rule" will produce those disastrous effects, let us 
examine the circumstances of the subject of Slavery By the 
joint acqusition of the teritory with regard to which this con- 
troversy has arisen each and every portion of the [nation] possess 
an interest in it. Now the question arises can Congress in justice 
pass an act excluding the possession of the interest, although 
[the fact that] she possess the power by the Constitution does 
imply the justice of such an act. Will not such an act be a tyrani- 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 85 

cal use of the will of the majority, and will the South submit 
to such innovations. Applying the principle to individual right, 
no man could command the respect of others, nor of himself, 
if he tamely submitted to be deprived of that which is his, and 
assuredly the South will not submit to such gross injustice if 
she wished to maintain self-confidence, and respect abroad. 
The consequences of such an act must be disastrous indeed. But 
would not the consequences be still more disastrous if the South 
were to submit? One breach would open the way for another, 
innovation upon innovation would follow in irresistless susces- 
sion - a situation more horrible than the devastations of war 
or pestilence. The danger of the country depends therefore en- 
tirely upon this - whether Congress, in the plenitude of her 
power will pass this act, excluding Southern interest from the 
teritories. The South however will not [16] do herself the injus- 
tice to go into the contest for the paltry interest which she 
holds in them, but she never will submit to the principle that 
Congress can deprive a citizen of that which the Constitution 
recognizes as property, by any act or any manner. And why 
should Congress do it, or strive to do it. It can not be but the 
concurrent voice of the North which will urge Congress to pass 
such an act, yea the North alone and in oposition to the South 
will pass this measure, if at all. And it is clear that this would be 
but the tyranny of the majority. When this come to pass well we 
may say that the spirit of justice and humanity had fled, that 
too heavy tax had been imposed upon unanimity of sentiment 
and feelings that actually, the love of country had been the 
cloak to an insidious policy. . . . 

June 19th 

. . . [17] The whole evening has been one continued scence of 
philosophic experiments. Doctor November entrusted me with 
the key to Prof. Phillips* philosophic chamber, and this evening 
Fisher called to me from the Campus, requesting the key to go 
in to satisfy his curiosity in examining the aparatus. 42 I could 

^"Doctor November" is November Caldwell, a slave servant, named for 
Dr. Joseph Caldwell to whom he once belonged; November and another slave 
servant, Dave Barham, had charge of all the dormitories and recitation 
rooms; they subsisted rather well on "fees" (tips) since few of the students 
blacked their own boots or carried their parcels. Battle, History of the 
University, I, 601. 

The "philosophic chamber" was the classroom of James Phillips (1792- 
1867), professor of mathematics and natural philosophy from 1826 to 1867, 
and father of Cornelia Phillips Spencer (see Garrett's entry for October 29, 
1850), whom Garrett "dated" one evening to his great delight. These stu- 
dents' natural curiosity about the scientific instruments betrays a deficiency 
in the science teaching of the day. Battle says, "No laboratory work was 
required before 1854, but the Professors of Chemistry and Natural Philoso- 

86 The North Carolina Historical Review 

not assuredly deny him the privalige, but accompanied him, for 
my curiosity was [18] excited at the idea of pilaging about 
among the instruments A gentleman from Alabama Mr. Julian, 
two gentlemen from Loessianna, Messrs. Murdas [ ?] and Bother 

phy (Physics) performed experiments in the presence of the classes. . . . 
The teaching was generally quite thorough, but theoretical in its character. 
Much attention was paid to pure mathematics, less to its application. Battle, 
History of the University, I, 553. 

The instruments these student are playing with, little used for practical 
instruction, lay in neglect in the attics of various University buildings 
for many years until recognized, cleaned, and placed for display and preser- 
vation in the Morehead Planetarium, where they are seen by many thousands 
of school children and adults every year. The Planetarium was opened to 
the public in 1949. The instruments were bought by Professor (later Presi- 
dent) Joseph Caldwell in Europe on a trip authorized by the trustees for 
this purpose. Battle, History of the University, I, 292 ; see also R. D. W. Con- 
nor, A Documentary History of the University of North Carolina (Chapel 
Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1953), I, 183-184, herein- 
after cited as Connor, Documentary History. Professor Caldwell built a 
platform on the roof of his home for celestial observations and in 1831 a 
building was finished to house the instruments (the second such building 
in America was built at Williams College, in 1836). The building was on 
top of a hill north of the Raleigh Road, near the village cemetery; about 
twenty feet square, with no porch or entry hall, it had two windows, one 
facing east and one west. The historian of the University describes it 
thus: "Through the center was a pillar of masonry on its own foundation, 
and a circular disk on the top was the Altitude and Azimuth instrument. A 
slit through the north and south faces and through the flat top afforded 
a range of 180 degrees for the Transit. The Altitude and Azimuth Tele- 
scope stood on a circular disk of sandstone, which capped the pillar. It was 
protected from the weather by a wooden structure, drawn backwards and 
forwards on a railway by a windlass and rope. The adjacent trees were 
felled so as to command a view of the horizon. The instruments used were 
a Meridian Transit Telescope, made by Simms of London, an Altitude and 
Azimuth Telescope, also by Simms, a Telescope for observations on the 
earth and sky, Dolland of London, an Astronomical clock, with a Mercurial 
Pendulum, by Molineux. Besides these, which were stationary, there were 
a sextant, by Wilkinson of London, a portable Reflecting Circle, by Harris 
of London, and a Hadley's Quadrant. With the Astronomical clock and the 
Transit, Professor Caldwell, assisted by Professors Mitchell and Phillips, 
obtained the longitude and latitude of the South Building, 70° IV W. and 
35°54'21" N. This calculation was made in the mathematical room in the 
South Building in the second story opposite the well. 

"This institution had a short life. The building was of bad materials and 
fell rapidly to decay. After the death of Dr. Caldwell it became necessary to 
remove the instruments. In 1838 the building was destroyed by fire, tradi- 
tion says, kindled by a student. The sound bricks were used to build a 
kitchen for President Swain on the lot next to the Episcopal Church. 

". . . President Caldwell built . . . the Observatory out of his own funds, 
at a cost of $430.29%. The Trustees, however, reimbursed him a few days 
before his death. After removal from the Observatory, most of the instru- 
ments were for years unused. Dr. James Phillips and his son, Dr. Charles, 
thought that the interior of the dust-covered telescope was a safe place 
for hiding valuables from the incoming Federal soldiers. They accordingly 
deposited their watches within its recesses. They underestimated the keen- 
eyed seekers for hidden treasure. But the commanding officer was in love 
with the President's daughter, and forced the lucky finders to disgorge." 
Battle, History of the University, I, 335-336, 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 87 

[?] joined us, besides my friends Burton and Drisdale 43 This 
moment gave birth to more philosophers than any probably in 
the annals of the world whose age was not exceding a few hours 
ere they had arrived at the maxamum of human skill and human 
wisdom. It would have probably excited the admiration and 
astonishment of the great Aristotle or of Newton if he could 
have peeped through a hole at us. In a few minutes however 
despite my anxious inquietude, and occasional precaution de- 
rangement was the most remarkable characteristic of the room. 
We were led from one thing to another untill none one single 
branch of the whole science remained, a part of which we did not 
explore The active genius of some of our company could not 
be quiet with a mere outside or distance scene but they applied 
the great principle, that tangibility is that alone which can 
give proof of the existence of any material substance, with great 
force. I found sufficient amusement with some especialy of my 
younger brothers - one endeavoring to feel the outlines of a 
picture drawn upon the wall by the magic lantern, another 
endeavoring to brush from his coat sleave the light rays re- 
flected from the prism, while a third was wonderfully amused 
at the magnifying property of the concave mirror My friend 
the Alabamian [Drisdale] sought higher objects as only worthy 
his attention. The Earth could not contain enough to satisfy 
his fanciful [19] visions. He conceived the bold plan of bringing 
the large telescope from its secure moorings at the great risk 
of breaking a verry fine instrument. No consideration could 
induce him to relinquish his bold desighn Accordingly when the 
hour arrived for the bright host of the stars to sprinkle the 
salt of heaven, we brought forward the instrument to the win- 
dow where Venus shot in her bright beams The direction was 
gained by the usual method of shooting a gun, and the cannon- 
like tube pointed with ominous forebodings, that a discharge 
unexpectedly might dethrone the fair virgin of the skies. But 
imagine the disappointment and vexation of the enthuziastic 
man when he discoved that the telescope did not magnify. 
From the high value of thousands of dollars set upon the instru- 
ment there was the wonderful reduction to nothing. This affords 
a proof of the fact, that it is best to put off all outside show, 
never endeavor to appear more than reality, but better confi- 
dence is gained by constant increase of good offices and good 
deeds and by the gradual development of real virtuous qualities. 
For no value is now set upon the instrument by the disappointed 

43 Julian, Murdas, and Bother are unidentifiable. Thomas B. Burton, 
Halifax, graduated in 1852 (Battle, History of the University, I, 803), as 
did William E. Drisdale, official "declaimer" or speaker for the freshman 
class at commencement exercises of 1850, from Franklin, Alabama. Battle, 
Sketches, 104, 120. 

88 The North Carolina Historical Review 

man, while its value would have been increased, if not appearing 
to give great expectation of fine observation, it had given even 
an ordinary, or bad ones — Never raise expectation too high by 
specious appearances, it is a height from which the fall will be 
proportionately disastrous. It is now eleven O'clock and I must 
retire. — 

June 20th 

I will endeavor to comply now with my [20] promise of day- 
bef ore yesterday. It appears to me that danger is to be aprehend- 
ed from a quarter where it is not verry much expected and that 
a great commotion is ready to be set on foot by one of our own 
Southern confederacy. There is reason [able] apprehension that 
the State of Kentucky will vote Mr. Clay's plan of emancipation, 
if we are to consider, the decided oposition which this institu- 
tion has met with in the opinions of Southern men, and the 
great confidence placed in her great statesman. One feature of 
Mr. Clay's plan which proposes that the Kentucky slave-holder 
may dispose of his slave to the neighboring states seems un- 
charitable and impolitic What the adoption of such a measure 
will lead to is very uncertain. Will the neighboring States allow 
such a flood of slave emigration to inundate them, and it is to 
be expected that but few slaves will be liberated when such a 
disposition is allowed I imagine that but few will ever reach the 
colony of Liberia The adoption of such a measure must lead 
to violent [re] crimination upon the part of other Southern states. 
This act [in] Kentucky will be the theme of violent dispute. 
The North will strive to defend the act of Kentucky, the South 
will cast upon it indignant oppribrium. The discussion of this 
question in so violent a manner will lead to a still wider breach 
of feeling — patriotism will loose it self in the violent agitation 
of passion — section [al] jealousy will become party strife. The 
old tenets of the parties will be forgotten the only destinction 
that will mark the citizen will — whether he [be] a [21] Southern 
or Northern man. If the spirit of both parties could be diffuesed 
throughout the countless ramifications of State, County town 
and family nothing could mar the safety of the country But 
the two parties will be composed of two solid compact mases, 
the only distinction which could mark men's sentiments or 
feelings will be their place of residence. It would seem that 
when this state of party feeling gets abroad in the land the 
bonds that have bound these states will be severed. The once 
glorious crye of "Union! one and inseperable, ever and forever 
will cease to charm the ear. The heart of the patriot must sink 
within him when he sees such cause for discord in this great 
confederacy True it is that fanaticism is the lance that drains 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 89 

from every vein the life blood of our country or rather as a de- 
bilitating fever has seized upon her sytem, about to deprive 
her of that immotality which was the hope of her dream. Alass ! 
for mankind, if this last refuge of liberty shall fail to offer her 
protection - The day has been quite warm, very sultry at noon, 
no breeze, stormy. The Thermometer at 12 O'clock ranges from 
68° - 69°. I have occupied my time in reading Lorenzo de Medici, 
but it is now too late to say any thing with regard to him. 

June 21st 

I have done very little to day. I have been reading pretty steady 
for two weeks and I find that my mind has become quite weary, 
and in consequence of this, I have been induced to engage in 
some amusement to day. I can not say that cards [22] are very 
tempting, in fact if I can find some better amusement I prefer 
it, but I can view from my window the fellows playing almost 
constantly and upon solicitation, I was induced to ingage. 44 I do 

44 Sources of amusement were few at the University at this time, and 
unorganized. A dancing instructor was on hand as early as 1796 (Connor, 
Documentary History, II, 28-29), and there was no apparent objection to 
teaching the arts of dancing, boxing, fencing, single stick, etc., by experts. 
There was, however, no regular instructor in dancing until about 1850 when 
a certain Frensley made annual visits to the village. In 1825 ". . . the faculty 
had no power to prevent theatrical and other shows. Urgent request was 
made that they be invested with such authority. A band of strolling players 
had given nightly dramatic performances for a week and had received, it 
was estimated, $383, more than $300 of which was from students. The use 
of the University Chapel was refused, as intolerable profanation. The 
General Assembly passed a law in compliance with the wishes of the Fac- 
ulty, giving them prohibitory powers." Battle, History of the University, I, 
301. There was no dancing at social gatherings except at commencements, 
nor was card playing allowed. There were many "conversation parties" at 
this time with a constant flow of more or less enlightened small talk. Plenti- 
ful transportation at Commencement time made buggy riding a desirable 
and socially approved form of amusement. 

During the regular University year, diversion from study was equally 
sporadic, and totally absent on Sundays. Hunting was pleasant and profit- 
able; game was plentiful. When the weather was cold enough, the faculty 
would grant skating holidays. Occasionally, throwing rocks through the 
windows of both students and faculty was indulged in by some, and practi- 
cally anyone was considered fair game for vigorous practical jokes such 
as exploding a large quantity of gunpowder outside a door; prohibitions 
against liquor did little to prevent its use by some. A few hundred yards 
west of the railway station was a race track operated by liquor sellers 
and gamblers; students forbidden to attend, disguised themselves and went 
anyhow. Players of cards, caught in the act, had their cards confiscated. 
There was, of course, no gymnasium, nor supervision over sports by the 
University in any degree. In summer marbles was a recognized sport, and 
in cooler weather bandy, or shinny, played with a wooden ball and sticks 
curved at the ends. Battle, History of the University, I, 275, 277, 298-299, 
301, 585, 590, 592. During 1850-1851, the numbers brought before the faculty 
for demerits for misbehavior, with punishment being anything from repri- 
mand to dismissal, included ten for riotous conduct; three for riding a 
horse on campus, one of whom rode a horse through West Building; eight 
for drunkenness; three for shooting pistols (rigorously forbidden) in the 
woods south of the campus. Battle, History of the University, I, 561. 

90 The North Carolina Historical Review 

have some pretensions to morality, and as great odium is cast 
upon this kind of amusement I must inlist as one of its defenders 
Some people are so inconsistant as to allow some kind of amuse- 
ments, allows of check [er]s, backgammon, chest [chess] , &c 
while because gamblers use these as their amusement, or more 
stricly speaking for their ruin they [are] utterly detested. Now 
I can not conceive how all games are rendered immoral or in- 
decent if gamblers make use of them. Surely that cards are 
more frequently used is nothing against them, for by what rule 
of justice does the reputation render [them] more criminal. 45 
But this trite argument is probably not sufficient to prevent one 
from the use of this amusement, there is however another con- 
sideration that even the odium attached to cards should prevent 
the use of them because of public opinion. But it is I may say 
fortunate that public opinion, if expressed through the most en- 
lightened and refined portion of society is greatly in their favor. 
And it [is] now considered an accomplishment to play a game 
of whist well All games are intended to afford amusement, and 
I consider such as innocent which do afford amusement, and 
are divested of cruelty or loss. Betting is vulgar, and you only 
hear vulgar-minded people say "I'll bet you," I would soon think 
that a man had been bred in very low society or had at least 
kept company with gamblers, if he offered to bet any thing to 
back [23] an association which he makes. I do not think there 
can be the least harm in playing cards or anything, the only 
danger is being corrupted by the society which one finds often 
about billiard tables. I had the company to day of verry agreable 
and moral young men, and if ever I meet with such and am 
solicited to take part in their amusement, I shall not look ex- 
tremely moral, Than at any other and give a significat shake of 
the head as pretending danger was lurking near, but shall more 
than probably not assent If I had a board I would prefer back- 
gammon. All such games I conceive to be useful and good mathe- 
matical training of the mind for in order to play well, the most 
minute calculations of chance is necessary No change in Ther- 
mometer. Now 11 o'clock 

[June 22-26 — devoted to speculations on the weather, his reading 
about the deMedici family, and conversations with friends.] 

45 Card playing was regarded by the faculty as nearly criminal, even for 
amusement; gaming or gambling of any kind was forbidden as early as 
1794 by University bylaws. See Connor, Documentary History, I, 316. By- 
standers as well as participants were severely dealt with and to avoid being 
dismissed, all were compelled to admit the wrong of the act or the watching 
of it, that they regretted having done so, that they would refrain in the 
future, and would never countenance a game in their presence. Battle, 
History of the University, I, 276. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 91 

[32] June 27th 

... I have read for my amusement some of the adventures of 
the verry ingenious gentleman Don Quixote de La Mancha. I 
was verry much amused this evening upon going down to the 
stage, where I found Benton Utley, 46 setting in the Piaza at the 
Hotel, with a number of the students, extracting from him his 
opinion upon various subjects of public policy, such as internal 
improvements, the great road to California, and the Slavery 
question The extraction however was not as painful as some 
operations under the name, nor did it call for consummate skill, 
for while on the one hand Benton is always ready to sit up 
with an assumed air of great importance and give forth his 
sage opinions, any ignoramus can make tests in conversation 
such as will perfectly disarm his perception and sensitiveness 
to ridicule, and at the same enjoy a tickle in his sleeve at his 
own trickery. For to say the most of Benton's opinions they seem 
not to arise from verry natural judgement, or extraordinary 
genius The law students frequently make their sports by pro- 
pounding law questions. 

[33] June 29th 

This day abounds in some verry delightful reminiscences to me, 
though I have not the ability to transcribe them as I [34] would 
from an head ache which now effects me. . . . Several young 
men proposed to take a stroll off to some distance. A company 
being formed we walked through the village and gained the 
front, if I may so call that part of it which is in front of the Col- 
lege buildings although situated on an oposite side to them. 47 We 
continued our walk ... [ ?] ... The transcendent splendor of the 
setting sun and the hues with which he fringes the clouds which 
hung about his setting — the dark cloud which rested in mas- 
sive blackness in the south and south west, the couler which 
tinged its western part, varying yet almost by no perceptible 
difference of hue. We walked on, and after passing a bridge and 

46 Benton Utley was the brother-in-law of Nancy Hilliard (see note 35 
above), proprietress of the Eagle Hotel. On an otherwise dull night, the 
students could apparently elevate their own self-esteem by making Utley 
the butt of an esoteric joke. 

47 This area, north of South Building and what is now known as Old East 
and Old West, is still beautiful rolling countryside, down which the editor 
has taken many pleasant evening walking trips like that Garrett here 
describes. The area surrounding the village abounds in such pleasant walks, 
even though there is little superficial resemblance to the Chapel Hill of the 
1850's. There is therefore reason to believe that Garrett's enthusiasm is 
not entirely occasioned by his tendency to indulge in florid prose for its own 
sake. Many passages such as these have been excised in favor of more 
significant material, but they furnish ample evidence of one of the more 
satisfying amusements available to the early student at the University. 

92 The North Carolina Historical Review 

mill we came in view of a hill which rose before us in wild, 
native grandier. I do not intend to describe this as compareing 
with my idea of the great Pilot. But one of the company Mr Julian 
observed that in size and form, it resembled Fairmount, which 
he had seen, though that delightful mount possess artificial ap- 
pendages which are magnificent. We all resolved to ascend this 
hill, and after making a display respectively of our agility, some 
endeavoring to mount upon it at rapid rate, others taking a 
more [35] slow and to give an idea of the steepness of the ascent 
a less larborious step. But we all at last came to the top, and 
what a view spread out before us in the east. No bound intervend- 
ed to our sight save the distance of twenty miles. All that can be 
imagined of as grand wild and picturesque, in hilly countries 
was there spread out before us, and to add to the enjoyment 
of the scene the village was almost in full view, at about the 
distance of a mile and a half So delightful to me was this sight 
I proposed to rise in the morning before day and get upon the 
hill to view sunrise, which I imagined would be inconceivably 
grand. But all thought this rather extravagant, as disturbing 
their more delightful morning naps. Thus ended our evening 
stroll so agreable. After we had returned and resumed our 
seats in the grove, a conversation arose about matrimony, though 
we discussed the blessings of that happy state in cold blood, 
there being nothing of the sound of female voices so necessary 
to make a conversation on this head pleasing. After some time 
Messrs Howard and Gwion joined us, the former a law student. 48 
In a few minutes politics became the order of the hour and al- 
though I was alone to represent the whigs I did not hesitate to 
take a stand upon them and after discussing and dismissing 
the subjects of tariff and national bank, we got upon the Mexi- 
can war, the contest waxed warm - Howard and myself the 
principles in debate - and after using our powers of tact and 
rason, no visible sighn was discernable to the end of the contest. 
At last, hearing the stage come in we walked on [36] relaxing 
in an degree the warmth of discussion, and when we got to the 
Post-Office, I was forced to hold a stiff argument there, al- 
though at the manifest amusement of the crowd who had es- 
sembled there. It is true I am fond of politics, and make no 
hesitation in expounding my principles but modesty forbid that 
I should be caught this early upon the stage especially among 

48 George Howard, described by Battle as an "independent law student," 
and later Judge of the Superior Court, graduated from the law school 
between 1845-1868; Trustee of the University from 1885-1896, Battle, 
History of the University, I, 786; and a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1861. Gwion is probably either Benjamin F. or Julius Guion — 
Julius was graduated with third honors in 1851; Benjamin was Commence- 
ment speaker in 1851, Battle, History of the University, I, 625, 801, 803. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 93 

students who think not the more favorable of a man who they 
conceive to be partyspirited. 49 

June 30th 

I have nothing to record to day either amusing or useful. I 
have when I say amusing nothing except, Don Quixote, which I 
have laughed over all day almost. I have ate, drank and slept 
as usual, met with no co [n] versation except those of Don and 
Sancho 50 which was amusing, or worthy of remark here. As 
I am at a loss for a subject I will end my day's record — 

[To be continued] 

49 There is evidence in a note from the Minutes of the Board of Trustees 
(Trustee Minutes, University of North Carolina, December 10, 1842) that 
the faculty and trustees realized the potential for trouble in free-flowing 
political discussions, particularly at a State university dependent upon a 
legislature, some members of which were still perhaps not convinced that 
such an institution was a wise use of public funds: ". . . No student shall 
be permitted during term time to deliver at the University any public 
address except when he shall appear before the Literary Society of which 
he is a member in the Hall of the Society or before the faculty in the 
regular discharge of collegiate duty, or in the performance of some literary 
exercise under the sanction of the president." However, as Battle points 
out, "The anxiety of the Faculty about these gatherings was not alone that 
the University might get the hostility of one of the parties. Corn whiskey 
was abundant in almost every covered wagon; the bullies of the county 
early in the day were loaded with this maddening stuff and there was con- 
siderable danger of collision. The Faculty and cooler portions of the students 
managed to keep the peace. There was pointed out to me a giant of a man, 
said to have been regularly hired to protect the college boys from hostile 
engagements. Though there were occasional angry words, there were no 
blows." Battle, History of the University, I, 564. The formal prohibition 
of speeches, however, obviously did little to slow up the informal bull-session 
type political discussion which went on when Garrett and his friends went 
for a walk. 

60 Don Quixote, hero of Cervantes great tale, and his companion, Sancho 


Josephus Daniels in Mexico. By E. David Cronon. (Madison: 
The University of Wisconsin Press. 1960. Pp. xv, 369. $6.00.) 

This model of good and lucid historical writing sheds much 
new light on certain important aspects of the recent history 
of the United States. The author, an Associate Professor of 
Hisory at the University of Nebraska, tells the story of Jose- 
phus Daniels as Ambassador to Mexico from 1933 to 1941. 
These were difficult, even critical, years in Mexican-Ameri- 
can relations. Mexican failure promptly to compensate Amer- 
icans for land expropriated by the Mexican government kept 
the two governments in a state of almost perpetual wrang- 
ling, while President Lazaro Cardenas' expropriation of for- 
eign-owned ( and American ) oil companies brought the two 
North American neighbors to the verge of a break in rela- 
tions. Circumstances and events, obviously, demanded un- 
usual wisdom, for the preservation of the Mexican-American 
peace was not the only thing at stake. Upon America's policies 
toward Mexico depended the fate of the Roosevelt adminis- 
tration's entire hemispheric Good Neighbor policy. One false 
step in Mexico and that policy would have been destroyed. 

Professor Cronon tells ( among other things ) how the Wash- 
ington government weathered the great storm caused by the 
oil expropriation. We had known the larger details of this 
story before: indeed, we had known many of the intimate 
details from Daniels' own memoirs. What Professor Cronon 
has done is to supply the full story of the vital role that Am- 
bassador Daniels played in finding a happy solution to Mexi- 
can-American troubles. One may or may not think that 
Daniels was wise and far-seeing, but one can no longer ignore 
him in talking about the development of the Good Neighbor 
policy and its severe testing in Mexico. It should be added, 
too, that the author reveals the important struggles within 
the Roosevelt Administration over the definition of the Good 
Neighbor policy and shows beyond question that Secretary 
Hull and many of his subordinates in the State Department 


Book Reviews 95 

were far less enthusiastically committed to Good Neighbor 
ideals than one might think from reading the Hull Memoirs. 

Professor Cronon made perhaps his greatest contribution 
by breaking new ground in the historical scholarship of the 
1930's. Josephus Daniels in Mexico is based solidly upon wide 
research in manuscript and archival materials. It is a splendid 
example of the kind of work that can now be done for the New 
Deal period. 

Arthur S. Link. 

Princeton University. 

The Book of Wilmington. By Andrew J. Howell. (Wilming- 
ton: Privately Printed, 1959. Pp. 222. $3.95.) 

The first printing of this book was made in June, 1930. Dur- 
ing the twenty-nine years intervening between that date and 
this second printing all available copies must have been sold, 
yet the demand for them continued. The present "printing" is 
actually a facsimile reproduction, and due to the pecularities 
of the process is was necessary to reset the table of contents 
and the index in new type. These two features were inserted 
in the book after it was bound. 

From his detailed store of knowledge about his beloved 
Wilmington, the late Rev. Andrew J. Howell wrote a readable 
chronological history of North Carolina's port city from its 
early eighteenth-century beginnings to his own time. Events 
occurring in Wilmington which were of importance to the 
whole colony or State are, of course, related here, but the 
strictly local affairs, everyday activities, which are reported 
in every chapter give the book its flavor. The local printer, 
the newspaper editor, visiting preachers, yellow fever epi- 
demics, a blockaded port, prominent schoolmasters, public 
utilities, all come in for discussion during the course of the 

Unlike many local histories, this volume was written to be 
read and enjoyed. As a volume for reference it has faults. It 

96 The North Carolina Historical Review 

is unencumbered by footnotes and bibliography and the in- 
dex is inadequate. 

William S. Powell. 
University of North Carolina. 

Asheville and Land of the Sky. By Martha Norburn Allen. 
(Charlotte: Heritage House. 1960. Revised and enlarged edi- 
tion. Pp. 208. $3.95.) 

The original edition of this book was published in 1942 as 
a tribute to Asheville one hundred and fifty years after its 
founding. Improved in style and strengthened in content, the 
revised edition is an attractive supplement to the literature on 
the mountain region of North Carolina. The author's purpose, 
she states clearly, is "to draw a composite picture of this 
unique land." Within the limits imposed by a small book, 
she has accomplished this purpose. Asheville and Land of 
the Sky does not contain nearly as much historical informa- 
tion, for example, as does Sondley's A History of Buncombe 
County; it does not present an intimate view of the mountain 
people such as can be found in Morley's The Carolina Moun- 
tains, or convey the feeling of a personal experience as does 
Kephart's Our Southern Highlanders. Furthermore, it lacks 
the polished style and intellectual sophistication of Dyke- 
man's The French Broad. The peculiar virtue of Mrs. Allen's 
book is the blend, in a short but comprehensive treatment, of 
factual information with warm appreciation of this "land of 
our dreams." Pleasant verses by Mrs. Allen and fifteen illus- 
trations add interest to the book. 

Mrs. Allen's "composite picture" compliments her subject 
highly. She loves the mountains and restricts her discussions 
largely to agreeable topics. The picture also reflects the 
author's interests. She focuses primarily on the physical char- 
acteristics of the region, narratives of history and legend, 
customs and activities of past generations of mountain dwel- 
lers, and efforts to understand and preserve the past. Except 
in the realms of recreation, culture, and natural history, mod- 
ern life in the mountains does not appeal to her strongly. 

Book Reviews 97 

Social, economic, and political problems receive little atten- 
tion. In her concluding chapter, Mrs. Allen proclaims her 
faith that the grandeur of the mountains will endure despite 
man's increasing encroachments. She encourages skeptics to 
fly over the land. "From the air," she writes, "all of man's 
work, buildings, bridges, railways and highways, appear like 
objects in toyland while the landscape shows in majestic pro- 
portions." This reviewer, a native of the Blue Ridge Moun- 
tains, gladly admits to sharing Mrs. Allen's attachments, 
hopes, and faith. 

A member of an unusually talented Asheville family, Mrs. 
Allen, in obtaining a doctor's degree in geography and geol- 
ogy from the University of North Carolina, studied the 
influence of the physiographic features of western North 
Carolina on the settlement and development of the region. 
Her scholarly knowledge strengthens her popular treatment 
of the Land of the Sky. Mrs. Allen's identity needs added 
clarification, for she has written under three different names. 
She wrote her dissertation under her maiden name, Martha 
Elizabeth Norburn. Having subsequently married George 
Whitfield Mead, she published Asheville In Land of the Sky 
( 1942 ) under the name of Martha Norburn Mead. After Mr. 
Mead died, she married Dr. W. Burr Allen and now writes 
under the name of Martha Norburn Allen. 

Oliver H. Orr. 

North Carolina State College. 

The Vice-Admiralty Courts and the American Revolution. By 
Carl Ubbelohde. (Chapel Hill: The University of North 
Carolina Press. 1960. Published for the Institute of Early 
American History and Culture. Pp. ix, 242. $6.00.) 

Professor Ubbelhode's excellent monograph on the Courts 
of Vice-Admiralty commences with a clear statement of the 
functions performed by the Courts and their relation to Gren- 
ville's post-war reorganization. The author then outlines the 
role which the Vice-Admiralty Courts played during the 
series of crises that led to the War for Independence. In doing 

98 The North Carolina Historical Review 

so Mr. Ubbelohde is able to clarify at last just how important 
these courts were as a cause of the Revolution. As he points 
out, the records of these maritime courts have been notable 
for their absence. The author's task, and one which he has 
performed admirably, has been to piece together from Public 
Record Office documents, letters, journals, and newspapers 
an account of one "stage" upon which contemporaries acted 
out the drama of dismemberment. 

This clearly-written and concise study demonstrates that 
the functions of the Courts did not change appreciably after 
the establishments of the so-called "Super-Court" at Halifax 
in 1764. Although a source of deep concern to colonial mer- 
chants who were uneasy at the thought of losing local control 
or knowledge of mercantile matters, the Halifax court scarcely 
justified its existence. The source of deepest antagonism Mr. 
Ubbelohde shows to have lain with regulations and legal re- 
strictions which the eleven provincial courts and the Halifax 
court alike were called upon to intrepret and uphold. Trouble 
originated in London and not in the Vice-Admiralty Courts 

This study is of significance, then, because it corrects mis- 
conceptions and the "half-truths" circulated by American 
propagandists about the Courts. It adds greater dimension to 
our understanding of the part played in the pre-Revolutionary 
maneuvering by American merchants. But above all, it reveals 
how basic were the acts of Parliament and English bureau- 
cracy. Americans found cause for anger in the appointment 
of men to the bench who had approved the Stamp Act, in 
the actions of local customs inspectors connected erroneously 
in the public mind with the Vice-Admiralty Courts them- 
selves, and above all, in the fact that cases tried before juries 
in England were tried before judges alone in America. In 
raising the constitutional issue— the issue of equality under a 
common constitution— opponents of Sugar Act, Stamp Act, 
and Townshend Duties brought the Vice-Admiralty Courts 
under public censure. Ironically, Americans discovered by 
1780 that admiralty courts with juries brought too much local 
democracy into an area w r here specialized knowledge was re- 
quired and soon returned to judicial decision. 

Book Reviews 99 

Americans made propagandistic use of the Vice-Admiralty 
Courts to protest restriction and regulation. In routine mat- 
ters the Courts performed useful work with great dispatch. 
Professor Lawrence Gipson's commendation is printed on the 
book-jacket. It deserves to be there. 

Stephen G. Kurtz. 

Wabash College. 

Origin of the American Revolution, 1759-1766. By Bernhard 
Knollenberg. (New York: The Macmillan Company. 1960. Pp. 
ix, 486. $8.50.) 

In this well-written and thoroughly documented work 
Bernhard Knollenberg has re-examined the causes of the 
American Revolution, looking especially at the period from 
1759 to 1766 when colonial grievances created a feeling of 
discontent which culminated in the Revolution. He has re- 
studied the sources, limiting himself narrowly to contempor- 
ary materials in order to avoid any distortion from the later 
patriot view of pre-Revolutionary events. Colonial discontent 
is regarded mainly as arising from "disturbing British innova- 
tions," and therefore this new study begins with an interest- 
ing chapter on British Cabinet changes and on their effects in 
shaping colonial policy. Succeeding chapters discuss causes 
of discontent— the threat to home rule in the royal colonies by 
more rigid instructions to the governors, the Anglican attempt 
to install bishops in America, the enlargement of the British 
standing army in the colonies, the limitation of westward 
expansion by the proclamation of 1763, the failure of the 
British army to protect the colonial frontier during the Pon- 
tiac War, the enforcement of the white pine acts and of the 
acts restricting colonial trade, and finally the acts taxing the 
colonies for revenue. There follow chapters on various pro- 
tests, individual and legislative, and on the passage and nulli- 
fication of the Stamp Act. 

Much of this is familiar ground to any student of the period, 
but many details are provided which give dimension and 
depth to the picture. There are also points which might be 

100 The North Carolina Historical Review 

argued. Was the presence of the British army necessarily a 
grievance? Its expenditures brought money to the colonies. 
Was the British army responsible for protecting the colonies 
from the Indian, and did it fail? That had been a colonial 
responsibility from the beginnings; anyway, the Indian up- 
rising of 1763 was put down in a year and a half. Finally, can 
causes inherent in the situation of the American colonies be 
completely ruled out? After all, the grievances against Great 
Britain in many instances would have been felt as grievances 
only by particular minorities. 

Donald H. Kent. 

Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. 

The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, Volume II, 1735-1744. Edited 
by Leonard W. Labaree. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University 
Press. 1960. Pp. xxvi, 471. $10.00.) 

This volume contains Franklin's correspondence, inciden- 
tal writings, and liberal selections from the Poor Richard 
almanacs during the years 1735-1744. The reader sees an 
energetic, ambitious, and successful young businessman whose 
civic-minded spirit involves him in a variety of activities as 
diverse as developing a fire department in Philadelphia, de- 
fending a Presbyterian minister, Samuel Hemphill, against 
his synod, and promoting smallpox innoculation. During this 
period Franklin became postmaster of his city, a bookseller of 
note, and he established a reputation as a scientist and an 

The book is pleasingly readable. The paper and the type 
are of excellent quality, and the binding is well done. 

The editors faced the usual difficulties of determining 
authorship. It must have been a baffling task, indeed, in this 
case, for Franklin was a publisher as well as a writer. The 
long defense of Mr. Hemphill, for instance, involving compli- 
cated theological disputations, must be largely the work of 
the persecuted minister; even though the voice of Franklin 
rings out clearly in the praise for morality, natural rights, and 

Book Reviews 101 

justice. The editors do not debate the subject of authorship. 
They merely state the evidence fairly. 

Present-day methods are followed in dressing up the text 
while yet trying to present the author's meaning, such as si- 
entry supplying up to four missing letters in a word "when 
there is no doubt what they should be," eliminating "commas 
scattered meaninglessly through a manuscript," and bringing 
"brief marginal notes . . . into the text without notation" (pp. 
xix-xx ) . Delicate shades of meaning will be lost through these 
practices; and in any thorough work on Franklin, future 
scholars will find it necessary to resort frequently to the man- 

This volume will be valuable to any student of American 
culture of the pre-Revolutionary generation; and any Frank- 
lin biographer will find it indispensable for studying the 
growth of the great man's mind and character. 

Gilbert L. Lycan. 

Stetson University. 

The Papers of Henry Clay: The Rising Statesman, 1797-1814. 
Edited by James F. Hopkins and Mary W. M. Hargreaves. 
(Lexington: University of Kentucky Press. 1959. Pp. xv, 1,037. 

This is an exhaustive collection of Henry Clay documents, 
from his license to practice law in November, 1797, to papers 
relating to the negotiations at Ghent, Belgium, in 1814, which 
formally concluded the War of 1812. It is the first of a pro- 
jected series of ten volumes, planned by the University of 

Every mark of thoroughness in collection and compilation 
is present. The editors and their assistants have ransacked 
forty-one depositories for materials; letters to as well as from 
Clay are included, along with many relevant public papers; 
items are identified as to character and location; finally, per- 
sons or events are carefully footnoted throughout wherever 
possible. A summary chronology of Clay's career in the years 
covered would have been helpful, and this, unfortunately, 

102 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the editors do not provide. Again, the inclusion of innumer- 
able purely business papers, such as bills, receipts, agree- 
ments, and deeds, commands a great deal of space; but each 
item carries a brief title, and the reader can easily select. 
Clear paper, large type, and good printing, together with an 
elegant binding, make the volume an attractive bookmaking 
as well as editorial job. 

The span of the papers covers Clay's emergence as a bril- 
liant "War Hawk" leader and Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, as well as his novitiate in diplomacy. Yet, some 
disappointment is bound to attend efforts to derive an inside 
view of Clay's critical role in the factional hurly-burly of 
1811-1815 which marked the beginning of the disintegration 
of the Jeffersonian Republican party. There are relevant 
items, such as a letter to a Delaware confidante which con- 
tains a slashing excoriation of President Madison as "wholly 
unfit" to lead the nation in wartime— "so hesitating, so tardy, 
so far behind the National sentiment." By and large, how- 
ever, even his private papers provide only limited revelations 
of Clay's inner political judgments, political alliances, or 
tactics and means. Browsers interested in the establishment 
of American architecture as a profession, on the other hand, 
will find rewards in letters from Benjamin H. Latrobe dis- 
cussing proposed construction for Transylvania University in 
Lexington, or remodeling work at Clay's home, Ashland. 

Finally, much of Clay's gamy character and charm does 
come through— and the editors announce their intention to 
point our way toward these facets of his career by index list- 
ings for "blooded livestock, estates, taverns, and watering 
places," as well as more prosaic matters. 

William Nisbet Chambers. 
Washington University (St. Louis). 


Book Reviews 103 

The Burden of Southern History. By C. Vann Woodward. (Baton 
Rouge : Louisiana State University Press. 1960. Acknowledge- 
ments and index. Pp. xiv, 205. $3.50.) 

These interpretative essays by the author of such quickly 
established classics as The Origins of the New South and 
The Strange Career of Jim Crow will be enjoyed by thought- 
ful laymen as well as professional historians. Seven of Pro- 
fessor Woodward's eight essays have already appeared in 
various journals during the past decade; the light which they 
each, in different ways and degrees, shed upon Southern his- 
tory and the distinctive quality of the writing more than 
justify this volume's publication. 

One of the secrets of Woodward's impact and appeal as a 
historian is the ironic and even moral point of view from 
which he writes. In the last essay in this volume, "The Irony 
of Southern History," he well describes his own achievement, 
without meaning to do so, when he suggests that the observer 
or historian who would advance the ironic interpretation 
must possess "an unusual combination of detachment and 
sympathy" and "must be able to appreciate both elements in 
the incongruity that go to make up the ironic situation, both 
the virtue and the vice to which pretensions of virtue lead." 

This philosophical attitude, coupled with scholarship which 
is as impeccable as the literary style, is nowhere better dis- 
played than in the volume's opening piece, "The Search for 
Southern Identity." Pointing to the "Bulldozer Revolution" 
which, together with other potent forces, each day makes the 
South physically more like the rest of the United States, 
Woodward probes for the significant core of "Southernism." 
Without that, he argues, the "cyclone of social change" may 
leave the southerner not only "bereft of his myths, his pe- 
culiar institutions, even his familiar regional vices" but strip- 
ped finally of his very regional identification. Woodward may 
hum "Dixie" ironically, but the old melody, and the love of 
the South which it signifies, is still there. "In their unique 
historic experience as Americans," he declares, "the South- 
erners should not only be able to find the basis for continuity 
of their heritage but also make contributions that balance and 
complement the experience of the rest of the nation." 

104 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Before any neo-Confederates or Dixiecrats rejoice pre- 
maturely, however, they would do well to ponder the chief 
ingredients of the southerner's "unique historic experience." 
These, Woodward argues, consist of the South's "long and 
quite un-American experience with poverty;" its "overwhelm- 
ing military defeat" and prolonged defeat and frustration in 
other major areas of life, when American history as a whole 
constitutes one of the world's greatest success stories; the 
South's "experience of evil" in the form of slavery and its 
aftermath, whereas the nation has reveled in innocence; and, 
finally, the southerner's preoccupation with place, with local- 
ity, in a land where mobility and rootlessness have often been 
described as paramount features of the national character. 
Conceding that the South was "American" long before it was 
"Southern" in any distinctive way and that "it remains more 
American by far than anything else," Woodward calls upon 
the modern southerner to be secure enough in his identity to 
cling to his "regional heritage" which is "far more closely 
in line with the common lot of mankind that the national 
legends of opulence and success and innocence." 

Other essays deal with "The Historical Dimension" in 
southern novels and short stories ("I am a grandchild of a 
lost war, and I have blood-knowledge of what life can be in 
a defeated country on the bare bones of privation," Katherine 
Anne Porter is quoted as having written) and the use by 
Herman Milville, Henry Adams, and Henry James of "Con- 
federate censors for Yankee morals" in the Gilded Age. A 
piece on the John Brown Raid is not up to the standard of the 
others in originality or relevance, but two essays on the Negro 
question in the Civil War era treat blunt, important truthes 
with insight and sympathy. Finally, in "The Populist Heri- 
tage and the Intellectual," Woodward strikes a few good 
blows, qualified but nonetheless effective, for the desperate 
southern agrarians of the 1890's on whom several learned 
smart alecks now unload the responsibility for anti-Semitism, 
isolationism, anti-intellectualism, and a host of other ugly isms 
of our own day. 

Robert F. Durden. 
Duke University. 

Book Reviews 105 

Americans at War: The Development of the American Mili- 
tary System. By T. Harry Williams. (Baton Rouge: Louisi- 
ana State University Press. 1960. Pp. xi, 139. $3.50.) 

In this little volume Professor Williams has gathered to- 
gether the material he used in a series of lectures at Mem- 
phis State University in 1956. He calls the work "essays on 
the American Military system," adding that "they are neces- 
sarily, in certain sections, speculative and open to revision." 
With this prefatory statement, and with his concluding re- 
mark that the difficulties of fashioning an organization to 
deal with the complexities of warfare in the atomic age "are 
problems that the historian does not have competence to 
solve," the reader will likely agree. But with what lies be- 
tween the two passages many will be inclined to take issue. 

The work examines the provisions made for the formulation 
of State policy and military strategy by Americans during each 
of three time frames: from the Revolution to 1860; the Civil 
War epoch; and the period from 1865 to "Global Conflict." 
Unfortunately, the author omits any discussion of World 
War II on the grounds that the essays are not the proper 
medium for the treatment of such a "vast story." Professor 
Williams' account of the trial and error methods to which 
Americans consistently have resorted in organizing a high 
command when called upon to wage war is as stimulating as 
it is fascinating. He calls freely upon the impressive store of 
knowledge he has acquired in fifteen years of teaching mili- 
tary history at Louisiana State University. In the process he 
may be pardoned for the length of the treatment accorded to 
the Civil War period— almost as long as each of the other 
parts of the book— because of his affection for the Lincoln- 
Grant combination. Indeed, Professor Williams' devotion to 
that command "system" tends to crowd out any favorable re- 
gard for other wartime high command arrangements, except 
possibly that designed by President James K. Polk for the 
conduct of the war with Mexico. 

When Professor Williams casts aside his mantle as historian 
and dons the uniform of critic he does less justice to himself. 
He has much company, however; like Napoleon's private 

106 The North Carolina Historical Review 

soldiers, most American males consider that they carry the 
baton of a marshal in their back pockets. 

John D. F. Phillips. 

Carolina Charter Tercentenary Commission. 

The Confederate Congress. By Wilfred Buck Yearns. (Athens: 
The University of Georgia Press. 1960. Pp. 293. $5.00.) 

According to the author, "not even a war for survival would 
bring political harmony to the South." In the absolute sense, 
of course, he is right, but the tenor of his writing indicates 
relative concord between the Davis administration and the 
Confederate Congress. There was no opposition party as such, 
and though the President was defeated on four counts in four 
years, his opponents never dominated legislation, they tried 
to reform rather than wreck his program, and only once were 
they able to override his veto. In the Provisional Congress 
twenty-four members (of 113) might be considered adminis- 
trative opponents, in the First Congress thirty-eight ( of 150 ) , 
and in the Second Congress, forty-one. ( Heaviest administra- 
tion support in the last two years came, as might be expected, 
from the occupied areas.) Mr. Yearns concludes that while 
the Democrats and original secessionists dropped from a two- 
to-one control of the First Congress to a five-to-four control 
of the Second, the Congressional election of 1863 did not 
produce a vote of lack of confidence in President Davis. It 
would seem, from this study, that in the past the Confederate 
Congress has been described with a good deal of malignancy. 

This is a serious work resulting from a thorough examina- 
tion of available materials. The reader is conducted, perhaps 
reluctantly at times, on a tour of all aspects of Congressional 
activity regarding elections, conscription, foreign affairs, 
finance, economic organization, mobilization of manpower, 
conduct of the war, habeas corpus, and the peace movement. 
Fact is piled upon fact and the result should have been an 
engrossing picture of what is probably the most obscure area 
of the Confederacy. While there are some fascinating bits of 
information thrown up and an occasional glimpse into under- 

Book Reviews 107 

standing, a clear image simply does not come through. 
Whether this is the fault of the author or the editor, or both, 
is anyone's guess. 

Maybe it isn't possible to prepare a neat portrait of the 
Congress, but certainly this could have been done with indi- 
vidual members. The volume suffers from overburdening de- 
tail regarding the passage of trivial legislation. There are 
inexcusable errors in fact, in judgment, and language. Care- 
less expression and colloquialisms run wild; awkward phras- 
ing, plain bad grammar, as well as inexact chronology, mar 
particularly the chapters on finance and economic organiza- 
tion, likely to be tedious at best. 

It may be that those of us who have thought that a pene- 
trating analysis of Congress would bring great illumination of 
the internal affairs of the Confederacy have been wrong all 
along. At least in this book such new information and inter- 
pretation as there is remains buried in a mass of undigested 

James W. Silver. 

University of Mississippi. 

Hancock the Superb. By Glenn Tucker. Maps by Dorothy Thomas 
Tucker. (Indianapolis, Indiana: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 
Inc. 1960. Pp. 368. Illustrations, bibliography, and index. 

This biography of the Yankee favorite of the South, Win- 
field Scott Hancock, was an almost inevitable outcome of the 
author's High Tide at Gettysburg. Hancock's conspicuous 
generalship on each of the three big battle days on the fate- 
ful field so impressed Mr. Tucker that he determined to honor 
the general with a much-needed modern biography. 

The wartime career of Hancock, as Tucker suggests, is at 
the center of the story of the Federal Army of the Potomac. 
He opened the advance on the Peninsula, was at the "Bloody 
Lane" at Antietam, and "rode in the whirlwind of death" 
against Marye's Heights at Fredericksburg. He held the rear 
guard after the debacle of Chancellorsvxlle and, as previously 

108 The North Carolina Historical Review 

stated, was especially "superb" at Gettysburg. The "Bloody 
Angle" of Spotsylvania, one of Lee's few mistakes, was Han- 
cock's glory, while the assault at Second Cold Harbor, one of 
Grant's worst mistakes, was Hancock's agony. Truly, it can 
be said, he was ever at the center, the most trusted lieutenant 
of the procession of commanders of the Army of the Potomac. 

After the war, Hancock electrified the North and South 
with his famous General Order Number 40 which restored 
civilian authority and local rule in his district of occupation. 
His reconstruction proposals, had they not been contemptu- 
ously rejected by the Radicals, might have adverted much of 
the bitterness against the North that still exists in many south- 
ern communities. 

Hancock's generous attitude toward the conquered and his 
espousal of Democratic Party principles brought him the 
presidential nomination in 1880. His biographer believes he 
lost the election "partly by a forth-rightness that seemed poli- 
tical naivete, and partly by a handful of what some of his 
followers termed craftily counted New York ballots" (p. 17). 

Mr. Tucker is to be commended for his success in present- 
ing Hancock the man, despite a lack of personal letters among 
the Hancock papers. Every possible source appears to have 
been exploited, however, to bring the reader an impressive 
picture of Hancock in action. 

This reviewer, in conclusion, agrees that "though always a 
subordinate . . . second in war, second in peace . . . Hancock 
undoubtedly ranks as one of the great soldiers of American 

James L. Nichols. 

Stephen F. Austin State College. 

Three against Lincoln: Murat Halstead Reports the Caucuses 
of 1860. Edited by William B. Hesseltine. (Baton Rouge: 
Louisiana State University Press, 1960. Pp. xxi, 321. Appen- 
dices, notes, and index. $6.00.) 

A young Cincinnati newspaperman, Murat Halstead, ob- 
served the several political conventions of 1860, recorded 
their proceedings, and commented upon them with some 

Book Reviews 109 

penetration. Attending the angry Charleston convention of 
the Democrats, then moving on to the meetings of the Con- 
stitutional Union party, of the Republicans at Chicago, of 
the "seceding" southern Democrats at Richmond and Balti- 
more, and of the northern Douglas Democrats at the latter 
city, the journalist covered these momentous events more 
completely and skillfully than any of his contemporaries. 
Halstead's Caucuses of 1860 has long been a standard refer- 
ence and is now made more readily available. But, the editor 
says, the book's quality is uneven. The excellent analysis of 
the sectional division within the Democratic party at Charles- 
ton contrasts with the superficial treatment of the Republican 
scene at Chicago. Blinded by his admiration for Seward, he 
neglected the effective, behind-the-scenes maneuvers of the 
Lincoln-managers as they traded promised rewards for votes. 

Professor Hesseltine has written a concise, valuable Intro- 
duction. One has the impression that the editor agrees with 
Halstead that as much or more political blame must be laid 
to the Douglasites for insisting upon popular sovereignty as 
to the followers of Yancey for demanding a platform pledging 
positive Congressional protection of slavery in the territories. 
Halstead was a true Republican disparaging both Democra- 
tic wings. Hesseltine seems to be morally neutral concerning 
slavery, a position out of fashion nowadays. Regardless of 
the merits or defects of this position, Professor Hesseltine 
performs his editorial function adequately. He provides help- 
ful information both in the Introduction and in a few explan- 
atory notes but does not intrude unduly upon the original 

In this election year, one hundred years afterward, the 
reader will be challenged to form his own judgment about 
Halstead's thesis that political conventions are corrupt, un- 
democratic "caucuses" which ought to be remodeled or 
abandoned. That out of these caucuses of 1860 came the elec- 
tion of one of the ablest presidents in history probably in- 
duced Halstead himself to moderate his severe opinions. 

110 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Today most people will doubtless agree with his second 
thoughts more than with his initial strictures. 

Maurice G. Baxter. 
Indiana University. 

Thomas Overton Moore: A Confederate Governor. By Claude 
Hunter Moore. (Clinton: Commercial Printing Company. 
1960. 78 pages. $3.00.) 

Thomas Overton Moore was born in 1804 near Clinton, in 
Sampson County, North Carolina, and in 1824 he settled in 
Bapides Parish, Louisiana. As an influential planter, Moore 
entered politics and served from time to time in the State 
legislature. In 1859 he was elected Louisiana's governor, and 
took office in January, 1860, just in time to play a leading 
role in the Bayou State's secession crisis. As his State was 
soon invaded and its metropolis occupied, Governor Moore 
faced serious difficulties. It was probably with a sigh of relief 
that he surrendered his office early in 1864. Thereafter, until 
his death in 1876, Moore struggled against the problems of 
life in a defeated State. 

A biography of a key Confederate, which Moore was, 
would add much to an understanding of those stirring events. 
This little booklet, a labor of love on the author's part, does 
not, unfortunately, do justice to Moore. It consists of a four- 
chapter sketch of Moore's life, followed by a collection of 
documents and letters. Of its 78 pages, only 17 are devoted to 
Moore's life, and only three paragraphs cover the period from 
1867 to 1876. It is a sketchy and superficial account which 
does not adequately portray Moore nor explain his public 
conduct. Such an important southern leader deserves a bet- 
ter fate than this. And as for the documents and letters, they 
are too few in number to be properly considered a publication 
of Moore papers. Many of them are already in print, in the 
Louisiana Historical Quarterly for 1930. But as that journal 
may not be generally available, this publication is useful. 

David L. Smiley. 
Wake Forest College. 

Book Reviews 111 

Farmer Movements in the South: 1865-1933. By Theodore Sa- 
loutos. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California 
Press. 1960. Preface, bibliography, and index. Pp. ix, 354. 

As the title suggests, this volume recounts the rise and de- 
cline, "with almost monotonous regularity," the farmer move- 
ments in the South from the end of the Civil War to the be- 
ginning of the New Deal era. Professor Saloutos' interest in 
this topic was aroused while working on his somewhat parallel 
study: Agricultural Discontent in the Middle West, 1900- 
1939. The nature of the material, however, suggested differ- 
ent beginning and terminal dates for this study. 

After drawing in the first chapter a clear picture of the 
problems of agricultural readjustment in the Reconstruction 
Period, Professor Saloutos proceeds in the following chapters 
to appraise the organizaiton, program, and impact on the 
South of the Grange, the Farmers' Alliance, the Populist Party, 
the Farmers' Union, and lesser organizations that reflected 
agrarian discontent. "These organizations waged a multiple 
offensive on the social, political, and economic front; they 
cannot be said to have been inspired by a key idea, unless 
that key idea was to elevate the status of the farmer" (p. vi). 
During the period covered by this study, the farmer con- 
sidered his problem basically an economic one. The empha- 
sis, therefore, is placed on socioeconomic factors rather than 
on the political, although the story of the rise and decline of 
Populism, as it reflected agrarian discontent, is well told. 
Professor Saloutos handles very well the dreary problem of 
voting the rise and decline of each of these farmer movements 
in the individual southern States, and then of relating devel- 
opments in the South with those in the nation at large. Some 
students of the subject, however, may not agree with the 
author that southerners "spearheaded the agrarian liberal 
movement of the late nineteenth century" (p. 70). 

This study will further enhance the author's reputation as 
one of our most productive scholars in the field of agricul- 
tural history. It is well organized, based on thorough research, 
and well written. The agrarian demagogue is adequately 

112 The North Carolina Historical Review 

treated but is not permitted to dominate the story. Despite the 
author's arguments for terminating the study in 1933, 1 should 
prefer that it be brought down to the present. I must say, too, 
that placing the footnotes at the end of the book— all 38 pages 
of them— made for difficult reading. The book contains a very 
comprehensive bibliography and an adequate index. 

Cornelius O. Cathey. 
University of North Carolina. 

The Siege of St. Augustine in 1702. By Charles W. Arnade. 
(Gainesville: The University of Florida Press. University 
of Florida Monographs, Social Sciences, No. 3, Summer, 1959. 
Illustrations, maps, and bibliography. $2.00.) 

Charles W. Arnade of the History Department of the Uni- 
versity of Florida is the author of this slender volume. It is a 
play by play account of one operation in the long struggle for 
Florida which began in the second half of the sixteenth cen- 
tury with the challenge of England and France to Spanish 
colonial and naval supremacy and ended in the first quarter 
of the nineteenth century with the formal cession of the pen- 
nisula by Spain to the United States. 

In 1702, during Queen Anne's War, Governor James Moore 
of South Carolina was authorized by the colonial assembly to 
lead an expedition against St. Augustine. The resulting two- 
pronged land and naval thrust was successful in occupying 
St. Augustine and it laid siege to the town's fort, Castellos de 
San Marcos, in which the civilian population as well as the 
military had taken refuge. The Spanish governor, Joseph de 
Zuriiga y Zerda made an energetic defense and sent to Ha- 
vana for reinforcements. The English continued siege opera- 
tions and sent to Jamaica for artillery with which to batter 
down the walls of the fort. The issue was decided when the 
arrival of Spanish reinforcements caused the English to re- 
tire rather precipitately. Meanwhile the town of St. Augus- 
tine had suffered from the tactics of both defenders and 
besiegers of the fort. The author concludes by saying that "St. 
Augustine was destroyed but remained Spanish." 

Book Reviews 113 

Dr. Arnade has made little or no effort to use English 
sources. The volume is documented largely from Spanish 
materials in the Stetson Collection of the University of Flor- 
ida. It has an extensive but uncritical bibliography, a number 
of maps and illustrations but no index. The author has thrown 
the light of historical research ( albeit with a Spanish tinge ) 
and synthesis on this interesting episode in Florida Colonial 

Cecil Johnson. 

University of North Carolina. 

Index to West Virginiana. By Robert F. Munn. (Charleston, 
West Virginia: Education Foundation, Inc., 1960. Pp. x, 154.) 

This is the first of a series of projected indexes, bibliog- 
raphies, guides to source material, and related works which 
are expected as the State of West Virginia approaches its 
centennial year in 1963. Robert F. Munn, Director of Li- 
braries at West Virginia University, has compiled an index, 
arranged by author, title, and broad subject groupings, of 
thirteen State periodicals. Of these the earliest is dated 1871, 
and only five are still being published. All save two had their 
beginnings in the present century. 

Mr. Munn's work is not as detailed an index as Swem's 
Virginia Historical Index and does not index each article in 
full, nor is it as thorough as the Ross-Ballance Guide to North 
Carolina's Periodical Literature which indexes more than 
fifty periodicals. Author, title, and one or more subject entries 
for each article, however, should bring the attention of the 
user who is willing to search for it, all the West Virginiana in 
these periodicals. A code identifies fiction and poetry entries 
throughout the work. 

An outsider examining the index will, perhaps, wonder if 
there are no Jews in West Virginia and if the Baptists, Epis- 
copalians, Roman Catholics, and Lutherans in the State have 
written nothing on their churches. 

Material not relating to West Virginia but which was 
published in the thirteen periodicals is also indexed. There 

114 The North Carolina Historical Review 

are, for example, entries for such diverse subjects as Sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh's Lost Colony and "What Is Esperanto." 

William S. Powell. 
University of North Carolina. 

They Have Topped the Mountain. By Clara A. Wootton. (Frank- 
fort, Kentucky: Blue Grass Press. 1960. Pp. 159. $4.95.) 

This is a biography of a notable Kentuckian, General Bailey 
Peyton Wootton ( May 20, 1870- April 16, 1949 ) . He was a 
native of western Kentucky, but matured as a dedicated citi- 
zen of the mountains at Hazard, Kentucky, where he was 
"school teacher, banker, lawyer and newspaper man." Even- 
tually for four years he served as Attorney General of the 
State. He was a Democrat in the old Republican "rock-ribbed 
Tenth District of eastern Kentucky." 

Clara Wootton, formerly of Paris, Ky., second wife of the 
General is the author. The introduction is by Thomas D. 
Clark, Head of the Department of History at the University 
of Kentucky. 

General Wootton's ancestry is traced from Kent, England, 
to Jamestown, Virginia, 1608, where a Wootton was surgeon 
to Captain John Smith. The paternal grandfather of the Gen- 
eral was Joshua Arnold Wootton, born in Pasquotank County, 
North Carolina, in 1799. His parents, Joshua Eli, and Sarah 
Jane Taylor Wootton were native Tennesseeans, removing to 
Muhlenburg County, Kentucky, in 1854. 

The subject of this biography attended a business school 
at Keokuk, Iowa, took a Normal course at Lebanon, Ohio, and 
studied law at Huntingdon, Tennessee. Walking over the 
mountains from Jackson, Kentucky, he located at Hazard in 
1894. It was said of Hazard when boom times came: "No 
beehive was ever busier than that little frontier town." 

Bailey Wootton had the capacity, the courage, and the 
stamina for an eminent career in this radically developing 
industrial empire. Through feuds, backruptcies, and tricky 
politics he survived. Doubtless for a long period he was the 
most influential person in this bourgeoning hill-country com- 

Book Reviews 115 

munity. His moral prestige was strong. He "would not defend 
a man of whose innocence he was not sure." 

Mrs. Wootton has done well in perpetuating the just fame 
of her worthy husband. Graphically she tells what time and 
human ambition has done for their adopted home at Hazard 
since 1894. 

"The village of fifty three souls has become a bustling town 
serving 50,000 people who live in this higly developed area. 
The concrete streets are now lined with high-powered cars 
and air-conditioned trains arrive and leave daily . . . with air 
connections one can come from the Orient in less time than 
it took the two teachers [Wootton and his associate], to 
make their first trip over the mountains." 

C. C. Ware. 

Atlantic Christian College. 



On December 22 Mr. McDaniel Lewis of Greensboro, 
Chairman of the Executive Board of the Department of Ar- 
chives and History, presented to Governor Luther H. Hodges 
the Messages, Addresses, and Public Papers of Luther Hart- 
well Hodges, Governor of North Carolina, 1954-1961, Volume 
I, 1954-1956 (Raleigh: Council of State. State of North Car- 
olina. 1960. Pp. xxiv, 691). In making the presentation Mr. 
Lewis stated: "Rarely has any Governor taken office under 
more challenging circumstances than you did in November, 
1954. This book helps mirror the magnificent record which 
you have achieved during those difficult two years. It also 
reflects the outstanding leadership which you provided our 
State at a crucial time in North Carolina's history." 

The volume, edited by Dr. James W. Patton, Professor of 
History and Director of the Southern Historical Collection 
at the University of North Carolina, covers the first period of 
the Hodges administration, almost 26 months. The commit- 
tee which has general supervision of this project is composed 
of Dr. Christopher Crittenden, Chairman, Dr. Hugh T. Lef- 
ler, Mr. Harold Makepeace, Mr. Al Resch, and Mr. Edward 
L. Rankin, Jr. This group will continue to function as Dr. 
Patton proceeds to edit the materials for the years 1955-1961. 
The Council of State has authorized publication of similar 
volumes for each of the governors beginning with Thomas W. 
Bickett, 1917-1921. 

The second plenary meeting of the Carolina Charter Ter- 
centenary Commission was held in Chapel Hill, October 14. 
Progress reports were presented to the group by the chairmen 
of the various activities committees, and the Executive Sec- 
retary, General John D. F. Phillips, reported on the progress 
of the Commission. 


Historical News 117 

Two other gatherings were held following the plenary ses- 
sion: an assemblage of the newly formed Carolina Charter 
Corporation and an organizational meeting of the Committee 
on Commemorative Events. A result of the latter session was 
the appointment of a steering sub-committee with Mr. J. 
Vivian Whitfield of Wallace as chairman. In preparation for 
the sub-committee meeting to be held in Raleigh, December 
7, the Executive Secretary on November 4 and again on No- 
vember 21 circularized some seventy North Carolina county 
and local historical societies soliciting recommendations for 
local events and other subjects suitable for commemoration 
during 1963. 

During Culture Week activities the Committee on the Arts 
convened in Raleigh, November 30, under the chairmanship 
of Mrs. J. O. Tally, Jr., who was assisted by her deputy, Mr. 
Foster Fitz-Simons. 

Just prior to the plenary session, a brochure explaining the 
purposes and activities of the Charter Commission was pub- 
lished. Copies of this informational leaflet may be obtained 
from The Carolina Charter Tercentenary Commission, Box 
1881, Raleigh. 

Mr. Norman C. Larson, Executive Secretary of the North 
Carolina Confederate Centennial Commission, made 
speeches to the following groups on the proposed plans and 
program for the centennial which began January 8, 1961: 
October 6, Durham Civil War Round Table; October 8, Tar 
Heel Junior Historian Association Workshop, Raleigh; Oc- 
tober 13, United Daughters of the Confederacy Convention 
Wilson (banquet address); October 24, Burlington Rotary 
Club; November 3, Durham Civil War Round Table (and 
tour of Hall of History, Raleigh ) ; and November 22, Wacho- 
via Historical Society, Winston-Salem. On September 22 Mr. 
Larson met in Chapel Hill with the University of North Car- 
lina's Department of Radio, Motion Picture, and Television. 
On October 7 a meeting of the Commission was held in 
Raleigh and on October 9-11 Mr. Larson attended a meeting 
of the North Carolina Association of Broadcasters in Ashe- 
ville where he spoke briefly. He conducted the History Sec- 

118 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tion of the Southeastern Museums Conference held in Co- 
lumbia, South Carolina, on October 14-15. On October 26-28 
he attended the meeting of the Confederate States Centen- 
nial Conference in Richmond, Virginia, and met on Novem- 
ber 1 with the Jacksonville Art Council in Richlands. On 
November 9 he held a meeting of the committee planning 
the Confederate Festival, and on November 10 he attended 
a meeting in High Point of the Committee on Sites and Mark- 
ers. On Veterans Day, November 11, he attended ceremonies 
at the House of Memory, Oakwood Cemetery, Raleigh. Mr. 
Larson met on November 15 with the Alamance County Cen- 
tennial Committee, and on November 16 he met with the 
Audio-Visual Committee. He appeared on TV Station WTVD 
on November 21 where he talked about the Cherokee In- 
dians, and on November 28 he held a meeting of the School 
Education Committee. 

Directors Office 

On September 8 the Executive Board met at luncheon at 
the Hotel Sir Walter in Raleigh at which time Dr. Christo- 
pher Crittenden, Director, briefed the members on the De- 
partment's budget request to be made before the Advisory 
Budget Commission that afternoon. Later at a hearing held 
in the board room of the Board of Agriculture, Dr. Crittenden 
presented the budget request for 1961-1963. On October 
10 he attended a meeting of the Board of Directors of the 
Roanoke Island Historical Association in Manteo. The group 
discussed the problem of finding funds to reconstruct the 
Waterside Theater which was severely damaged by Hurri- 
cane Donna. Dr. Crittenden and Mr. W. S. Tarlton, Historic 
Sites Superintendent, met with the Historic Bath Commission 
on October 11 where they assessed the progress of the restor- 
ation and inspected the Marsh House which is the process 
of being restored. On October 14 Dr. Crittenden met with 
the Carolina Charter Tercentenary Commission in Chapel 
Hill, and he attended in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on Octo- 
ber 20 an afternoon meeting of the Board of Trustees of the 
National Trust for Historic Preservation. On October 21-22 
he went to the various meetings of the members of the Trust, 

Historical News 119 

which were the first attended by Mr. Robert E. Garvey, Jr., 
who assumed his duties as Executive Director on September 
1. Mr. Garvey was formerly Administrator and Executive Di- 
rector of Old Salem, Inc., in Winston-Salem. Dr. Crittenden 
attended the meeting of the Executive Committee of the 
Tryon Palace Commission on the evening of November 1, 
and the meeting of the full commission on November 2. On 
November 18 he was present at the sessions of the Historical 
Society of North Carolina at Davidson College. He attended 
on December 7 the meeting in Washington, D. C, the Board 
of Trustees of the National Trust for Historic Preservation. 

Division of Archives and Manuscripts 

Mr. H. G. Jones, State Archivist, and Rear Admiral A. M. 
Patterson (Ret.), Assistant State Archivist (Local Records), 
attended the annual meeting of the Society of American Ar- 
chivists in Boston October 4-7. On November 22 Mr. Jones 
gave a brief memorial address on the late Dr. Adelaide L. 
Fries at the dedication of physical improvements in the Salem 
Archives in Winston-Salem. He attended the annual meet- 
ing of the American Historical Association in New York City 
December 28-30. 

Mr. Jones attended the following meetings: the Carolina 
Charter Tercentenary Commission in Chapel Hill on October 
14; the Committee on Manuscripts, Documents, and Museum 
Items of the North Carolina Confederate Centennial Com- 
mission in Durham on November 1; the Historical Society 
of North Carolina in Davidson on November 18; and the 
Wachovia Historical Society in Old Salem on November 22. 
On the latter date he also met with the Archives Committee 
of the Woman's College of the University of North Carolina 
in Greensboro. 

Approximately 25 members of the history and social 
science staffs of the Baptist Colleges in North Carolina were 
given a tour through the State Archives by Mr. Jones and 
Admiral Patterson on November 12. 

Mr. Cyrus B. King, formerly with the State College Book 
Store, joined the Division's staff on October 14 as an Assistant 
State Archivist. Mr. King, who holds the B.A. degree in his- 

120 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tory from the University of North Carolina and the M.A. in 
history from the University of Kentucky, will be in charge 
of the Archives Section. 

Miss Beth G. Crabtree, Archivist II, visited the Library of 
Congress, the National Archives, and the Folger Shakespeare 
Library in Washington, D. C, November 16-18, and also at- 
tended some of the sessions of the second annual Conference 
of State Librarians. Miss Crabtree, who is in charge of ar- 
ranging personal collections, has completed the re-cataloging 
of the Pettigrew Family Papers and a number of smaller 

During the quarter ending September 30, a total of 832 
persons registered for research in the Search Room, 720 were 
given information by mail, and 938 photostatic copies, 89 
prints from microfilm, 43 typed certified copies, and 130 feet 
of microfilm were furnished the public. In addition, 1,855 
photostatic copies were made for the Department. The lami- 
nation of 7,564 pages of manuscripts in the Archives included 
Volumes I through XII of the Revolutionary Army Accounts 
and the papers of several colonial governors. 

Materials received in the Archives included the records of 
the State Literary and Historical Association, 1901-1955; ap- 
pointment files of Governors Scott, Umstead, and Hodges, 
1948-1959; and additional personal papers of Gasper Hoff- 
man, Mrs. Wilbur Royster, George E. London, Margaret 
Gordon, and Judge Owen Haywood Guion. 

Mr. Jones has announced the availability of positive copies 
of additional microfilm editions of early North Carolina news- 
papers. The following titles, covering the dates and numbers 
of reels indicated, are now available for positive printing: 
Southern Citizen (Asheboro), 1836-1844, 1 reel; Catawba 
Journal (Charlotte), 1824-1828, 1 reel; Charlotte Journal, 
1835-1851, 3 reels; Miners' and Farmers' Journal (Charlotte), 
1830-1835, 1 reel; North Carolina Whig (Charlotte), 1852- 
1863, 2 reels; Edenton Gazette, 1806-1831, 2 reels; Cape Fear 
News ( Fayetteville ) , 1915-1917, 1 reel; Fayetteville Index, 
1907-1917, 3 reels; The Times (Greensboro), 1856-1868, 2 
reels; North Carolina Argus (Wadesboro), 1848-1876, 2 
reels; Carolina Centinel (New Bern), 1818-1837, 3 reels; The 

Historical News 121 

Weekly News (New Bern), 1853-1854, 1 reel; Chatham Ob- 
server (Pittsboro), 1901-1904, 1 reel; Yadkin and Catawba 
Journal (Salisbury), 1828-1834, 1 reel; Daily Sentinel (Ra- 
leigh), 1865-1876, 12 reels; Semi-Weekly Sentinel (Raleigh), 
1866-1877, 2 reels; and Weekly Sentinel (Raleigh), 1866- 
1876, 1 reel. These reels contain a copy of every issue of the 
titles known to exist at this time. Inquiries concerning orders 
should be made to the State Archivist. 

In the Local Records Section, Rear Admiral A. M. Patter- 
son, USN, ( Ret. ) , Assistant State Archivist ( Local Records ) , 
was the speaker on November 13 at the dedication of a his- 
torical marker at Barbecue Presbyterian Church, Harnett 
County, established in 1757. He also addressed the fall meet- 
ing of the Hoke County Home Economics Clubs at Raeford 
on November 16. Members of the committee appointed to 
prepare a history in connection with the celebration in 1961 
of the fiftieth anniversary of the county were also present. 
Mr. James Hawley joined the staff on December 1 as Ar- 
chivist I, replacing Mrs. Elizabeth J. Hilbourn who resigned. 
The program of inventorying county records, of repairing 
as necessary, and microfilming those of permanent value is 
progressing satisfactorily. Work in Craven and Bertie, the 
eleventh and twelfth counties, is virtually completed. The 
repair of old record books, especially deeds and wills, has 
been a feature of the program of great value and interest 
to county officials. During the seventeen-months period end- 
ing November 30, more than 70,000 pages of county records 
were laminated. In addition, 274 volumes were rebound. 

With the approval of the Board of County Commissioners 
a valuable group of Hyde County records has been received 
for permanent retention in the Archives. Included are 29 
volumes and approximately 40 cubic feet of papers. 

The Director has established an Advisory Committee on 
Municipal Records consisting of Mr. A. E. Guy, Tax Collec- 
tor and Clerk, Statesville; Mr. Joseph T. Hailey, Fire Chief, 
Kinston; Mr. John T. Morrisey, General Counsel, North Car- 
olina League of Municipalities; Mr. C. H. Pritchard, Direc- 
tor of Finance, Raleigh; Mr. Gilbert W. Ray, City Manager, 
Fayetteville; Mr. W. G. Royster, City Clerk, Henderson; 

122 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Mrs. P. C. Smith, City Clerk, High Point; Mr. James I. Wall- 
er, Chief of Police, Winston-Salem; Mr. George H. Esser, 
Assistant Director, Institute of Government; Mr. H. G. Jones, 
State Archivist, State Department of Archives and History; 
and Rear Admiral A. M. Patterson, Assistant State Archivist 
( Local Records ) , State Department of Archives and History. 
The Committee held its first meeting in the Department on 
December 6, and began the preparation of a municipal rec- 
ords manual. The manual will contain information and sched- 
ules for the guidance and assistance of municipal officials 
in the preservation, reproduction, repair, retention, and dis- 
posal of public records in their custody. 

In the State Records Section, Mrs. Elizabeth C. Moss was 
granted maternity leave, effective October 1. During her ab- 
sence, Julius Avant is a temporary employee on the micro- 
film program. 

Inventories recently completed include those for the Board 
of Correction and Training and the Divisions of General 
Services, Administration, and Property Control and Con- 
struction of the Department of Administration. Inventories 
in process are those for the Woman's College of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, the Board of Nurse Registration and 
Nursing Education, the Department of Labor, and the State 
Ports Authority. A revision of the inventory of the State 
Board of Health is being done. 

During the quarter which ended September 30, 1960, the 
Records Center staff microfilmed 874,137 images on 149 reels 
for six State agencies and the staff serviced records 245 times 
for 12 agencies. Agency representatives from seven agencies 
used their records 113 times. A net gain of 450 cubic feet of 
records was shown during the quarter, with the admission of 
1,167 cubic feet and the removal of 717 cubic feet of records. 

Division of Historic Sites 

Mr. W. S. Tarlton, Historic Sites Superintendent; Mr. Mc- 
Daniel Lewis, Chairman of the Executive Board; and Dr. 
Christopher Crittenden, Director of the Department, attended 
a meeting on September 20 in Kinston of the members from 
that town of the Governor Richard Caswell Memorial Com- 

Historical News 123 

mission to discuss plans for the future development of the 
Caswell gravesite. Mr. John G. Dawson, Chairman of the 
Commission, presided. On October 7 Mr. Tarlton represented 
the Department at the unveiling of a Historical Highway 
Marker at Rocky Mount for Jim Thorpe, famous Indian ath- 
lete and star of the 1912 Olympics. Mr. Josh L. Home, mem- 
ber of the Executive Board and publisher of The Evening 
Telegram (Rocky Mount), was master of ceremonies. On 
October 10-11 Mr. Tarlton attended a meeting of the Historic 
Bath Commission, and on October 13-15 he attended the an- 
nual meeting of the Southeastern Museums Conference in 
Columbia, South Carolina. While there he conferred with 
Mr. C. West Jackson, Parks Director of the South Carolina 
State Commission of Forestry, concerning a joint North Car- 
olina-South Carolina project to preserve and exhibit the old 
state-line cornerstone between Waxhaw and Lancaster. Mr. 
Tarlton and Dr. Lenox D. Baker, Chairman of the Restora- 
tion of the Bennett Place Memorial Commission, attended 
the district meeting of the North Carolina Garden Clubs in 
Chapel Hill to present an appeal for the Club's support of the 
restoration. On October 24 Mr. Tarlton attended a meeting 
of the Travel Council of North Carolina at Southern Pines. 
Mr. Stanley A. South, Archeologist at Brunswick Town 
State Historic Site, reports that a method of cleaning iron 
artifacts by sandblasting has been worked out and sucessfully 
applied to many artifacts from Brunswick Town. An analysis 
of ceramic materials from the foundations at Brunswick was 
conducted and the results incorporated in a chart which in- 
dicates that the percentage relationship method of ceramic 
analysis has value as an aid in temporal analysis of colonial 
foundations. Mr. South attended the Southeastern Archae- 
ological Conference and the Conference on Historic Archae- 
ology November 3-5 at the University of Florida, Gainesville, 
and presented papers on "Ceramic Types at Brunswick 
Town," and "A Method of Cleaning Iron Artifacts." Mr. 

South will be in charge of the arrangements for the Confer- 
ee o 

ence on Historic Archaeology at Macon, Georgia, in 1961. 
While at the University of Florida he observed a demonstra- 
tion of the methods used in underwater archeology by Dr. 

124 The North Carolina Historical Review 

John Goggin. Clearing of the undergrowth from the ruins of 
Brunswick Town is continuing and Mr. South is conducting 
archeological research in the yard of Cornelius Harnett's Inn. 

Work on the interior of the Zebulon B. Vance Birthplace 
has been completed and collection of furnishings for the 
house is underway, according to Mr. Robert O. Conway, Site 
Specialist at the Vance Birthplace State Historic Site. Prog- 
ress in restoring the pine log house was slowed for several 
weeks by a search for wide-heart yellow pine boards to be 
used as flooring and paneling. A sufficient quantity was found 
to finish the interior. On November 1 the Western North 
Carolina Historical Association and twelve western North 
Carolina patriotic organizations launched a drive to obtain 
furnishings for the Vance Birthplace. A committee was named 
to screen the furnishings for authenticity and appropriateness. 
A final check on the articles for the house and a furnishing 
plan will be made by Mrs. Joye E. Jordan, Museum Admini- 
strator of the Department. Col. Paul A. Rockwell, President 
of the Western North Carolina Historical Association, an- 
nounced that individuals who wish to assist in the restoration 
of the Vance Birthplace may contribute money to be used to 
purchase those items not contributed. Plans call for this site 
to be opened in the late spring of 1961. 

Progress has been made in clearing and opening for 
the public the remains of the earthworks at Fort Fisher State 
Historic Site. The mounds and gun-emplacements have been 
seeded and in the near future markers will be erected at the 
site. Mr. Stanley A. South, Archeologist, has completed a sur- 
vey of the fort site, has drawn a map of the remains, and has 
included portions which have been eroded by the ocean. 
Mr. A. L. Honeycutt, Jr., Historic Site Specialist in charge 
of Fort Fisher, is now completing research for the interpre- 
tation of the battles and for the over-all restoration of the 
fort. On September 14 he spoke to the Pender County Chap- 
ter, United Daughters of the Confederacy, on restoration 
plans, and on October 10 he spoke at the site to a group of 
New Hanover County Daughters of the Confederacy. He 
participated in the historical tours of Wayne County on Sep- 
tember 18 and of Rowan County on October 23. On October 

Historical News 125 

22 he attended the twenty-sixth annual fall meeting of the 
Archaeological Society of North Carolina at Catawba College, 
Salisbury, and on November 18 he attended a meeting of 
the Lower Cape Fear Historical Society in Wilmington. 

Division of Museums 

Mrs. Joye E. Jordan, Museum Administrator, on September 
13 attended the Richmond meeting of the Virginia Civil War 
Centennial Commission, representing the Southeastern Mu- 
seums Conference in promoting a new Confederate museum. 
On October 5 she spoke to the Northampton County Histori- 
cal Society about planning a museum, and on October 12-14 
she attended the Southeastern Museums Conference in Co- 
lumbia, South Carolina. Mrs. Jordan serves as a member of 
the Council of the organization and was accompanied to 
the meeting by Mrs. R. H. Shultz, Jr., and Mr. Samuel Town- 
send, members of the staff of the Hall of History. On Octo- 
ber 19 she spoke to the Town and Country Garden Club in 
Raleigh on the restoration of Try on Palace. She attended on 
November 1-2 the meeting of the Tryon Palace Commission 
in New Bern, and on November 10 she attended the PRama 
(public relations) Conference in Raleigh. On November 18 
Mrs. Jordan and Miss Mary Cornick, Budget Officer for the 
Department of Archives and History, went to New Bern to 
confer with Miss Gertrude Carraway, Director of Tryon 
Palace Restoration, and attended a reception for the Honor- 
able Anthony Tryon. On November 22 Mrs. Jordan spoke on 
Tryon Palace to the Raleigh Junior Chapter, Daughters of 
the American Revolution. She went to Greensboro and Wins- 
ton-Salem on November 23 to obtain items relating to the 
exhibits being installed in the new Alamance Battleground 
Museum. She and Mrs. Madlin Futrell, Photographer for the 
Department of Archives and History, went to New Bern on 
December 7 and 8 to continue photographing and checking 
the new audio-visual equipment. 

The State has accepted the trophies and plaques, steering 
wheels, planking, the officer status board, the nameplate, and 

126 The North Carolina Historical Review 

other relics from the USS "North Carolina," 20-year-old bat- 
tleship. The 35,000-ton vessel, a veteran of World War II, 
earned 12 engagement stars for service in the Asiatic-Pacific 
area and was credited with gunning down 23 Japanese planes. 
Rear Admiral E. M. Eller, Curator of the Navy Department, 
offered the relics to the Hall of History. The silver service 
and battleflag were presented earlier to the Executive Man- 
sion and the Hall of History respectively. The "North Caro- 
lina" was launched on June 13, 1940, and commissioned on 
April 9, 1941. 

Division of Publications 

Mr. D. L. Corbitt, Head of the Division of Publications, 
addressed the Person County Historical Society on October 
19 on the subject, "Preparing a County History." On Novem- 
ber 18 he attended at Davidson College a meeting of the 
Scholarly Activities Committee of the Carolina Charter Ter- 
centenary Commission and also the fall meeting of the 
Historical Society of North Carolina, From November 10 
through November 12 he attended the various sessions of the 
Southern Historical Association in Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

The Division of Publications has recently issued a revised 
and enlarged edition of the Picturebook of Tar Heel Authors 
by Richard Walser. The pamphlet has a new cover design 
and contains forty-one brief sketches of North Carolina writ- 
ers. There are photographs or drawings of each author in 
the 51 -page booklet which may be obtained for 25 cents by 
writing Mr. D. L. Corbitt, Box 1881, Raleigh. 

Colleges and Universities 

The News Letter of the Department of History of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina announces the following resigna- 
tions: Dr. Anne Firor Scott, Dr. Otto H. Olsen, Dr. Owen S. 
Connelly, and Dr. Walter R. Craddock. Mr. Joel Williamson, 
M.A. and doctoral candidate at the University of California 
at Berkeley, has been appointed an Instructor in History and 
Modern Civilization. Dr. Stephen B. Baxter has returned to 

Historical News 127 

his studies as Assistant Professor of English History after a 
year's leave of absence which he spent at The Hague doing 
research on the biography of William III. Dr. Clifford M. 
Foust continues to serve as Faculty adviser to Phi Alpha 
Theta. He attended the Twenty-fifth International Congress 
of Orientalists in Moscow, Russia, August 7-17, 1960. Mr. 
William M. Geer, Instructor in Modern Civilization, was the 
subject of an article, "History . . . Taught with Antics and 
Zeal," that appeared in The Raleigh Times, November 18, 

1959. Dr. Fletcher M. Green is serving as Chairman of the 
Columbia University Frederick Bancroft Jury on Award for 

1960. Dr. Hugh T. Lefler, Kenan Professor of History, will 
be on Research Leave for the Spring Semester, 1961. Dr. 
James W. Patton, Director of the Southern Historical Collec- 
tion, was elected a Fellow of the Society of American Ar- 
chivists in 1959 and has been appointed to a nine-member 
committee on "Criteria and Recognition" by the National 
Civil War Centennial Commission to select women whose 
services entitle them to be commemorated during the cen- 

Dr. Richard N. Current, Head of the Department of His- 
tory and Political Science at the Woman's College of the 
University of North Carolina, has resigned to accept a pro- 
fessorship in the Department of History at the University of 
Wisconsin. Dr. Barbara W. Brandon served as acting head 
until the appointment of Dr. Richard Bardolph, Professor of 
History. Dr. Jordan Kurland has returned to teaching after 
a year's absence in the Soviet Union under an award of the 
Inter-University Committee on Travel Grants of the U.S.- 
U.S.S.R. Exchange Agreement of 1958. Dr. Lenoir C. Wright 
is currently on leave under a grant from the Carnegie Foun- 
dation enabling him to work in the Asia Program of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. He will serve as a research scholar and 
observer preparatory to the introduction of a program of 
Asian Studies at the Woman's College. Dr. Blackwell P. Rob- 
inson has been promoted to the rank of Associate Professor, 
and new appointments are Dr. Carl Anthon, recently Execu- 
tive Secretary of the Fulbright program in Germany, as Vis- 

128 The North Carolina Historical Review 

iting Professor; Dr. Walter T. Luczynski of the University of 
Illinois, and Miss Sally Marks of the University of North Car- 
olina as Instructors. Dr. Franklin D. Parker has been awarded 
a Fulbright Lectureship in Peru during the latter half of 
1961. During the summer of 1960 both Dr. Brandon and Dr. 
Parker studied under grants from the Southern Fellowships 

The President and Trustees of Mercer University announce 
the appointment of Dr. Robert H. Spiro, Jr. as Dean of the 
Liberal Arts Faculty and Professor of History effective Sep- 
tember 1, 1960. He was formerly head of the Blue Ridge As- 

The Meredith College Departments of History and Socio- 
logy entertained the Social Studies Departments of the seven 
Baptist Colleges on November 12. A feature of the meeting 
was a guided tour through the various divisions of the State 
Department of Archives and History. Dr. Lillian Parker Wal- 
lace attended the meeting, November 10-12, of the Southern 
Historical Association in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and acted as com- 
mentator on the European session devoted to the "Diplomacy 
of the Metternichean Era/' 

Dr. Frontis W. Johnston, Dean of the Faculty of Davidson 
College, served as a discussant at the session, "Graduate 
Training in History," on November 11 at the meeting of the 
Southern Historical Association in Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

State, County, and Local Groups 

The annual Culture Week meetings were held in Raleigh, 
November 29-December 3. The annual business meeting of 
the Roanoke Island Historical Association occurred on No- 
vember 29 with Mrs. O. Max Gardner of Shelby, Chairman, 
presiding. Mr. J. Sibley Dorton, General Manager of "The 
Lost Colony," gave a financial report, stating that the season 
was the most successful since 1946. The season was con- 
cluded with a surplus of approximately $4,000 which will be 
used to aid in repairing the heavy damages caused by Hurri- 
cane Donna. The association voted to open "The Lost 

Historical News 129 

Colony" on July 1 and then launched a campaign to raise 
some $40,000 to assure production. The 1961 season marks 
the 25th anniversary of the Paul Green drama (production 
was suspended during World War II). Mrs. Gardner ap- 
pointed Mrs. Fred Morrison of Washington, D. C., as Chair- 
man of the fund-raising committee and Mr. W. D. Car- 
michael, Jr., of Chapel Hill as Vice-Chairman. Mrs. Gardner 
also reported that Mr. Charles A. Cannon of Concord has 
agreed to write off a $15,000 loan to the association, plus 
$4,000 interest. Dr. Frank P. Graham was elected Historian, 
a post which has been vacant, and Mrs. Charles A. Cannon 
was elected an honorary Vice-President. 

The observance of "Music Day," sponsored by the North 
Carolina Federation of Music Clubs, was held on November 
29 at which time a group of Wilmington musicians presented 
"From a Cape Fear Music Album of the 1850's." They were 
Mr. Henry Jay MacMillan, narrator; Miss Emma Gade Hut- 
aff, pianist; Mr. Frederick Mauk, baritone; and Mrs. Laura 
Howell Norden, violinist. 

Mrs. Harold G. Deal, President of the North Carolina Fed- 
eration of Music Clubs, presided at the sessions. Miss Eleanor 
Smith, pianist of Elon College, played compositions of Ed- 
ward MacDowell, American composer who was recently 
elected to New York University's Hall of Fame; and a panel 
discussion, "Music Goes 'Round and 'Round," was held with 
the following panelists: Mr. Paul Green, Dr. Benjamin F. 
Swalin, Mr. Wilton Mason, and Mr. John Allcott all of Chapel 
Hill. A reception was held for members and guests after the 

At the evening session Mr. J. Hamilton Johnson of Garner 
won the 1960 Federation award for vocal composition and 
placed second in the instrumental composition contest. The 
title of Mr. Johnson's work is "A Song Cycle," with text from 
Thomas Wolfe's prose. It was presented by Mr. Edwin 
Blanchard of Meredith College, baritone, with Mrs. E. I. 
Clancey as accompanist. Mr. Charles C. Fussell of Winston- 
Salem won the 1960 instrumental award for his composition, 
"Two Movements for Viola and Piano." 

Mr. Edmund H. Harding spoke on "Vitamins of Music" in 
the evening and a contemporary opera, "Trouble in Tahiti," 

130 The North Carolina Historical Review 

by Leonard Bernstein, was presented by The Lyric Theater 
of Greensboro, Mr. J. R. Morris, Jr., Director. 

Mrs. Harry Shonts of Winston- Salem presented the com- 
posers' awards and Mrs. G. Ernest Moore of Raleigh served 
as "Music Day" Chairman. 

The thirty-fourth annual meeting of the North Carolina 
State Art Society was held on November 30 with a morning 
business meeting at which the following directors were 
elected: Mrs. J. Melville Broughton of Raleigh, Mr. Egbert 
L. Davis, Jr., of Winston-Salem, Dr. Clemens Sommer of 
Chapel Hill, and Mr. Gregory Ivey of Greensboro. Officers 
re-elected for the coming year were Dr. Robert Lee Humber, 
President; Mr. Edwin Gill, Vice-President; and Mr. Charles 
Lee Smith, Treasurer. Dr. Humber reported to the society 
that plans and specifications were being prepared for the 
addition to the Art Museum authorized by the 1959 General 
Assembly. Dr. Perry B. Cott, Chief Curator of the National 
Gallery, Washington, D. C, spoke at the luncheon meeting 
on the topic, "Business and the Arts, with Reference to the 
Kress Collection." 

The highlight of the evening meeting was the presentation 
of the Samuel H. Kress Collection at the North Carolina Mu- 
seum of Art. This collection is valued at approximately $2,- 
500,000 and was presented by Mr. Guy Emerson of the Kress 
Foundation. The Kress family was also represented by Mrs. 
Rush H. Kress, wife of the foundation's chairman, who cut 
the ribbons opening the galleries to the public. 

The twentieth annual session of the North Carolina Society 
for the Preservation of Antiquities was held on December 1 
with a morning meeting of the directors. Mrs. Ernest L. Ives 
of Southern Pines, President, presided at the business and 
luncheon meetings. Reports on preservation projects were 
made by the following: Mr. Fielding L. Fry, Greensboro, on 
the David Caldwell Log College site; Mr. Edmund H. Hard- 
ing, Washington, on the Historic Bath Commission; Dr. 
Lenox D. Baker, Durham, on the Bennett Place; Mr. Sam T. 
Snoddy, Laurinburg, on the Richmond Temperance and Lit- 

Historical News 131 

erary Society Hall; Mr. Ernest L. Hardin, Salisbury, on the 
Old Stone House; Mrs. Ralph P. Hanes, Winston-Salem, and 
Mrs. J. O. Tally, Fayetteville, on the Minute Man Committee; 
Mr. Ralph P. Hanes, Winston-Salem, on the Old Salem Res- 
toration Fund; and Mrs. John A. Kellenberger, Greensboro, 
on Try on Palace. 

The luncheon speaker was Mr. Barry Bingham, President 
of The Courier- Journal and The Louisville Times, Louisville, 
Kentucky, who was introduced by Mr. Jonathan Daniels of 
Raleigh. The society was entertained in the afternoon at a re- 
ception by the Alumnae Association of Peace College. 

The presentation of the Charles A. Cannon Awards by 
Mrs. Ives was a feature of the evening meeting. Awards were 
given to Mrs. Allan McLean of Wagram representing the 
Richmond Temperance and Literary Society Commission; 
Mrs. Oscar F. Smith of Norfolk and her daughter, Mrs. Roy 
Charles, for the purchase of the Bonner House at Bath; Dr. 
David J. Rose of Goldsboro for his work as Chairman of the 
Charles B. Aycock Memorial Commission; Mr. Louis T. 
Moore of Wilmington for his efforts to preserve historic land- 
marks in Wilmington and vicinity; and to Mr. Edward Thayer 
Draper-Savage of Hillsboro for his restoration of "Moore- 
fields," the summer home of Justice Alfred Moore of the 
United States Supreme Court. The Cannon Awards are the 
gift of Mrs. Charles A. Cannon of Concord, Honorary Presi- 
dent of the Antiquities Society. Officers elected were Mrs. 
Cannon, Honorary President; Mr. Edmund Harding, Presi- 
dent; Mrs. J. O. Tally, Jr., Vice-President; and Mrs. Ernest 
A. Branch of Raleigh, Secretary-Treasurer. 

The Rowan Museum, Salisbury, presented the Blue Mas- 
que of Catawba College in the performance of "The Old 
Stone House." A reception followed the play. 

The sixtieth annual meeting of the North Carolina Literary 
and Historical Association was held on December 2 with Mr. 
Holley Mack Bell of Greensboro presiding at the morning 
business session. General John D. F. Phillips, Executive Sec- 
retary of the Carolina Charter Tercentenary Commission, 
spoke briefly on the proposed program of the Commission, 
and Mr. Norman C. Larson, Executive Secretary of the North 

132 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Carolina Confederate Centennial Commission, made a brief 
talk on the plans to commemorate the War Between the 
States. Mr. Thad Stem, Jr., of Oxford gave a review of North 
Carolina fiction of the year, and Dr. Vincent P. De Santis of 
the History Department of the University of Notre Dame was 
announced as the winner of the R. D. W. Connor Award for 
his article, "President Garfield and the Solid South," which 
was published in The North Carolina Historical Review. This 
award is presented annually by the Historical Society of 
North Carolina through the Literary and Historical Associa- 
tion for the best article in the field of North Carolina history 
and biography published in The Review. Mr. William S. 
Powell of Chapell Hill made the presentation of two awards 
given by the American Association for State and Local His- 
tory. Mr. Sam T. Snoddy, Jr., of Laurinburg accepted the 
award for the Richmond Temperance Literary Society Com- 
mission, for acquiring and restoring the Old Richmond 
Temperance and Literary Hall of Wagram which was opened 
to the public last fall. Dr. D. J. Rose, Chairman of the 
Charles B. Aycock Memorial Commission, accepted an award 
for the commission for the restoration of the Charles B. 
Aycock Birthplace in Wayne County. 

Mrs. W. Gettys Guille of Salisbury presided at the lunch- 
eon meeting and Mr. Spencer Murphy of Salisbury reviewed 
the North Carolina nonfiction of the year. Miss Jane Hall of 
Raleigh presented the Rowan-Chowan Poetry Award to Mr. 
Carl Sandburg of Flat Rock in absentia for his "writings over 
a long period of years." Mr. Jonathan Daniels, Editor of The 
News and Observer (Raleigh) was the recipient of the an- 
nual Juvenile Literature Award presented by the American 
Association of University Women. Mrs. Richard Prokop of 
Greensboro made the award for Stonewall Jackson, a Land- 
mark Series juvenile biography. Mr. Gilbert T. Stephenson 
of Pendleton gave Honorary Life Membership Certificates 
to the following persons: Mr. Henry Belk of Goldsboro, Mrs. 
Inglis Fletcher of Edenton, Dr. Fletcher M. Green of Chapel 
Hill, Mrs. Bernice Kelly Harris of Seaboard, Governor Luther 
Hartwell Hodges, Dr. Frontis W. Johnston of Davidson, and 
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Kellenberger of Greensboro. 

Historical News 133 

Mr. McDaniel Lewis of Greensboro presided at the dinner 
meeting and Mr. Richard Walser of North Carolina State 
College read the presidential address, "North Carolina His- 
tory—A Summary View of What Has Been Done and What 
Needs to be Done," in the absence of Dr. Hugh T. Lefler of 
Chapel Hill. The address had been prepared by Dr. Lefler. 

Dean D. J. Whitener of Appalachian State Teachers Col- 
lege presided at the evening meeting at which time Dr. Ed- 
ward P. Alexander, Vice-President and Director of the Divi- 
sion of Interpretation, Colonial Williamsburg, read a paper, 
"The American Cultural Explosion." Mr. John A. Kellenberg- 
er of Greensboro presented the Literary and Historical Asso- 
ciation's Corporate Citizenship Award to Mr. J. C. Cowan, 
Jr., representing Burlington Industries Inc., of Greensboro. 
Honorable Mention Awards were presented in absentia to the 
Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation of Pisgah Forest and 
in person to Mr. R. B. Crawford, Chairman of the Board of 
the Hanes Hosiery Mills Company. Mrs. William Thomas 
Powell of High Point, Deputy Governor of the Piedmont 
Colony, presented the Mayflower Society Award to Dr. 
Richard Bardolph, Head of the Department of History at the 
Woman's College, Greensboro, for his nonflction book, The 
Negro Vanguard. Miss Clara Booth Byrd of Greensboro, rep- 
resenting the Historical Book Club of North Carolina, pre- 
sented the Sir Walter Raleigh Award for the best work of 
fiction to Mr. Ovid W. Pierce of Weldon for his On A Lone- 
some Porch. Immediately following the evening session a 
reception was held for members and guests. 

On the afternoon of December 2 Governor and Mrs. Luther 
H. Hodges entertained at a reception for members of the 
various societies at the Governor's Mansion. 

The forty-ninth annual session of the North Carolina Folk- 
lore Society was held on December 2 with Mr. Norman C. 
Larson of Raleigh, President, presiding. Mr. Artus M. Moser 
of Swannanoa spoke on "Adventures in Ballad Collecting in 
Western North Carolina," and Dr. J. Mason Brewer of Salis- 
bury spoke on "North Carolina Negro Oral Narratives." The 

134 The North Carolina Historical Review 

North Carolina Civic Ballet Company performed "The Leg- 
end of Happy Valley: A Tom Dooley Ballet" under the di- 
rection of Mr. John Lehman of Raleigh, Director. Mr. Lehman 
also wrote and choreographed the original ballet. A business 
session followed the performance. The following officers were 
re-elected: Mr. Larson, President, and Dr. A. P. Hudson of 
Chapel Hill, Secretary-Treasurer. New officers are Dr. Daniel 
W. Patterson of Chapel Hill, First Vice-President, and Mr. 
Herbert Shellans of Raleigh, Second Vice-President. Mr. Lar- 
son appointed a committee to plan for the society's Golden 
Jubilee celebration in 1962 composed of Dr. Hudson, Mrs. 
O. Max Gardner of Shelby, Dr. W. Amos Abrams, Dr. Joseph 
P. Clark, and Mrs. Betty Vaiden Williams all of Raleigh. 

The North Carolina Symphony Society held the annual 
dinner meeting of its Executive Committee on December 2. 
Officers of the society are Mr. M. Elliott Carroll of Durham, 
President; Mr. James McClure Clark, Asheville, Mr. Lester 
C. Gifford, Hickory, Mr. Voit Gilmore, Southern Pines, and 
Mr. Jan P. Schinhan, Kannapolis, all Vice-Presidents; Mrs. 
C. B. Jefferson, Chapel Hill, Secretary; Mr. William R. Cher- 
ry, Chapel Hill, Treasurer; and Dr. Benjamin F. Swalin, Di- 

The Historical Book Club of North Carolina held its an- 
nual breakfast meeting on December 3. The Society of May- 
flower Descendants in the State of North Carolina, Central 
Carolina Colony, held its annual breakfast in honor of the 
society's officers. Mr. D. L. Corbitt, Head of the Division of 
Publications, State Department of Archives and History, 
spoke on Dr. Richard Bardolph, winner of the Mayflower 
Award for 1960. Officers of the State Society of Mayflower 
Descendants elected November 19 are Dr. Sturgis E. Leavitt 
of Chapel Hill, Governor; Mrs. Annie Mae Walker Powell of 
High Point, Deputy Governor; Honorable Samuel J. Ervin, 
III, of Morganton, Counselor; Dr. Wallace E. Caldwell of 
Chapel Hill, Counselor; Mr. Richard Fetzer of Chapel Hill, 
Historian; the Reverend Burton Rights of Winston- Salem, 
Elder; and Mr. Edward Everett Caldwell of Chapel Hill and 

Historical News 135 

Baltimore, Maryland, Captain. The Society voted to furnish 
the Miles Standish House to be built at Plymouth Plantation 
in Asheville in honor of the late Burham Standish Colburn. 

The nineteenth annual meeting of the North Carolina Soci- 
ety of County and Local Historians was held on December 3 
with President Hugh B. Johnston, Jr., of Wilson presiding 
at the business session and luncheon. A report on the several 
historical tours was given and Mr. George Huntley, III, of 
Beaufort was presented the Hodges High School Award for 
an article in the Carteret County News-Times. Dr. Daniel M. 
McFarland of Atlantic Christian College presented the Smith- 
wick Newspaper Award to Mr. John Parris of Sylva. Certifi- 
cates of merit were presented to Mr. Tucker Littleton of 
Swansboro and Miss Mary Louise Medley of Wadesboro. Dr. 
Stuart Noblin of North Carolina State College spoke on 
"Gleanings from a College Archive." Officers re-elected are 
Mr. Johnston, President; Colonel Jeffrey F. Stanback of 
Mount Gilead, Mr. Crawford B. MacKethan of Fayetteville, 
and Mr. John R. Peacock, Jr., of High Point, all Vice-Presi- 
dents; and Mrs. Ida B. Kellam of Wilmington, Secretary- 
Treasurer. The organization voted to increase its annual dues 
to $2.00 for regular members, $40.00 for life members, and 
$5.00 for sustaining members. At the luncheon meeting Mr. 
Malcolm Fowler spoke on "A Dollar and Seventy-Five 

The Perquimans County Historical Society, July 1959-1960, 
has been issued by the historical society. The 25-page booklet 
presents a brief history of Perquimans County in a novel 
manner—using the letters of the name of the county as chap- 
ter headings. The following points are discussed: Papers, 
Estates, Religion and Remedies, Questions, Urban, Indians, 
Markers and Monuments, Albemarle, Names, and Story. A 
list of officers, a treasurer's report, and a roster of members 
( 156 ) complete the book. 

The Perquimans County Historical Society voted at its 
September meeting to start a building fund for a county his- 
torical museum. The society recently received a cash dona- 
tion and has funds realized from a historical project. The 

136 The North Carolina Historical Review 

museum is the long-range project for the group. Mrs. S. P. 
Jessup gave a talk on the mid-nineteenth century inhabitants 
of the county as indicated by the 1850 census. 

Mr. S. Glenn Hawfield, President of the Union County 
Historical Association, presided at the August 18 meeting at 
which Dr. C. C. Burris, President-Emeritus of Wingate Col- 
lege, was the featured speaker. Dr. Burris discussed the estab- 
lishment of the various churches in Union County. The meet- 
ing was held at the Pleasant Grove Camp Ground with 
approximately forty members and guests present. 

The Wilson County Historical Society met on September 
13 and decided its first objective is to accumulate and pre- 
serve historical records, relics, and other material relating to 
Wilson County history. Mr. Thomas H. Woodard, President, 
presided and Mrs. Harrison Forbes, Secretary, read the min- 
utes. Dr. C. C. Ware, Curator of the Carolina Discipliana 
Library at Atlantic Christian College, spoke on collecting 
historical materials. The material collected will be given to 
Mr. Hugh B. Johnston, Jr., for accessioning and cataloging. 
Residents and former residents are requested to donate perti- 
nent historical data. 

The New Bern Historical Society met September 26 at 
the Attmore-Oliver House with Judge R. A. Nunn as princi- 
pal speaker. On October 31 the society met again and saw a 
color film, "Geranium Day in Berne," presented to the City 
of New Bern through Mayor Robert L. Stallings, Jr., by the 
President of Berne, Switzerland, Dr. Eduard Freimuller. Dr. 
and Mrs. Freimuller were in New Bern for the observance 
of the 250th anniversary of the founding of New Bern. Ge- 
raniums have a special significance in Berne, according to 
Dr. Freimuller, being grown profusely by individuals as well 
as in public areas. 

Mr. F. C. Salisbury was re-elected for a fourth term as 
President of the Carteret County Historical Society at its 
meeting on October 22. Other officers elected were Mr. Thom- 
as Respess, Secretary; Mr. John S. MacCormack, Treasurer; 

Historical News 137 

and Miss Amy Muse, Curator. A paper prepared by Mrs. 
Earl Davis of Harkers Island and read by Mrs. Nat Smith 
dealt with the early history of Shackleford Banks. The 
speaker exhibited a number of artifacts which were found on 
the Banks. The society voted to have a committee arrange 
for the publication of the papers presented before the society 
each year. 

The fall meeting of the Northampton County Historical 
Society was held in Jackson on October 19, with Mrs. Joye 
E. Jordan, Museum Administrator of the State Department 
of Archives and History, as the principal speaker. The pro- 
gram was devoted to the proposed county museum. Mr. By- 
num Fleetwood of Severn is President of the Society. 

Mr. Charles B. Wade, Jr., President of Old Salem, Inc., an- 
nounces plans for the establishment of a museum to depict 
the culture of the South from 1640 to 1820. The nucleus of 
the collection was assured by Mr. Frank L. Horton, Director 
of Research at Old Salem, and his mother, Mrs. Theo Liipfert 
Taliaferro of Winston-Salem, who have promised a collection 
of several hundred items. Mr. Horton also plans to contribute 
funds for the cost of substantial alterations in the building, 
formerly occupied by the Kroger Company; and funds for 
an endowment to assure maintenance of the museum. Offi- 
cials are urging that private citizens and furniture makers 
contribute their support to the undertaking. The museum of 
Southern Decorative Arts will eventually have more than 
9,000 square feet of exhibit space and the basement will be 
used for storage by Old Salem. Furniture, pottery, silver and 
pewter, needlework, paintings, and similarly related crafts 
will be collected and displayed. 

Miss Hathaway Price was elected President of the Onslow 
County Historical Society at its October meeting. Other offi- 
cers elected are Mr. N. E. Day, Vice-President; Mrs. Anne 
M. Price, Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. K. B. Hurst, Record- 
ing Secretary; Mr. K. B. Hurst, Treasurer; Mrs. Harry Vent- 
ers, Chaplain; and Mr. J. Parsons Brown, Historian. Mr. 
Brown discussed his forthcoming history of Onslow County. 

138 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The North Carolina Society for the Preservation of Anti- 
quities sponsored the erection and unveiling of a marker at 
the site of the home of Dr. David Caldwell, who conducted 
the first school in Guilford County and later the famous "Log 
College." The two-acre site was donated by Mr. and Mrs. 
Edward P. Benjamin of New Orleans, Louisiana, and Greens- 
boro. Speakers at the dedication on October 15 were Mayor 
Robert H. Frazier of Greensboro and Mrs. Ernest L. Ives of 
Southern Pines. Mr. James G. W. MacLamroc of Greensboro 
was master of ceremonies and Mr. Fielding Fry, also of 
Greensboro, headed the marker committee. Mr. Stanley A. 
South, Archeologist of the Historic Sites Division, Depart- 
ment of Archives and History, found the homesite several 
months ago. 

The Western North Carolina Historical Association met 
on October 22 at Mars Hill College with Col. Paul A. Rock- 
well in charge. Following a welcoming address by Dr. Hoyt 
Blackwell, President of Mars Hill, Dr. J. A. McLeod of the 
college read a paper, "Early Baptists in Western North Caro- 
lina." The Thomas Wolfe Memorial Trophy for 1960 was 
presented by Mr. Charles G. Tennent, a trustee of the Wolfe 
Memorial Association, to Mr. Luther Robinson for his book, 
We Made Peace with Folio. Dr. W. E. Bird discussed plans 
for conferring junior memberships in the association as a 
method of interesting school children of the mountain area 
in local and State history. A progress report on the Zebulon 
B. Vance Birthplace State Historic Site was given by Mr. 
Robert O. Conway, Site Specialist; and Mrs. Florence Dun- 
lop, a member of the Vance Memorial Committee, announced 
that twelve western North Carolina civic, patriotic, and local 
organizations are co-operating in a public drive to obtain 
proper furnishings for the restored Vance birthplace. 

President C. K. Avery of the Burke County Historical So- 
ciety presided at the October 18 meeting at which time the 
tax exempt status of the group was discussed. 

The Bertie County Historical Association held its full meet- 
ing on October 14 in Lewiston. Miss Stella Phelps, Chairman 

Historical News 139 

of Woodville Township, presented papers on the old homes 
and churches in the township and discussed the early post 
offices in Woodville and Lewiston. Certificates were awarded 
to Miss Ann Smithwick of Winton High School for her paper 
entitled "Scotch Hall," and to Miss Annette Fairless, Cole- 
rain Elementary School, for her paper, "The Colerain Beach 
Discovery." The Bertie association annually makes awards 
to winners in junior and senior competitions for essays on the 
history of the county. Officers elected were Mr. Thomas F. 
Norfleet of Roxobel, President-Treasurer; Mrs. Charles J. 
Sawyer, Sr., of Windsor, Secretary; Mrs. H. V. Scarborough, 
Mrs. Ruth M. Lyon, and Mrs. M. B. Gillam, all of Windsor. 
Vice-Presidents; and Mr. John E. Tyler of Roxobel, Historian. 
Forty members and guests attended. 

The Chronicle, official paper of the Bertie association, in 
the October, 1960, issue featured a copy of the speech by 
Mr. W. S. Tarlton given at the April meeting; an article on 
William Gray by John Gillam; the "History of Holy Inno- 
cents' Chapel," by Muriel Ann Prior; and "The History of 
West Bertie High School," by G. T. Pittman, Jr. 

Approximately 35 members of the North Carolina Society 
of County and Local Historians attended a tour of Salisbury 
and Rowan County on October 23. Places visited were the 
State Prison Camp, located on the homesite of Revolutionary 
General Matthew Locke; Alexander Cathey's mill and planta- 
tion; the homesite of Col. Francis Locke; Thyatira Presby- 
terian Church; Wood Grove, home of Capt. Thomas Cowan; 
Third Creek Presbyterian Church, burial place of Peter S. 
Ney; Mount Vernon, home of Capt. Jacob Krider built in 
1822; the Rowan Museum; the Community Building; St. 
Luke's Episcopal Church; Old English Cemetery; the Old 
Stone (Michael Braun) House; Lower Stone and Organ 
churches; and the Old S tire wait Home. Those in charge were 
Mr. J. H. Knox, representing the Rowan Museum which 
sponsored the tour; Mr. William D. Kizziah and Mr. James 
H. McKenzie, co-chairman of the planning committee; Mrs. 
W. Gettys Guille, Director of the Rowan Museum; and Mr. 
James S. Brawley. 

140 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Guest speaker for a joint luncheon meeting of the Durham- 
Orange Historical Society and the Bennett Place Memorial 
Commission on October 27 was Dr. Edgar Thompson of Duke 
University. The projected history of Durham County was 
discussed. This will be edited by Dr. Richard L. Watson, Jr., 
and Dr. William B. Hamilton, both of Duke University. Mr. 
R. O. Everett, Chairman of the Bennett Place Memorial Com- 
mission, acted as master of ceremonies and Mr. and Mrs. 
Robert Bruce Cooke were hosts. 

The Caswell County Historical Society met on October 12 
with Miss Ella Graves Thompson as the principal speaker. 
She traced the history of Leasburg from its founding to the 
present time. Mrs. L. B. Satterfield, President, urged members 
to collect additional historical material, principally docu- 
ments, letters, and photographs, at least 100 years old. Other 
persons on the program were Mr. Adward S. Yarbrough and 
Mrs. Charles Thomas. 

The new Tryon Palace Auditorium has been completed and 
is now a part of the Tryon Palace Restoration. The building 
has a seating capacity of more than 200, a stage with dressing 
rooms, and equipment for slide-lectures to be presented to 
school groups prior to guided tours of the Palace and Garden. 
The auditorium will also be used for educational programs 
for adults. 

Copies of the Tryon Palace cookbook, A Tryon Palace 
Trifle, or Eighteenth Century Cookery, <bc, are available by 
writing Miss Gertrude S. Carraway, Restoration Director, 
Tryon Palace, New Bern. The book has 96 pages and sells for 
$1.50 each, plus five cents (5$) State sales tax, and twenty 
cents (200 f° r packing and mailing, or a total of $1.75 for 
the paper-bound edition; the clothbound book sells for $2.50 
each, plus eight cents (8#) State sales tax and twenty cents 
(20O for packing and mailing, or a total of $2.78, mailed. 

The Edenton Tea Party Chapter of the National Society 
of the Daughters of the American Revolution and the James 
Iredell Historical Association, Inc., sponsored the premiere 

Historical News 141 

of the film, "Ye Town on Queen Ann's Creek," on November 
25 at the Taylor Theater in Edenton. 

The Wayne County Historical Society and members of 
the North Carolina Society of County and Local Historians 
made a tour of Wayne County on September 18. About 80 
persons met at the Wayne Memorial Community Building 
where Mr. Conway Rose lectured on the early Indian history 
of the area. Other points of interest visited in Goldsboro 
were the Borden House, occupied during the Civil War by 
General Schofield; the Atkinson House, occupied by General 
Baker during the occupation of Goldsboro; the site of Gen- 
eral William T. Sherman's headquarters ( the former Richard 
Washington home); the church on East Spruce Street, built 
in 1849; the James Knight House; the law office of Chief 
Justice William T. Faircloth; the Confederate Monument in 
Willowdale Cemetery, where Col. Hugh Dortch, Chairman 
of the North Carolina Confederate Centennial Commission, 
spoke; the Jesse Baker House; and the William T. Dortch 
House. Traveling by car the group visited the Cliffs of Neuse, 
where a barbecue lunch was served; the village of Seven 
Springs and the grounds of the Seven Springs Hotel; the 
Neuse River Bridge where the Battle of Whitehall occurred 
on December 16, 1862; the Ivey plantation home; the Dobbs 
Courthouse Marker; and the Charles B. Ay cock Birthplace 
and monument where refreshments were served by the Fre- 
mont Woman's Club and the Wayne County Historical So- 
ciety. Mr. R. L. Cox is President of the Wayne group. 

The Rockingham County Historical Society met at the Dan 
Valley Community Center near Madison on September 30, 
with Mr. William O'Shea, Rockingham County Librarian, 
as speaker. Mr. O'Shea discussed the proposed compilation 
of a county history, the 1961 project of the society. In view 
of this project a committee was appointed to study other local 
histories. Other projects for the coming year will be Rocking- 
ham County's role in the Civil War and the building of a 
county museum. Officers are Mr. Allen Lewis, President; Mrs. 
W. T. Lauten, Vice-President; Mrs. Rose Marie Adams, 
Secretary; and Mr. Knox K. Lively, Treasurer. 

142 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Forty-five members of the Wilkes County Historical Society 
participated in the historical tour held on October 9. Points 
of interest visited were the S. P. Smith House, Dellaplane, 
Oak Forest Church, Brier Creek Church and Cemetery, and 
the John Sole place, where soldiers camped following the 
Battle of Kings Mountain. Judge Johnson J. Hayes and Miss 
Ruth Linney served as narrators. Mr. T. E. Story, President, 
stated that further tours were being arranged. Officers re- 
elected for the coming year are Mr. Story; Mr. Fred Gilreath, 
Vice-President; and Mrs. H. G. Duncan, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Mr. Sam L. Snoddy, Jr., President of the Richmond Tem- 
perance and Literary Society Commission, presided at the an- 
nual fall meeting held in the historic hall near Wagram. 
Reports were made by the several committees and the follow- 
ing officers were re-elected: Mr. W. G. Shaw, Chairman of 
the Board; Mr. Snoddy, President; Mrs. Allan McLean, Vice- 
President; Mr. A. B. Gibson, Secretary; and Mr. R. F. McCoy, 
Treasurer. New board members are Mrs. H. Fairley Monroe, 
Miss Mary Anna Pence, and Mr. James W. Mason. The build- 
ing was kept open for Sunday visitation through September. 
The work of landscaping the John Charles McNeill Memorial 
Gardens continues. 

The unveiling of a monument to Flora MacDonald on 
September 25 in Montgomery County was sponsored by the 
North Carolina Society of Colonial Wars. Dr. Wallace E. 
Caldwell, Historian, and Mr. William A. Parker, President, 
represented the Society. The monument marks the site of the 
475-acre plantation purchased in 1775 by Allan and Flora 
MacDonald. Mr. Malcolm Fowler, Mr. Paul Green, Pipe 
Major Jack H. Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Donald MacDonald, and 
the Rev. William M. Schotanus also participated in the cere- 
monies. Col. Jeffrey F. Stanback served as Chairman of the 
Program Committee. 

A music library considered to be one of the outstanding 
private collections of musical Americana in the nation will 
be available at the Moravian Music Foundation in Winston- 
Salem according to Foundation Chairman Clarence T, Lein- 

Historical News 143 

bach and Director Donald M. McCorkle. The gift of Mr. 
Irving Lowens of Washington, D. C, a member of the staff 
of the Music Division of the Library of Congress, the collec- 
tion consists of nearly 2,000 music books and books on music. 
It is valued in excess of $15,000 and contains numerous 
scarce items. It will be used as a research library and is the 
result of twenty-five years of collecting from the period 1770 
to 1830. In selecting the Moravian Music Foundation to be 
the repository for his Musical Americana Collection, Mr. 
Lowens stated that he thought the Moravian Foundation was 
a "unique" and important musical institution. The Irving 
Lowens Musical Americana Collection will be housed as an 
independent unit in the Foundation Library at Winston- 

The News Bulletin of the Foundation contains an article 
on the discovery of a number of rare music archive manu- 
scripts behind the organ chamber in the Moravian Church 
at Nazareth, Pennsylvania, and the announcement that Dr. 
G. Wallace Woodworth, Professor of Music at Harvard Uni- 
versity, will advise the Foundation on its educational 

The Lower Cape Fear Historical Society, Inc. Bulletin for 
November, 1960, contains "The President's Message," a re- 
port of the year's work by Mr. Leslie N. Boney, Jr.; a list of 
new members (28); an article by Dr. B. Frank Hall, "Why 
Restore Fort Fisher?"; a report on the November 18 meeting 
at which Mr. R. Jack Davis spoke on the Civil War; and a 
special two-page article, "Perspective of the Blockade," by 
Mr. Winston Broadfoot. The society decided to place em- 
phasis on the Confederate Centennial commemorations which 
are to be held throughout 1961 (and on to 1965), on the 
restoration of Ft. Fisher, and on the need for a local cul- 
tural center. Approximately 50 members and guests were 
present at the meeting. 

A Roster of Confederate Troops from New Hanover and 
Pender counties, which includes names of pensioners from 
those counties and a roster of Cape Fear Camp, U. C. V., has 
been compiled by Mrs. Jeanette Cox St. Amand. She has also 

144 The North Carolina Historical Review 

compiled Pitt County Cemetery Records gathered from 
family graveyards. Either of these may be obtained for $5.00 
by writing Mrs. St. Amand, 204 No. 13th St., Wilmington. 

A revised edition of Birds of North Carolina (pp. xxvii, 
434) has just come from the press. This interesting and val- 
uable publication was sponsored by the North Carolina De- 
partment of Agriculture and is available for distribution at 
the State Museum, Raleigh, at $5.00. 

In 1942 the first edition of Birds of North Carolina (pp. 
xxvii, 416) was issued under the sponsorship of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. This volume was compiled by Thomas 
Gilbert Pearson and C. S. and H. H. Brimley, and illustrated 
by Rex Bradsher, R. B. Horsfall, and R. T. Peterson. This 
edition contained a listing of 396 birds which were natives 
of the State during the year. There were 47 illustrations in 
the book, some in color. 

The present volume has been enlarged by Mr. Harry T. 
Davis, Director of the State Museum, and Mr. David L. Ray 
and contains a listing of 408 birds or 12 new kinds of birds. 
There are the same number of illustrations but some of the 
old ones have been replaced with new ones. 

Chapter Eleven of "The Roanoke-Chowan Story" has been 
received by the Department. It deals with the organized 
"Buffaloe" bands which harassed the area until relief was 
sent by Confederate General Robert E. Lee and Union Gen- 
eral Benjamin F. Butler. Much of the chapter is devoted to 
reminiscences, stories, and legends of this area in early 1865. 

Dr. Charles Crossfield Ware, Curator of the Carolina Dis- 
cipliana Library at Atlantic Christian College, Wilson, has 
written an 80-page monograph, Hookerton History, which 
includes a 4-page facsimile of the earliest known document 
of the organized movement of the North Carolina Disciples 
of Christ. Sketches of the following churches are given with 
brief histories of the community and of the church leaders, 
and the years of their service: Airy Grove, Arthur, Ay den, 
Bethel, Eden, Farmville, Greenville (Eight Street), Green- 
ville (Hooker Memorial), Grifton, Grimesland, Hookerton, 

Historical News 145 

Kinston (Gordon Street), Kinston (Northwest), La Grange, 
Riverside, Rountree, Timothy, Walstonburg, Wheat Swamp, 
Winterville, and the oldest institution of the Disciples' faith 
in this State, Hookerton Union. The book sells for $1.00 per 
copy and may be ordered from Dr. Ware, Box 1164, Wilson. 


Dr. Clement M. Silvestro, Director of the American Asso- 
ciation for State and Local History, 816 State Street, Madison, 
Wisconsin, announces an award of $1,000 each year to the 
author of the unpublished manuscript in local history that 
makes the most distinguished contribution to United States 
or Canadian history. The first award will be in the spring of 
1961. In addition to this prize the Association has established 
a grant-in-aid program for significant research projects in 
local history. Both programs will be administered by the new 
Research and Publication Committee of the Association of 
which Dr. Clifford L. Lord of Columbia University is Chair- 
man. Complete details of both programs may be obtained 
from Dr. Silvestro. 

The University of Virginia Press has published A Carto- 
Biblio graphical Study of The English Pilot: The Fourth Book, 
With Special Reference to the Charts of Virginia, by Coolie 
Verner. According to the preface, the book "is of special 
interest to American carto-bibliographical description be- 
cause it was the first great atlas of wholly English origin to 
deal exclusively with American waters; because its produc- 
tion involved some of the most noted map makers and pub- 
lishers of the time; and because through successive editions 
its maps illustrated the unfolding geographical knowledge of 
the American coast within a century of exploration and settle- 

The Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, 
Volume 70, Part I (1960), carries a study, "Early Puritanism 
in the Southern and Island Colonies," by Babette M. Levy. 
Chapter V, "The Carolinas: Puritanism Under a Policy of 
Broadest Toleration," will be of interest to North Carolinians. 

146 The North Carolina Historical Review 

A number of fellowships, scholarships, and assistantships 
are available for graduate work in the Department of History 
in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at Duke Uni- 
versity. Stipends range from $1,200 to $3,000 for the first 
year with the possibility of renewal. Inquiries relating to 
course work, programs of study, and the Graduate Record 
Examination should be addressed to Dr. John S. Curtiss, 
Director of Graduate Studies in History, Duke University, 
Durham. Requests for application forms and the Bulletin of 
the Graduate School should be directed to the Dean of the 
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Complete application 
should be received before March 1. 

The Eleventh Conference on Early American History will 
be held March 24-25, 1961, at Ann Arbor, Michigan, spon- 
sored by William L. Clements Library and the Department 
of History, University of Michigan. 

A committee set up by the Association of Methodist 
Theological Schools is at work assembling information on the 
whereabouts of unpublished material, especially autograph 
letters, journals, and the like, of leaders of the early and 
middle periods of Methodist history in America. The infor- 
mation is being gathered in order to have the materials 
microfilmed and thus made widely available to students of 
Methodist history. News of the existence and location of any 
materials will be appreciated. Dr. Richard M. Cameron, Pro- 
fessor in the Boston University School of Theology, Boston, 
Massachusetts, is Chairman of the Microtext Committee. 

Listed below are books received for review during the 
quarter (all dated 1960): North Carolina— Bernard Bailyn, 
Education in the Forming of American Society: Needs and 
Opportunities for Study; Ernest McPherson Lander, Jr., A 
History of South Carolina, 1865-1960; and Edwin Arthur 
Miles, Jacksonian Democracy in Mississippi ( all from Chapel 
Hill, The University of North Carolina Press); John Gulick, 
Cherokees at the Crossroads (Chapel Hill, Institute for Re- 
search in Social Science of the University of North Carolina ) ; 
Robert Sidney Smith, Mill on the Dan: A History of the Dan 

Historical News 147 

River Mills, 1882-1950 (Durham, Duke University Press); 
Walter Blackstock (ed. ), Selected Poems of James Larkin 
Pearson: Poet Laureate of North Carolina; and Manly Wade 
Wellman, Harpers Ferry: Prize of War (both from McNally 
of Charlotte). 

District of Columbia— Clarence Edwin Carter (comp. and 
ed. ), The Territorial Papers of the United States, Volume 
XXV, The Territory of Florida, 1834-1839 (Washington, The 
National Archives and Records Service ) . 

Georgia— William Omer Foster, Sr., James Jackson: Duelist 
and Militant Statesman, 1757-1806 (Athens, University of 
Georgia Press ) . 

Illinois— Charles P. Roland, The Confederacy; and David 
D. Van Tassel, Recording America's Past: An Interpretation 
of the Development of Historical Studies in America (both 
from the University of Chicago Press ) ; William J. Block, The 
Separation of the Farm Bureau and the Extension Service: 
Political Issue in a Federal System, and Wayne D. Rasmussen 
(ed. ), Readings in the History of American Agriculture 
( both from Urbana, University of Illinois Press ) . 

Indiana— Dorothy Riker and Gayle Thornbrough, Indiana 
Election Returns, 1816-1851 (Indianapolis, Indiana, Histori- 
cal Bureau). 

Louisiana— Richard N. Current, T. Harry Williams, 
Norman A. Graebner, David Donald, and David M. Potter, 
Why the North Won the Civil War ( essays edited by David 
Donald); and Redding S. Sugg, Jr., and George Hilton Jones, 
The Southern Regional Education Board: Ten Years of 
Regional Cooperation in Higher Education ( both from Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana State University Press); and Jane and Bill 
Hogan (eds.), Tales from the Manchaca Hills: The Unvarn- 
ished Memoirs of a Texas Gentlewoman, Mrs. Edna Turley 
Carpenter ( New Orleans, The Hauser Press ) . 

Maryland— Robin W. Winks, Canada and the United States: 
The Civil War Years ( Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press ) . 

New Jersey— Chilton Williamson, American Suffrage: From 
Property to Democracy, 1760-1860 (Princeton, Princeton 
University Press); and Lucius Wilmerding, Jr., James 

148 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Monroe: Public Claimant (New Brunswick, Rutgers Univer- 
sity Press ) . 

New York— Cory don Edward Foote, With Sherman to the 
Sea: A Drummers Story of the Civil War (New York, The 
John Day Company); Paul W. Gates, The Farmers Age: 
Agriculture, 1815-1860 (New York, Holt, Rinehart and 
Winston [Volume III of The Economic History of the United 
States); Peter Gay, Stanley Lichenstein, Michael Curtis, 
William L. Rivers, J. P. Mayer, Fritz Stern, and Dero A. 
Saunders, History 3; and Hugh T. Lefler, A History of the 
United States: From the Age of Exploration to 1865 (both 
from New York, Meridian Books, Inc.); Lawrence Henry 
Gipson, The British Isles and the American Colonies: The 
Northern Plantations, 1748-1754 (New York: Alfred A. 
Knopf, Inc., Volume III, The British Empire before the 
American Revolution); Robert K. Heiman, Tobacco and 
Americans ( New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. ) . 

Texas— Frank Cunningham, Knigjht of the Confederacy: 
Gen. Turner Ashby ( San Antonio, The Naylor Company ) . 

Virginia— Randolph W. Church, The British Public Record 
Office: History, Description, Record Groups, Finding Aids, 
and Materials for American History with Special Reference 
to Virginia ( Richmond, The Virginia State Library ) . 

West Virginia— Robert F. Munn, Index to West Virginiana 
( Charleston, Education Foundation, Inc. ) . 

Wisconsin— Margaret Brobst Roth, Well, Mary, Civil War 
Letters of a Wisconsin Volunteer ( Madison, The University 
of Wisconsin Press). 

The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVIII April, 1961 Number 2 




Ina W. Van Noppen 



A. Elizabeth Taylor 

BER 2, 1960 



John D. F. Phillips 


Norman C. Larson 

FICTION, 1959-1960 199 

Thad Stem, Jr. 


NONFICTION, 1959-1960 209 

Spencer Murphy 

DONE 216 

Hugh Talmage Lefler 

Entered as second class matter September 29, 1928, at the Post Office at 
Raleigh, North Carolina, under the act of March 3, 1879. 




Edward P. Alexander 

PART II 241 

Edited by John Bowen Hamilton 


William S. Powell 


Blackstock's Selected Poems of James Larkin Pearson: 
Poet Laureate of North Carolina — By Mildred E. Hart- 
sock; Gulick's Cherokees at the Crossroads — By James 
A. Stanley ; Arnow's Seedtime on the Cumberland — By 
William T. Alderson ; Lander's A History of South Caro- 
lina, 1865-1960 — By Daniel Miles McFarland; Van 
Schreeven (Chairman), The British Public Record Of- 
fice: History, Description, Record Groups, Finding 
Aids, and Materials for American History — By D. L. 
Corbitt; Wilmerding's James Monroe: Public Claimant 
— By John A. Munroe ; Hall's Edward Randolph and the 
American Colonies, 1676-1703 — By Caroline Robbins; 
Gipson's The British Empire before the American Revo- 
lution, Volume III, The British Isles and the American 
Colonies: The Northern Plantations, 17 '48-1? '5 h — By 
Carl B. Cone; Fundaburk's Parade of Alabama — By 
Molcolm C. McMillan; Jane and Bill Hogan's Tales 
from the Manchaca Hills: The Unvarnished Memoirs 
of a Texas Gentlewoman, Mrs. Edna Turley Carpenter 
— By Carlos R. Allen, Jr. ; Roland's The Confederacy — 
By Robert F. Futrell ; Cunningham's Knight of the Con- 
federacy: Gen. Turner Ashby — By D. E. Fehrenbacher ; 
Roth's Well, Mary: Civil War Letters of a Wisconsin 
Volunteer — By Bell I. Wiley ; Smith's Mill on the Dan: 
A History of Dan River Mills, 1882-1950— -By Herbert 
Collins; Heimann's Tobacco and Americans — By Joseph 
C. Robert; and Gates's The Farmer' s Age: Agriculture, 
1815-1860— By D. W. Colvard. 



The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVIII April, 1961 Number 2 


By Ina W. Van Noppen* 

Part II 


When the command separated at Boone the First Brigade, 
accompanied by General Stoneman, went directly east by 
way of Deep Gap, down the mountain to Wilkesboro. Brown's 
Brigade and the artillery moved by way of Flat Gap Road 
(Blowing Rock) to Patterson's factory on the Yadkin not 
far from Lenoir, with Miller's Brigade following. At Patterson 
the raid was not expected. Mrs. G. W. F. Harper noted in 
her diary on March 26 that Negro men, Dick and others, 
absconded; on the twenty-eighth about fifty more Negroes 
left the Upper Yadkin Valley; about three o'clock Wednesday, 
the twenty-ninth, a courier to Lenoir from the factory re- 
ported that a large force of Yankees was camping there. 73 

General Gillem recorded that Brown's Brigade had reached 
Patterson's factory at 9:00 p.m., March 28. 74 If this is the 
hour when the first troops reached the place, the incident 
that John Preston Arthur described is scarcely credible: one 
Clem Osborne who was at the mill obtaining thread when 
the raiders arrived, was saved from capture by virtue of 
being a member of the Masonic Order. The raiders chased 
Osborne to the top story of the factory, firing at him as they 

* Dr. Ina W. Van Noppen is a Professor of History, Appalachian State 
Teachers College, Boone. 

"Diary of Mrs. G. W. F. Harper, Southern Historical Collection, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Mrs. Harper continued her hus- 
band's diary while he was in the Confederate Army. His diary is also 
in the Southern Historical Collection. 

74 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 331. 


150 The North Carolina Historical Review 

ran. Finally he made a sign which identified him as a Mason, 
whereupon he was allowed to drive his horse and wagon 
home. 75 

In this extremely fertile section of the Yadkin Valley, called 
"Happy Valley," the raiders found an ample supply of corn 
and bacon. After feeding and resting, the march was resumed 
at 11:00 a.m., a guard being left in charge of the forage and 
subsistence until the arrival of Colonel Miller, who had orders 
to supply his command and then destroy the remainder and 
burn the factory. All was done in accordance with General 
Gillem's orders. As a true "home Yankee," on several occasions 
he allowed the spirit of vengeance to prompt his commands. 
Dr. Beall wrote: 

It was said that General Stoneman regretted the burning of 
the Patterson's Mills as East Tenn. was largely supplied from 
there, and Genl Brown assured Mr. Patterson that it would not 
be harmed; but Gillem told him that the "Government had been 
too lenient, and rebels must look out for consequences" & the 
torch was applied. 76 

The two brigades followed the Yadkin eastward, arresting 
a number of old and infirm noncombatants as they marched. 77 

Colonel Palmer's Brigade accompanied by General Stone- 
man marched thirty miles on March 29. They were rejoined 
by the Second and Third Brigades west of Wilkesboro, and 
that night the Twelfth Ohio Cavalry, of Palmer's command, 
drove the Confederates from Wilkesboro, capturing their 
stores and horses. 78 The Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry and 
the Tenth Michigan Cavalry were moved to the north side 
of the Yadkin east of Wilkesboro and early the next morning 
the Twelfth Ohio followed, leaving Howard A. Buzby behind 
to show General Stoneman where they had crossed. Buzby 
wrote a lively account of a review of Gillem's troops by 
General Stoneman: 

We are ... at last come to a wider river, which is running wild, 
and which we soon find we are about to cross, as those at the front 

75 Arthur, Western North Carolina, 617. 

76 Beall, "Narrative." 

77 G. W. F. Harper, Reminiscences of Caldwell County, N. C, in the Great 
War of 1861-65 (Lenoir, 1913), 45. 

78 Beall, "Narrative." 

Stoneman's Last Raid 151 

are already entering. . . . The streams rise very suddenly in this 
section of the country — caused by the water from the mountains, 
in times of heavy rains, and it was doing its best in that way 
now. I had nothing to do but sit on my horse and look into the 
faces of the troopers and watch the horses as they went down 
into the river. Some never reached the other side. One out of our 
Regiment, and how many more I do not know, was drowned. It 
was a fearful sight. Almost any horse can swim, but you must 
let him have his head, ease up off the saddle and swim a little 

A large house, with a piazza in front, was on the right of 
where we came out, and as I could see men moving about on it, 
I took it for granted that General Palmer had taken that house 
for his headquarters, and with his field glasses was looking for 
the head of Stoneman's command. . . . 

Generals Stoneman and Gillem, at the head of their troops, are 
coming, and after saluting, I told Stoneman I had been left and 
why, and so down to the river we went. I saw at once that the 
river had risen a foot or more and was running wild. "How long 
has it been since they crossed ?" Stoneman asked. "Easily an hour 
and a half," I replied. Swearing does not look well in print, nor 
sound well in talking, so what he said you will not know. I would 
have tried had he let me, for I knew "Camelback" [Buzby's horse 
was quite a pet] could swim it, but he ordered one of his staff, 
on a fine, big strong horse, to try it. He was hardly in, however, 
before his horse began to flounder about. Stoneman swore at him 
to come out, that he would drown the horse. It may seem strange 
to you, but some cavalry officers would as soon lose a man as a 
horse. I thought both man and horse would be drowned, but after 
some trouble they got out. I also thought that Gillem's last day 
had come. In fact, I thought everybody around Stoneman would be 
killed. He fairly roared like a lion, and in his roaring would 
say. "Palmer on one side of the river with those Pennsylvania 
boys and me on this side! Gillem, I am going to see what you 
have." So we drew back from the road and Gillem's troops passed 
in review before us. 

Of all the reviews that were ever seen this one beat them all. 
The very heavens had opened their floodgates, and the water was 
coming down in sheets, which accounted somewhat for the ap- 
pearance of the troops on the outside, and several whiskey stills, 
which had been struck back of the Ridge, accounted for their 
appearance on all sides. The number of "wounded" was startling, 
and a good many were "dead," for corn whiskey is fearful stuff. 
With the rain coming down in torrents and mud knee-deep, and 
the stuff warm in the stills, our brave allies were driven to drink. 

152 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Stoneman blamed the officers for this, and was calling them 
down. . . . 

All the carriages and omnibuses along the route had been con- 
fiscated. There was a carriage of the George Washington kind, 
filled with soldiers, their boots sticking out in all directions. Here 
was the stage coach, which in times of peace had run between 
Rutherf ordton and the Blue Ridge, filled to its full capacity, with 
some on top. If my memory serves me right, this caravan of 
carriages and buses reached a mile or more. All the different 
kinds of carriages were there. General Stoneman was a power- 
fully-built man, standing six feet four, with a face that showed 
the marks of long and hard service in the field. He would stop the 
parade occasionally and make a general reduction of Captains and 
Lieutenants. But when the "wounded" came along in the car- 
riages he said something like this: "By — if — I — I'll — you — can 
it — where in — this beats — they ought— to be — be killed — if I 
don't ." 

A halt is ordered, and they are all tumbled out of the carriages, 
and ordered to dump into camp wherever they choose, and to go 
no farther. . . . Stoneman' s headquarters' wagon came up and his 
tent was unloaded. The staff tried to pacify him, but he was mad 
at them, and blamed them for the condition of things. 79 

An interesting phase of the big raid now went into opera- 
tion. A subdetachment of the Signal Corps, Lieutenant Theo- 
dore Mallaby, Jr., and Lieutenant Rice, accompanied the 
cavalry to carry on communications. Lieutenant Mallaby had 
attempted on March 23 to set up signal communication with 
General Tillson at Bull's Gap, but had failed to do so both 
that day and the next. Now, as the Second and Third Brigades 
camped on the south side of the Yadkin below Wilkesboro, 
and Palmer's Brigade was on the north side, Mallaby opened 
communications with Palmer by signal. As Howard Buzby 
had mentioned, Palmer appeared on the piazza of a house, 
field glasses in hand. Buzby continued: "All this time Palmer 
was signalling with flags. Not understanding the code, I do 
not know what those signals were." 80 

The Signal Corps was a new organization which functioned 
in the United States Army for the first time during the Civil 
War. A signal party composed of a trained officer, with a 
telescope and field glasses, and a flagman with his kit, which 

n Buzby, "With Gillem's Tennesseans," 522-527. 
"Buzby, "With Gillem's Tennesseans," 522-527. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 153 

contained a series of seven flags, varying from two feet 
square to six feet square, three white with center of red, two 
black with white center, and two red with white center, would 
gain the attention of another signal party some distance 
away. This was done by waving a flag of the appropriate 
size ( determined by the distance that the message was to be 
sent) and of a suitable color (chosen to contrast with the 
background against which it was to be used), until the at- 
tention of the second party was caught. The flags were ele- 
vated in the air by attaching them to jointed staffs which 
varied in length according to the size of the flag chosen. At 
night torches replaced the flags. These were made of copper 
and were filled with turpentine. For a signal station a com- 
manding point was selected. Signal messages were sent as 
far as twenty-eight miles, but the usual distance was six or 
seven miles. Signal officers were kept busy opening com- 
munications, scouting, reconnaissance, and acting as aides 
to the generals upon whose staffs they were serving. The 
signal officer was bound by a solemn oath not to divulge the 
secrets of the system and the code. 81 

Lieutenant Mallaby had remained with the Second and 
Third Brigades, while Lieutenant Rice had crossed the river 
with Colonel Palmer. They were able to keep up a flow of 
conversation by means of signals. The first message was from 
Colonel Palmer: 

March 31, 1865—3.30 p.m. 
Major Bascom 

Assistant Adjutant-General: 

My command will go on from this position to Heckerson's 
[Hickerson's] plantation, nine miles from here and six miles 
this side of Elfin's Factory [Elkin], unless I meet courier at 
Roaring River, three miles from here, or am stopped by a mes- 
sage through this signal station, at which I have left an or- 
derly. . . . No enemy is to be seen this [side] of the river. The 
party who fired on my pickets last evening were bushwhackers. 

W. J. Palmer, 
Colonel, Commanding Brigade 

w John D. Billings, Hardtack and Coffee (Boston, Mass.: George M. Smith 
Company, 1889), 394-408; see also Henry S. Tafft, "Reminiscences of the 
Signal Service in the Civil War," Rhode Island Soldiers and Sailors Histor- 
ical Society Publications (Providence, 1899), Fifth Series, No. 9, 11. 

154 The North Carolina Historical Review 

To which the reply was: 

Col. W. J. Palmer, 
Commanding Brigade: 

We are in camp. Our advance is at the signal station. Both 
brigades move to Jonesville to-morrow. You will move to and 
opposite that place tomorrow and encamp as near there as you 
can get forage. 

By command of Major-General Stoneman. . . , 82 

Treatment of citizens by Palmer's brigade on the north 
side of the river evoked the surprise of the residents, who 
feared much harsher treatment. James Gwyn, whose planta- 
tion was on the north bank of the Yadkin, reported in his 
diary on April 1: 

The Yankees passed along on both sides of the river [ ;] owing 
to the high water, only 3 or 400 passed on this side [this was 
an underestimation, as Buzby wrote that Palmer had 1500 or 
1800 men]. 83 

The main body of them went down on the other side — we 
were all very agreeably disappointed ; those who passed the place 
of Mr. Hickerson acted very well indeed, only took cattle and 
horses, & mules & did not even enter our houses, or do vio- 
lence to our families, & destroyed nothing but a little corn and 
oats which was thrown out to their horses. I kept out of the way 
thinking I might be taken off as a pioneer, but I need not have 
gone off, they would not have molested me. Those on the other 
side of the river acted somewhat worse, but they behaved well in 
the main. . . , 84 

Wherever Palmer was in command we find the same con- 
sideration being shown civilians. He respected both Hicker- 
son and Gwyn as leaders in their communities, respected by 
their neighbors. On an earlier occasion under similar circum- 
stances, he had written: 

One of the finest specimens of a country gentleman that I 
have ever met . . . although he was a rebel, . . . belonged to the 

82 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 326-327. 
88 Buzby, "With Gillem's Termesseans," 520. 

84 Diary of James Gwyn, April 1, 1865, Southern Historical Collection, 
hereinafter cited as Gwyn, Diary. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 155 

Free-Masonry of Gentlemen, and before I knew it I found myself 
regretting every bushel of corn that we fed, and sympathizing 
for every one of his fence rails that we were compelled to 
burn. . . . 

He was a man of fine feelings, had always been generous and 
kind to his poor neighbors, who were chiefly loyal, and was 
spoken of by them in the highest of terms. 

We frequently meet such gentlemen in our marches, and always 
make it a point to leave them as far as possible unmolested so 
that they may remain to teach nobility by example to the com- 
munities in which they live. ... I have found that my Regiment, 
by a sort of instinct, has respected them, and avoided even those 
smaller inflictions by which an army makes its presence felt. 85 

Union sympathizers had been very active in Wilkes County 
for at least two years. On September 1, 1863, Gwyn had writ- 
ten of a Union meeting in Wilkesboro gotten up by deserters 
and citizens in Trap Hill, Mulberry, and Roaring River areas, 
who "Marched into Town and rode together (some of the 
company being mounted ) sent out pickets upon all the roads 
leading to Town— and then raised the Union flag. . . [and] 
made Union or peace speeches. Bad affair, they will rue the 
day I guess before long/' 86 

These demonstrations in behalf of the Union were part of 
a series promoted by Parson Brownlow's Knoxville Whig and 
Holden's North Carolina Standard and others, out of which 
the "Order of Heroes of America" had grown. 87 The Fayette- 
ville Observer, a Confederate organ, had received the fol- 
lowing letter, dated November 20, 1864, from Mount Airy, 
Surry County: 

E. J. Hale & Sons 

... I am sorry to say there is such a bad state of affairs in 
the western countys Wilkes Alagany &c. I learn . . . deserters 
are going in gangs robing & plundering where & when they 
please A few days ago 17 of them came down in this Co on 
Michels river and robed one of our citizens A Co of our home 
Gard persued them but I have not heard whether they were over 

85 William H. Palmer to Frank H. Jackson, Kirk (ed.), History of the 
Fifteenth Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry, 729, hereinafter cited as Kirk, 
Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 

86 Gwyn, Diary. 

87 Official Records, Series IV, III, 802-816. 

156 The North Carolina Historical Review 

taken or no I fear they did not as the clan of thieves had 24 

hours the start of the gard. 

Yours respectfully 
Winston Fulton 88 

Feelings between the two factions became so heated that 
some Confederate families gave up their homes after the war, 
because of their dislike for their neighbors. Such was true 
of the family of James Eller of "New Hope," Wilkes County. 
Because of ill health Eller was unable to bear arms, but 
he served the State as distributor of supplies to families of 
soldiers in active service. As the war drew to a close, many of 
the mountaineers who had deserted their commands and or- 
ganized bands of bushwhackers demanded a share of these 
supplies, and Eller became a marked man. His house was 
plundered repeatedly and his life threatened. In October, 
1865, declaring he could no longer endure to live among men 
whose actions had shown such disregard for honor, he moved 
with his family across the Blue Ridge to Ashe County. 89 

James Gwyn took pride in pointing out: [Palmer's men] 
did not seem to respect those calling themselves Union men— 
for in many instances they treated them as bad if not worse 
than those original secessionists. That ought to teach our 
people a lesson by which they ought to proffitt." 90 

Colonel Palmer reached the village of Elkin on the after- 
noon of April 1. At the cotton factory there, as recorded by 
a member of Palmer's command, about sixty girls were em- 
ployed, all of whom welcomed the Yankees. 91 Three mills in 
the village were put to work grinding meal, 92 which colored 
women baked for them. A storehouse filled with flour, meat, 
honey, butter, molasses, tobacco, and chestnuts, was a "God- 
send" to the soldiers. 93 

Jonesville, on the bluffs just across the Yadkin from Elkin, 
was occupied by Stoneman on April 1. Signal communications 

68 Zebulon B. Vance Papers, State Department of Archives and History, 

"J. C. Hubbell, Lives of Franklin Plato and John Carlton Eller (Durham, 
1910), 11. 

90 Gwyn, Diary. 

"Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 494. 

91 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 327. 
89 Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 495. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 157 

were exchanged with Palmer at 2:00 p.m., at which time the 
river was still too high to be forded, and Stoneman ordered 
Palmer to continue down the river toward Rockford while 
the Second and Third Brigades continued on the south bank. 

When the cavalry departed from Elkin the citizenry still 
believed their objective was to raid Salisbury, a supply sta- 
tion for the troops of the State, and the site of a Confederate 
prison which had been criticized by all who knew anything 
of its condition. David Hodgin, secretary of a mass meeting of 
from 1,200 to 1,500 people in a grove in Guilford County, had 
recorded that the meeting condemned the Salisbury Prison as 
a stain on the State's honor. 94 It seemed logical that the Union 
Army should attempt to liberate the prisoners, and this con- 
clusion seemed verified when the troops continued along 
the Yadkin River. Actually they were only waiting for the 
water level to go down so that the mounted men on the south 
bank could ford the river. By 9:00 p.m. on April 1 Colonel 
Palmer was directed by signal to have the ferryboat rope 
stretched across the river so that it would be ready for use 
the following morning at dawn. By 9:00 a.m., April 2, the 
command had forded the river and the march into Virginia 
was about to take place. 95 

If Stoneman had marched on Salisbury at this time it is 
possible that he would have been repulsed, as General Beau- 
regard had large forces concentrated there. Here was exhibi- 
ted the mastery of the technique of the raid. By making a 
detour into Virginia, Stoneman created a diversion which 
was to result in removal of troops from the defense of Salis- 

Passing through Dobson and Mount Airy, the Union Caval- 
ry picked up the mail at the post office, and read the letters 
as they marched along. 96 They also collected additional 
horses and forage. One Confederate train of seventeen wagons 
( or twenty-seven, one account says ) was captured going to- 
ward Virginia; the animals were turned over to the quarter- 
master's department and the wagons were burned. Many 

"Weekly Standard (Raleigh), September 9, 1863. 
* Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 327-328. 

M Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 495; see also Official Records, Series I, 
XLIX, Part I, 328, 331. 

158 The North Carolina Historical Review 

years later a place where wagons were burned at Dalton, 
North Carolina, was easily identified by a pile of wagon tires. 97 

Having reached Virginia, the command once more crossed 
the Blue Ridge, at Fancy Gap. At Hillsville a few Home 
Guards made some resistance, but soon let up and the troops 
entered the town, supplying themselves with flour, butter, 
and tobacco. It was 2:00 o'clock on the morning of April 4 
when they went into camp at Hillsville. 98 

On April 2, the day that Stoneman's command passed 
through Mount Airy and Dobson, and a day before Colonel 
Kirk was started toward Boone to barricade the roads in 
Watauga County, General Lee evacuated Richmond and 
Petersburg and began his retreat to the southwest. Brigadier 
General John Echols, who commanded the Confederate troops 
of southwestern Virginia, had between 4,000 and 5,000 infan- 
try and four brigades of cavalry, about 2,200 men commanded 
by Brigadier Generals Vaughn, Cosby, and Duke, and Colonel 
Giltner. On April 2 Echols ordered a concentration of troops 
at Christiansburg, Virginia, preparatory to making a junction 
with General Robert E. Lee. The wagon trains and detach- 
ments of Confederate soldiers encountered by Stoneman's 
men as they moved into Virginia were hastening to Christian- 
burg under that order of General Echols. General Stoneman 
of the United States Cavalry was to be in the same region 
as that toward which the Confederate troops were con- 

Stoneman divided his forces into detachments with a 
special assignment for each. These detachments played a 
decisive part in the encirclement of Lee's army. 

Colonel Miller took 500 picked men from the Third Brigade 
and made a raid by way of Porter's Ford to Wytheville, to 
destroy railroad bridges over Reedy Creek and at Max Mead- 
ows, together with the depot of supplies at Wytheville. Upon 
rejoining the command, he reported that he had destroyed 

87 J. C. Hollingsworth, History of Surry County (Greensboro: W. H. 
Fisher Co., 1935), 150. Hollingsworth states that this was probably a 
different train from the one mentioned by Gillem and Weand. 

w Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 495. 

89 Basil Duke, "Last Days of the Confederacy," Robert U. Johnson and 
Clarence C Buel (eds.) Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (New York: 
The Century Company, 4 volumes, 1884 [edition of 1888]), IV, 762-767. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 159 

the bridges and a large depot of commissary, quartermaster's, 
and ordnance supplies, among which were a large amount of 
ammunition and 10,000 pounds of powder. He said he had 
been attacked by cavalry at Wytheville but had repulsed 
them, and had withdrawn with a loss of thirty-five men, 
killed, wounded, and missng. 100 

A Confederate report said that Miller had been repulsed 
at Wytheville by some of Vaughn's cavalry. 101 

The rest of the command was off at daylight on April 4, 
and by noon had reached the village of Jacksonville, where 
they were met by two citizens, a lawyer and a doctor, who 
carried a white flag and offered to surrender the town. They 
feared the invaders would burn the town and rob the people. 
Here camp was made near a tithe depot of hay. 102 

Major Wagner, with 250 picked men from the Fifteenth 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, was detached with orders to go to 
Salem, Virginia, to destroy the railroad bridges from that 
point east as far as possible. 103 This raid was to be more im- 
portant than even Stoneman realized at that time. Lee had 
intended to move south by way of Danville to join Johnston's 
Army against Sherman. Rapid movements of Sheridan's Cav- 
alry and the advance of Ord's Infantry headed Lee off from 
Danville, leaving only the Lynchburg route open to him. 
Rumors that General Thomas was moving a large force 
through East Tennessee and Virginia reached him, at Amelia 
Court House, as did news of Major Wagner's force which 
seemed to be an advance guard. The hopelessness of his ar- 
my's situation with all avenues of escape closed and with 
Sheridan and Ord closing in from the south brought about 
Lee's surrender at Appomattox on April 9. 104 

Major Wagner's detachment reached Christiansburg where 
the soldiers learned that the telegraph office was in a freight 
car at the end of town. In Wagner's command was a young 
telegraph operator, John J. Wickham, who was sent with an 

™ Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 332. 

101 R. L. Beall, second manuscript for Cornelia Phillips Spencer, Septem- 
ber 20, 1866, Folder 32, David L. Swain Papers, hereinafter cited as Beall, 
"Narrative, supplement." 

102 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 331. 

103 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 331. 
** Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 499. 

160 The North Carolina Historical Review 

escort led by Lieutenant Hinchman, to surprise and capture 
the local telegraph operator. At the point of a gun the Chris- 
tiansburg operator was forced to call Lynchburg and ask if 
there was any news of the Yankees. A conversation was carried 
on by telegraph before the Lynchburg operator began to 
suspect that he was "talking" to Yankees. Thus Wagner 
learned of Lee's evacuation of Richmond. 105 

Marching across Bent Mountain over a most wretched road 
the detachment reached Salem, Virginia, at 2:00 p.m. 
April 5. That place had just been evacuated by the Confed- 
erate troops and all public stores had been removed. Six of 
their wagons loaded with forage had been abandoned on the 
road. These Wagner destroyed. At Big Lick Station it was 
learned that a train carrying away all public stores had de- 
parted five minutes before the troops arrived. 106 At Conyers' 
Springs, a railroad station, the detachment captured a car 
loaded with express goods, including tobacco. The men took 
all the tobacco they could carry and gave their colored fol- 
lowers the rest. Marching on, they reached Buford's, near the 
Peaks of Otter, at 10:00 p.m., and camped. Buford had rela- 
tives in both northern and southern armies, and the next 
morning he treated Wagner's troops courteously, asking the 
officers to breakfast with him. After a short march they 
reached Liberty, Virginia, where the Mayor came out with 
a white flag and asked them to spare the very pretty little 
town. This the officers promised to do. 107 

Major Wagner was hesitant about carrying on the work of 
destruction that had been planned for him; in view of his 
knowledge obtained at Christiansburg of Lee's evacuation of 
Richmond, he hoped he might receive orders to spare the 
big, splendidly-built, enclosed, and roofed trestles over the 
Big Otter and Little Otter rivers, the former about 600 feet 
long and 100 feet high and the latter 900 feet long and 150 
feet high. He ordered the men to fill the bridges with fence 
rails preparatory for burning and then go into camp and wait 
for further orders. He waited in camp all day on April 7, and 

108 Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 496-497. 

h* William Wagner, "Report," Kirk (ed.), Fifteenth Pennsylvania, Caval- 
ry, hereinafter cited as Wagner, "Report," 696; see also Weand, "Our Last 
Campaign," 498. 

w Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 496. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 161 

when no orders arrived he sent out Companies B and C to 
fire the bridges. They were destroyed by 11:00 p.m. The 
command then moved toward Lynchburg, coming in con- 
tact with the Confederate pickets ten miles from that place 
at daylight on April 8. After dispersing the pickets, Wagner's 
men halted and fed at a point six miles from Lynchburg, from 
which camp eight men under Corporal Gilmore advanced 
toward town. These eight returned with information that the 
Confederate force in Lynchburg was too strong for Wagner's 
command to attack. Wagner's work having been completed, 
he started westward to rejoin the Fifteenth Pennsylvania 
Cavalry. On April 10 the detachment marched to within seven 
miles of Henry Court House, where they halted and fed. 
Here they heard that about 1,500 Confederate soldiers were 
at the courthouse waiting for them, having come from Dan- 
ville to capture them. Wagner struck out to the left of Henry 
Court House, warning the men to light no matches, to talk 
quietly, and to hold all sabers to keep them from rattling. 
They marched all night, traveling eighty-four miles in forty- 
two hours with only one hour's sleep. From the time they left 
the regiment until they rejoined it, they had gone 288 miles. 
All prisoners were paroled and released. 108 

The Eleventh Kentucky Regiment was dispatched from the 
camp near Christiansburg on April 5 to take possession of 
the railroad bridge and ferries over the New River; by 4:00 
p.m. of the sixth the bridges had been burned and the 
iron and cross-ties for twenty miles east of the bridge were 
destroyed. The Tenth Michigan Cavalry was sent to destroy 
the bridges over the Roanoke. This was done promptly and 
effectively. The rest of Palmer's Brigade destroyed the rail- 
road track east of Christiansburg; while Brown's Brigade 
did the same to the west. By the close of the sixth the railroad 
had been destroyed from Wytheville to Salem, Virginia; 
Major Wagner's assignment east of Salem was completed on 
the seventh, making a total of 150 miles of railroad that was 
in ruins. Meanwhile the horses, except those of Wagner's and 
Miller's detachments, had two days of needed rest. 109 At 

108 Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 496; see also Wagner, "Report," 696. 
109 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 332. 

162 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Christiansburg the command had all the Negro women in the 
town baking bread. The ambulances (thirteen when they left 
Knoxville ) had all broken down, the march was such a rough 
one. The men who were sick were here sent to Confederate 
hospitals. 110 

On the seventh the entire command except for Wagner's 
group began the return trip to North Carolina. Colonel Pal- 
mer was directed to send the Tenth Michigan Cavalry by way 
of Martinsville, Virginia, and by some misunderstanding he 
marched his entire brigade by way of Kennedy's Gap to 
Martinsville. He found the town occupied by about 250 of 
Wheeler's Confederate cavalry, whom he attacked and drove 
out, killing and wounding several and capturing twenty 
horses, losing one officer killed and five men wounded. 111 

A member of the brigade wrote of their experiences in 
Henry County: 

If we are working hard we are living well. There are chickens, 
hams, eggs and biscuit for the men and plenty of forage for the 
horses. Captured some stockings, which were intended for the 
rebel army. . . . 

[April 9] Started at 2 in the morning, passing through a fine 
section of the country, the home of the aristocratic Virginia 
tobacco planters. The houses are beautiful. Tobacco is so plenti- 
ful that all are smoking very fair cigars. We captured some fine 
horses, for although all the stock had been run off in the woods, 
the negroes tell us where they are concealed, and if we have time 
we go and get them. 112 

The Second and Third Brigades marched south through 
Patrick County, Virginia, where their appearance was un- 
looked for, although the losses of the residents were confined 
chiefly to horses and provisions along the line of march. A 
man named Staples had confided a box of silver and valuables 
to a poor man living in an obscure place; a malicious neighbor 
led the looters to the man's house and the treasure was taken. 
Later Staples received a message that one of the raiders had 

130 Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 500. 

Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 332. 


Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 500. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 163 

taken possession of the box and preserved it and its contents 
for him, and his treasures were recovered. 113 

The command reassembled at Danbury, North Carolina, 
where tithe corn was found, and camp was made at 4:00 
p.m., April 9. 114 Here Palmer's Brigade rejoined Stone- 
man and the following day the division, accompanied by 
hundreds of camp-following Negroes, moved from Danbury 
to Germanton. The Pennsylvania troops found this "German- 
town" quite in contrast with the one they knew. This one was 
"without paint or whitewash, and laziness . . . [was] appar- 
ent all over it." 115 

General Stoneman's plans for the next few days required 
speedy movements and the Negroes would have endangered 
the safety of the troops in case of an engagement with the 
enemy. They were sent, under guard for their own protection, 
to East Tennessee, where those who were fit for service were 
enlisted in Colonel Bartlett's 119th United States Colored 
Troops. 116 

On April 10 at Germanton Colonel Palmer was again de- 
tached from the command, this time to visit Salem, North 
Carolina, to destroy clothing factories and railroad bridges in 
that area. Palmer selected a detail of about twelve men for 
the advance guard to enter Salem, and instructed them that 
he desired to make an orderly entrance. The twelve men ad- 
vanced from the camp to the picket post and waited there to 
hear the bugle in their rear sound "forward," whereupon they 
started off. It was a cloudy April day, and occasionally there 
was a drizzle. At mid-afternoon the detail saw the town in the 
distance, and down the road before the town was a Confed- 
erate picket post of five or six men. Corporal Cozens, leader 
of the Union Advance, ordered his men forward and all of 
the pickets but one commenced to move toward town. The 
one who remained fired three times and was almost captured 
before he mounted. He escaped and Cozens' detail rode on 
until, right in front of them they saw a party of twenty or 
thirty men, drawn up across the road, holding up their hands 

"^Beall, "Narrative, supplement." 

Ui Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 330. 

U5 Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 500. 

ne Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 330. 

164 The North Carolina Historical Review 

and hats and hailing them to stop. The men were not armed 
but Cozens' "blood was up," and he and his men went 
through the party with a shout. Riding on into town Cozens 
halted his party in front of the post office, dismounted and 
ran in, seized a packet of letters lying on a table, and came 
out to the street to face his Colonel who had commanded 
him to "make an orderly entrance." 117 

The party that had tried to halt the advance guard was 
made up of leading citizens of Winston and Salem, neighbor- 
ing towns. Winston was the county seat of Forsyth County, 
where the Superior Court was supposed to have been in 
session that day. John Blackburn, the Clerk of the Court 
wrote on the Minute Docket for April 10, 1865, a full account 
of the day's happenings. At the courthouse the sheriff, jurors, 
witnesses, and suitors attended, but the judge and attorneys 
did not show up. Reports of the approach of the Federal 
Army had reached the town arousing the populace; by mid- 
afternoon the crowd at the courthouse dispersed and the 
clerk prepared for the troops. He distributed Superior Court 
Dockets in various homes in the town; a group of valuable 
papers was placed in a sack and left with one of the Dockets. 
Excitement was growing; the clerk locked his office and then 
walked down the street to learn any possible news. Meeting 
a group consisting of Robert De Schweinitz, principal of the 
Salem Female Academy; Joshua Boner, Mayor of Salem; 
Thomas J. Wilson, Mayor of Winston; and R. L. Patterson, 
Esq., he joined them as they walked toward Liberty to 
surrender to the Federal Cavalry. The advance guard rode 
right through the party in spite of the white handkerchiefs 
the men were waving, but soon Colonel Palmer and his staff 
arrived and allowed the mayors' party to escort them to Sa- 
lem, where the army encamped. The home of Joshua Boner, 
Esq., was used by Palmer as headquarters. 118 

A member of Palmer's Brigade wrote: 

Here we met with a most cordial reception, very different from 
the usual greetings we receive. The ladies cheered us, and brought 

117 S. D. Cozens, "An Orderly Entrance into Town," Kirk (ed.), Fifteenth 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, 538. 

118 Adelaide Fries, Forsyth County (Salem, 1898), 97, hereinafter cited as 
Fries, Forsyth County. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 165 

out bread, pies and cakes. . . . The people showed much enthus- 
iasm at the sight of the flag we carried, and many were the 
touching remarks made about it. Old men wept like children 
and prominent citizens took off their hats and bowed to it. . . . 119 

Another soldier wrote that at the Female Academy some of 
the young ladies were at the windows and at one of them a 
United States flag was displayed, at which the troops 
cheered. 120 

The day-by-day record kept by the Moravians in Salem 
has the following entry for April 11: 

After we had enjoyed the solemn meetings on Palm Sunday we 
were greatly startled the next day, April 10th, by the Intelligence 
that the same portion of the Federal Army, looked for on the 
3rd would pass through Salem to-day and indeed towards even- 
ing, about 4 o'clock they took us completely by surprise, as they 
appeared all at once in our midst. Before we could realize it, 
soldiers were seen at every corner of the streets, had taken pos- 
session of the postoffice, and secured our whole town. Some of 
our brethren had gone out to meet General Palmer, the comman- 
der of the troops seen coming our way. Brother Joshua Boner 
and our mayor addressed him personally. When commending our 
town and community to his protection not only on our account 
but also of our large female boarding school, the General assured 
him that persons and property should be safe, that no destruction 
of any kind would be . . . [allowed] , and that we might feel per- 
fectly secure from harm during their stay with us. Other persons 
had gone out to reconnoiter, of them two were captured and 
taken to the federal camp ; they were however released the next 
morning. General Palmer established his headquarters in the 
house of our Brother Jos. Boner. In very great comparative 
silence about 3000 cavalry passed through our town, pitching 
their tents on the high ground beyond the creek. Had it not been 
for the noise of their horses and swords made, it would have 
been hardly noticed that so large a number of troops were passing 
through our streets. The strictest discipline was enforced, guards 
rode up and down every street and very few comparatively were 
the violations of proper and becoming conduct on the part of the 
soldiers. The night was as quiet as any other, except there was 
a great deal of riding in main street, and some of us could not 

119 Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 501. 

^Seldon L. Wilson, "Burning Bridge over Buffalo Creek," Kirk (ed.) 
Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, 545, hereinafter cited as Wilson, "Burning 

166 The North Carolina Historical Review 

divest themselves of apprehensions that they and their houses 
would be in danger, in case the cotton factory in town should be 
molested. Providentially government stores were in town, in 
considerable abundance, so that individuals were not called upon 
to contribute anything, except bread and the like, for which the 
men would generally ask for politely and return thanks in the 
same manner. Fears were however entertained by some, whether 
their good behavior would continue to the last, and no doubt many 
a prayer ascended to the throne of a prayer hearing and answer- 
ing God ; and not in vain for no outrages except the pressing of 
horses of any kind were committed and even the cotton manu- 
factory was spared by the federals. Without any fault on the 
part of their officers some of whom had been scholars at Lititz 
and spoke feelingly of that happy time, entrance was offered 
into one of these establishments and considerable damage done. 
During the afternoon of the eleventh a large number of the 
federals came back from the railroad which they had tapped in 
several places, they brought with them 50 prisoners. By some 
mistake they came into the graveyard avenue and passed through 
the graveyard part of the cemetery, having shifted their camp to 
a place above town, but passing through those hallowed grounds, 
almost all of them dismounted and led their horses, some with 
uncovered heads. Before dark they had all left, passing through 
Winston towards the river, and though the soldiers, said to be 
less disciplined than that portion of Palmers Brigade, which 
had been here near our town, they were not allowed to enter it. 121 

An account of civilian activities in Salem while the town 
was occupied tells how cotton and cloth were stored in pri- 
vate houses and horses were tethered in little-known spots 
until the raiders evacuated the town. It is said that in the 
cellar of the boarding-school principal's house an excavation 
had been made in which were placed money and jewelry of 
the students and valuable property of the school. In the large 
space under the main hall of the academy two fine black 
horses are said to have been saved from the raiders. 122 

121 "Memorabilia of the Congregation at Salem, 1865," Moravian Archives, 
Old Salem, Winston-Salem. Miss Mary Heitman of Mocksville, an alumna of 
Salem College, told me that Bishop Rondthaler, President of Salem College 
for many years, had been a pupil of the Reverend De Schweinitz in Pennsyl- 
vania after the War and that De Schweinitz had loved to tell how the 
Federals came to Salem, and had on many occasions told Rondthaler that 
one of the officers had once been a classmate of his at Lititz, Pennsylvania, 
and that out of regard for his former friend he had caused the town to be 

122 John Henry Clewell, History of Wachovia in North Carolina . . . , 1752- 
1902 (New York: Doubleday, Page and Company, 1902), 250. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 167 

At 9:30 on the evening of April 10 the Fifteenth Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment left Salem marching eastward. Lieutenant 
Seldon L. Wilson, in command of the rear guard, was in- 
structed to follow the main road and to close upon the column 
whenever a detachment should make a detour to the right 
or the left. Directions had been given to Captain Adam Kra- 
mer to lead his battalion of eighty-six officers and men from 
the regimental column on the Kernersville Road toward 
Florence and Jamestown. By traveling steadily all night they 
reached Florence at daybreak on the morning of the eleventh, 
and hearing a locomotive whistle Kramer pushed his little 
column at a trot to Jamestown. The advance, led by Captain 
Remont, rode to the depot three-quarters of a mile from town 
and captured seven cars on a siding, four of which were 
loaded. Two officers and four men were captured. Kramer 
with the main party turned off to the right to destroy the 
railroad bridge over Deep River. This was a covered bridge, 
weatherboarded and shingled, perhaps 100 feet long. The 
guard of two men was captured and fire set to the bridge, 
which burned easily. In thirty minutes it was completely con- 
sumed. The morning was foggy and the movement of the 
bridge burners was obscured for a while. Kramer reported 
that when his operations were detected about 100 of the 
"enemy" began to cluster on the neighboring hills and pre- 
pared to attack; Kramer sent orders to Remont to join him at 
Florence and ordered a return to the Regiment. Captain 
Remont had captured about sixty horses and mules and 
thirty-five prisoners, three of whom were officers. At Florence 
Lieutenant Ed Smith with five men destroyed a factory which 
manufactured small arms for the Confederate Government. 
Eight hundred stand of finished arms and 2,500 in the process 
of completion, plus machinery and some ammunition were 
destroyed. This factory had also contained machinery for 
assaying gold and silver, which the men destroyed, and a 
small quantity of both metals. Captain Remont destroyed the 
depot at Florence, with 1,000 stand of arms, fifty barrels of 
flour and two of molasses; twelve sacks of salt; five bales of 
cotton cloth (jean), a large quantity of bacon and two car- 
loads of cotton, all belonging to the Confederate Govern- 

168 The North Carolina Historical Review 

ment. While on vedette duty Private George Alexander, of 
Company I, captured and brought in an entire courier post 
of one officer and twelve men, mounted and armed. Three 
mounted and armed men were brought in by Private Wamp- 
ler, of the same company. When Kramer rejoined the Regi- 
ment he had remounted his men from the horses captured 
on the road. He had traveled fifty-two miles in twelve hours. 123 

A Confederate account said that Kramer's retreat from 
Jamestown was hastened because the detachment believed 
an attack was being made by the Confederate cavalry; this 
belief resulted from an explosion set off by the accidental 
firing of a gun when the party was destroying the gun fac- 
tory; actually a part of Ferguson's Confederate Cavalry was 
gathering just as the bridge burst into flames. 124 

As for the surrender of so many prisoners, E. M. H. Sum- 
merell of Salisbury claimed that the area was a "Tory-nest" 
where the citizens would not molest the burners. 125 That there 
were many Tories in the area is shown in a letter to Walter 
Clark from J. A. C. Brown in 1864: 

High Point 
July 15, 1864 
. . . Everything is quite composed in this country and would ap- 
pear uncommonly so to a soldier. . . . Gov. Vance spoke at High 
Point last week. He killed off some of the Holdenites & I am 
sorry to say they are as plenty as blackberries in this and the 
adjoining counties. ... It really does seem people have gone 
crazy on the subject of peace — Holden has emboldened & given 
a chance for the disaffected to come out. . . . 126 

It would appear that some disaffected Confederate soldiers 
who had been unable to avoid conscription were not reluct- 
ant to be captured. 

When Kramer left the column of the Regiment on April 10 
to raid Jamestown, Major Garner with 100 men was sent 

123 Adam Kramer, "Report to Lieutenant Colonel Betts Commanding the 
15th Pa. Cavalry," Kirk (ed.), Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, 698-700, 
hereinafter cited as Kramer, "Betts Report"; see also Weand, "Our Last 
Campaign," 501. 

124 Beall, "Narrative, supplement," 

125 E. M. H. Summerell to Cornelia Phillips Spencer, September 4, 1865, 
David L. Swain Papers. 

^Aubrey L. Brooks and Hugh T. Lefler (eds.), The Papers of Walter 
Clark (Chapel Hill, 2 volumes, 1948), I, 118. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 169 

northward to burn the bridge over Reedy Fork. 127 This 
bridge was a new one on the "Danville Connection," a road 
connecting Greensboro and Danville which for fifteen years 
had been the subject of legislative agitation and had always 
been defeated heretofore by the eastern votes on the ground 
that it would deplete the Central Road and destroy North 
Carolina's market towns on the coast. President Davis had 
recommended the immediate construction of this road as a 
military necessity, and the charter was granted in February, 
1862, under the name of the Piedmont Railroad, although it 
was opposed by many on the claim that the Confederate Gov- 
ernment had not constitutional power to build the road. 128 

As the bridge over Reedy Fork was new and built of hard- 
wood two hours' work was required with axes and saws on the 
main beams to get it in condition to burn. While Garner's men 
worked, Sergeant John K. Marshall defended the working 
party. At times he doubted whether the task could be com- 
pleted because Confederate reinforcements were arriving. 
Garner reported: 

I have the honor to report that . . . the bridge across the Reedy 
Ford [sic] was burned and destroyed at noon on the 11th inst. 

There was some skirmishing with our rear guard on approach- 
ing the railroad and were obliged to drive off a force of cavalry, 
about our equal in numbers, after finishing the work. I have 
also burnt one ambulance and nine wagons belonging to the 
Confederate States of America, capturing between forty and 
fifty mules. Colonel Wheeler's force, and another party set out 
from Greensboro, have been around us but have given little 
trouble. 129 

The most exciting of all Garner's achievements was the 
news that he brought to the Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry 
that just one hour before he destroyed Reedy Fork Bridge 
President Jefferson Davis and his Cabinet had passed over it 
on a train. 130 The heads of the Confederate Government had 
occupied Danville as a temporary capital after the evacuation 
of Richmond. When Lee surrendered on April 9, Davis and 

127 Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 501. 

^Journal of David Schenck, Southern Historical Collection. 

^Kramer, "Betts Report," 698. 

180 Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 502. 

170 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the Cabinet went to Greensboro, where General Beauregard, 
with a part of Johnston's command, had headquarters in a 
group of freight cars on a railroad siding. President Davis 
also used a railway car as headquarters, and there he received 
General Johnston on April 12 and told him that in two or 
three weeks he would have a large army in the field. 131 

Colonel Betts, commanding the Fifteenth Pennsylvania 
Cavalry, marched ahead toward Greensboro after the with- 
drawal of Garners and Kramer's detachments. Lieutenant 
Seldon L. Wilson, commanding the rear guard, had no idea 
how many men preceded him. Betts planned to make a dem- 
onstration on Greensboro, where he knew that Beauregard 
commanded a large force. Just at daylight he heard that a 
mile ahead of him was a cavalry regiment encamped. Colonel 
Betts decided it was essential that he attack the regiment, in 
order to neutralize its movements. 132 Betts sent Adjutant Reiff 
to the rear to tell Lieutenant Wilson what his plans were, and 
that he had only one hundred men in his command. The rear 
guard closed in on their column, drew their revolvers, and 
prepared for the attack. 133 Strickler, the bugler, sounded the 
charge, and the cavalry made all the noise possible as they 
rushed pell-mell into the camp of the Third South Carolina 
Cavalry. Many escaped but Betts captured almost as many 
men as he had in his own command, including Colonel John- 
son, the commanding officer. 134 The victors had surprised 
their prey at breakfast, and that breakfast was enjoyed by the 
Federals. Lieutenant Wilson found an old-fashioned "Dutch 
oven" in which a chicken pie was baking, and in an officer's 
mess chest, a canteen of peach brandy which was passed 
around, letting it go as far as it would. After breakfast Lieu- 
tenant Wilson was sent with ten men to burn the bridge over 
Buffalo Creek and cut the telegraph wire. 135 This bridge was 
just two miles from Greensboro, and as a strong force occupied 
the town there was some doubt whether the detachment 
would return. Wilson succeeded, however; as the bridge was 

131 John G. Barrett, Sherman's March Through the Carolinas (Chapel Hill: 
The University of North Carolina Press, 1956), 227. 
^Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 502. 
183 Wilson, "Burning Bridge," 545. 
"*Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 502. 
136 Wilson, "Burning Bridge," 545-546. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 171 

of yellow North Carolina pine and very dry, it burned easily. 
A citizen was on the bridge when they got there and another 
old man who was plowing nearby was noticed. The plowman 
was asked for his axe, and he said: "Don't spoil my axe. I will 
help you, for I am as good a Union man as God lets live, but 
this is the first time I have dared say so." Later, when the 
regiment was reunited Wilson learned that two miles away 
from the bridge he destroyed, Jefferson Davis and party had 
been in a train on a siding in Greensboro. 136 

The Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry had thoroughly de- 
stroyed the railroad around Greensboro and had attracted 
attention to that place so that Stoneman could raid Salisbury 
without effective resistance. 

On April 11 the First Brigade was reunited and left Salem 
as recounted in the Salem Diary, to rejoin Stoneman at Salis- 
bury. Perhaps many Salem people drew sighs of relief when 
the United States Cavalry passed through Winston toward the 
Yadkin River. This satisfaction was short-lived, for a new 
terror appeared. R. L. Patterson of Salem wrote his father 
on April 16: 

Everything is in a very disturbed condition here, and will be 
until Johnson's army passes south — It is said — between Co. 
Shops and Greensboro — Wheeler's [Confederate] Cavalry are 
the terror of the country. They are represented as being terrible 
desperadoes — utterly without discipline — I understand they 
charged upon the stores and private houses in Greensboro a 
few days since — and that Gen. Beauregard ordered out a regi- 
ment to quell them — a fight ensued and several of Wheeler's men 
were killed and wounded. 137 

The Second and Third Brigades of Stoneman's command 
marched from Germanton to Bethania, another of the old 
Moravian towns. A housewife of Bethania recorded in her 
diary for April 10, 1865: "Saw to coloring black and grey 
for dress piece. The raiders came. I felt so badly— up nearly 
all night. They got here at 8 and staid till ten/' 138 As that 

U6 Wilson, "Burning Bridge," 545-546. 

137 Lindsay Patterson Papers, Southern Historical Collection. 

138 Diary of Julia Conrad Jones, wife of Dr. Beverly Jones, Southern His- 
torical Collection. 

172 The North Carolina Historical Review 

was Easter week, religious services were held each evening 
in Bethania, and the meeting was broken up on Monday by 
the appearance of Union horsemen. The Reverend Jacob 
Siewers dismissed the congregation and people hurried home 
through throngs of soldiers in the street, to find doors open 
and houses being ransacked, but no real damage was being 
done. General Stoneman made his headquarters at the home 
of Elias Schaub, whose horses were the only ones in town 
not taken. The party ate everything they could find, and 
moved on to Shallow Ford, on the Yadkin west of Winston. 139 
A detachment of Confederates guarding the ford was taken 
by surprise at daybreak on the eleventh; making a feeble 
resistance, they fled leaving upward of one hundred new mus- 
kets. 140 From that point the march was west and south. Mocks- 
ville, which was directly in their path, was defended by a few 
boys and old men who thought bushwhackers were coming 
as they frequently did. This volunteer guard rushed out to 
Elisha Creek to frighten the invaders from the village, and a 
few shots were exchanged, after which the guard scattered. 
There was some talk among the soldiers of burning the town. 
Stoneman forbade that although a cotton mill built by Thomas 
McNeely was burned, and soldiers set fire to one woman's bed 
(unoccupied). Making their way along the principal street, 
the cavalry halted for food, which the citizens were required 
to prepare. The officers were served in the dining rooms of 
the homes, while the soldiers ate out on the lawns under the 
magnificent oak trees. 141 The Division bivouacked twelve 
miles from Salisbury. 

[To be continued] 

Fries, Forsyth County, 96. 
Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 333. 

From an interview with Mary Heitman, granddaughter of John Mar- 
shall Clement, one of the unwilling hosts. 



By A. Elizabeth Taylor* 


In February, 1917, the National American Woman Suffrage 
Association sponsored a four-day suffrage school in Raleigh. 
The school's purpose was to make more efficient workers of 
North Carolina women, and it offered instruction in such 
subjects as public speaking, parliamentary law, publicity, or- 
ganization, and money-raising. Its directors were Anne 
Doughty, Mrs. Florence Cotnam, and Mrs. Halsey W. Wilson 
of the National Association. In conjunction with the school, 
the Raleigh suffragists sponsored a mass meeting at which 
their visitors spoke. Mrs. Cotnam told the audience that "the 
question of woman suffrage had ceased to be an academic 
one . . ." but was "a real, live, present-day issue that demanded 
the attention and consideration of every man and woman." 
Miss Doughty explained that women needed the ballot to 
protect their own interests, especially since so many women 
had entered the business world. Mrs. Wilson considered the 
enfranchisement of women a part of the onward movement 
of democracy. She stated: "We have a government of men, 
by men, and for the people, instead of a realization of the 
hopes of Abraham Lincoln of a government of the people, by 
the people, for the people." 82 

In 1917 the North Carolina Legislature again considered 
the suffrage issue. On January 17 Gallatin Roberts of Bun- 
combe introduced in the House a bill to confer municipal 
suffrage on women. 83 This bill provided that when ten per 
cent of the voters requested, a municipality should hold a 
referendum. The result of this referendum, in which only men 

* Dr. A. Elizabeth Taylor is an Associate Professor of History at Texas 
Woman's University, Denton. 

82 The News and Observer, February 4, 1917. 

83 House Journal, regular session, 1917, 247. 


174 The North Carolina Historical Review 

would participate, would determine whether women should 
be allowed to vote. 

Roberts' bill was referred to the committee on revision of 
laws which held a hearing on January 26. On that occasion 
no one spoke against it, but nine men and women spoke in its 
behalf. 84 The committee reported the bill favorably. 85 

On February 9, the house debated the question. Abner B. 
Breece of Cumberland spoke for the "full liberation of the 
women of the state," and used such terms as "slavery" and 
"bondage" to describe their present status. John R. McCrary 
of Davidson thought that nothing would be lost by enfran- 
chising women for he did not see how their votes could make 
political conditions any worse. J. H. Pearson of Burke and 
Donald MacRackan of Columbus spoke in favor of the bill, 
MacRackan insisting that women had been responsible for 
the re-election of Woodrow Wilson. 86 

In opposition, R. W. Winston, Jr., of Wake said that the 
suffrage movement was "unnatural" and was based on "sex 
antagonism." Walter Murphy of Rowan favored enfranchising 
"intelligent women" but not women in general. H. P. Grier of 
Iredell maintained that his constituents did not favor woman 
suffrage. He also feared the negro woman vote. G. Ellis 
Gardner of Yancey agreed with Grier and stated that he did 
not see how negro women could be prevented from voting. 
George M. Prit chard of Madison regretted that the negro is- 
sue had been brought into the discussion and insisted that 
woman suffrage had been a success in the States where it 
had been tried. 87 At the close of debate the house voted on 
the measure and rejected it forty to sixty-three. 88 

A few days later, on February 14, Representative G. Ellis 
Gardner of Yancey introduced a bill to enfranchise women 
through an amendment to the State Constitution. 89 His pro- 
posal was that women be permitted to vote on the suffrage 
issue in the 1918 primary. If the majority favored it, a State 
constitutional amendment enfranchising women should then 

81 The News and Observer, January 26, 1917. 
85 House Journal, regular session, 1917, 280. 
60 Greensboro Daily News, February 10, 1917. 

87 Greensboro Daily News, February 10, 1917. 

88 House Journal, regular session, 1917, 345. 
"House Journal, regular session, 1917, 371. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 175 

be submitted to the voters. 90 Gardner's bill was not well re- 
ceived by the suffragists who considered it ill-advised and 
who gave it little support. As a consequence the measure was 
soon tabled. 91 

Interest then shifted to the senate where Thomas A. Jones 
of Asheville had introduced a presidential suffrage bill. 92 
This measure, reported favorably by the judiciary committee, 
was debated on February 27. Jones, the chief speaker for the 
bill, argued that North Carolina should allow women to vote 
for presidential electors because the Democratic party fav- 
ored women suffrage and because women had helped re- 
elect Wilson in 1916. W. D. Pollock of Kinston objected to 
women's being dragged into the "political mire" and pre- 
dicted that woman suffrage would bring discord into the 
home. W. M. Person of Louisburg raised the issue of the 
"black peril." He thought that white women would hesitate to 
go to the polls but that negro women would flock there. He 
explained: "My cook would vote while my wife would not." 
Jones replied that if Person's cook was more patriotic than 
his wife, the cook should be enfranchised. 93 Several senators 
maintained that women did not want to vote. J. Elmer Long 
of Graham proposed an amendment providing that there be 
a woman's referendum on presidential suffrage. This amend- 
ment was accepted. The Senate then voted on the bill, as 
amended, and rejected it twenty to twenty-four. 94 

Throughout its history the woman suffrage movement in 
North Carolina was characterized by a lack of militancy. From 
its inception the State league was affiliated with the National 
American Woman Suffrage Association and, on several occa- 
sions, expressed disapproval of the more aggressive methods 
of Alice Paul's Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage. At 
their 1914 convention the North Carolina suffragists went on 
record as opposing "any form of militancy" and as "desiring 

90 The News and Observer, February 18, 1917. 

91 House Journal, regular session, 1917, 454. 

** Senate Journal, regular session, 1917, 212. A delegation of suffragists, 
led by Mrs. Cunningham, called on Governor Thomas W. Bickett in behalf 
of this bill. They reported that the Governor was "pleasing, bland and per- 
suasive" but that he did not consider North Carolina ready for woman suf- 

93 The News and Observer, February 28, 1917. 

M Senate Journal, regular session, 1917, 444. 

176 The North Carolina Historical Review 

to gain the vote by an appeal to reason and fair play/' 95 Dur- 
ing the following year the Congressional Union endeavored 
to gain a foothold in North Carolina. The State league, in 
turn, urged its members not to affiliate, and once again it 
went on record as having no "sympathy with the methods 
used by that organization." 96 In the spring of 1917 Doris 
Stevens of New York came to Charlotte to organize a North 
Carolina branch of the Congressional Union. She organized 
a group of sixty-two women with Mrs. J. Arthur Taylor of 
Charlotte, as President. In spite of the disapproval of the 
North Carolina Equal Suffrage League, some of its members 
joined the new organization. 97 

The Congressional Union was never very active in North 
Carolina, and it conducted no militant agitation there. Its 
membership was never large, and it formed no local affiliated 
clubs. Since its objective was enfranchisement through a fed- 
eral amendment, it did little work with the State legislature. 
It did endeavor to bring pressure on North Carolina congress- 
men, however, and when the Susan B. Anthony amendment 
was submitted to the States for ratification, it joined the 
campaign to induce North Carolina to ratify. 

When in the spring of 1917 the United States entered the 
First World War, North Carolina women began devoting their 
time to war work, and many stopped their suffrage activities 
for the duration. Because of this preoccupation with the war, 
an intense organizational campaign planned by the State 
league was cancelled. Few regretted this diversion of energy 
because, aside from considerations of patriotism, they felt 
that their war work contributed to the success of woman 
suffrage. It helped refute the old charge that ballots and 
bullets went together and that women should not vote be- 
cause they did not serve in the army. In November, 1917, 
Mrs. Cunningham commented: "Women in war service have 
opened the eyes of the men of North Carolina to the fitness 
of women for all kinds of service, and surely suffrage has won 

95 President's Report, November, 1914, Barbara Henderson Papers. 

96 North Carolina Proceedings, 1915, 15. 

91 Charlotte Daily Observer, April 1, 1917. Since these women did not re- 
sign their membership in the North Carolina Equal Suffrage League, they 
apparently expected to work for enfranchisement through both organiza- 

Woman Suffrage Movement 177 

more converts, and more suffrage education has been ad- 
vanced this year than in all previous years. . . ." 9S 

In November, 1917, the State league held a convention in 
Goldsboro. Nineteen delegates from six towns attended." 
One of the speakers. Mrs. Pattie Ruffner Jacobs, of Alabama, 
predicted that the southern States would adopt equal suffrage 
and "would glory in the fact that they had raised the noble 
women of the South above the level of the negro." Another 
speaker, James F. Barrett, editor of the Ashevilie Labor Ad- 
vocate, said that organized labor was "heartily supporting the 
cause." He said that woman suffrage was "just" and that the 
"labor movement was based on justice." 10 ° Other convention 
speakers were Dr. Delia Dixon Carroll, who spoke on the 
"Federal Amendment," and Mrs. Charles Malcolm Piatt, who 
spoke on "Suffrage and the War." 

In her presidential report Mrs. Cunningham stated that 
during the past year many letters had been written and much 
literature distributed. She stated that the league's total mem- 
bership had increased from one hundred and seventy-five to 
more than one thousand. 101 The delegates heard other reports 
and re-elected Mrs. Cunningham president. 102 

During the following year the suffragists sponsored lectures 
by Jeanette Rankin and Anna Howard Shaw, both of whom 
spoke in Greensboro. 103 They tried to organize suffrage clubs 
in the women's colleges of the State, but the disapproval of 
trustees prevented their doing so. 104 They sent letters and tele- 
grams to North Carolina congressmen urging them to support 
the proposed Susan B. Anthony amendment. Their appeals 
went unheeded, however, for when the House of Representa- 

98 North Carolina Proceedings, November, 1917, 7. 

99 The towns represented were Ashevilie, Chapel Hill, Charlotte, Durham, 
Goldsboro, and Raleigh. 

100 Goldsboro Daily Argus, no date. Clipping in the possession of Gertrude 
Weil of Goldsboro, hereinafter cited as Weil Papers. 

M1 North Carolina Proceedings, November, 1917, 7. In 1917 there were 
suffrage leagues in the following North Carolina towns: Ashevilie, Chapel 
Hill, Carthage, Greensboro, Goldsboro, Washington, Greenville, Morganton, 
Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham, Salisbury, Wilmington, New Bern, Southern 
Pines, Hamlet, Laurinburg, Monroe, Wadesboro, and Rockingham. Some of 
these leagues were classed as "inactive," however. 

303 North Carolina Proceedings, November, 1917, 11. 

103 Minutes of the 1918 Suffrage Conference held at Raleigh, January 10, 
1918, 8-9, hereinafter cited as Suffrage Conference, 1918. 

104 Suffrage Conference, 1918, 7. 

178 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tives voted on the question on January 10, 1918, all except 
one of the North Carolina delegation voted against it. 105 
Meanwhile they continued their war work, thereby promoting 
the movement indirectly. In this connection Mrs. Cunningham 
stated: "To my mind every stroke given for war work by 
North Carolina women strengthened our cause in the State 
just that much." 106 

In April, 1918, the Democratic and Republican parties 
held State conventions. After hearing an appeal by Mrs. Cun- 
ningham, the Republican convention placed a woman suffrage 
plank in the party's platform. This plank, which was adopted 
without opposition, stated: "As a matter of justice to the 
women of the nation, many of whom are taxpayers, and com- 
pelled to earn their own living, and all of whom are rendering 
patriotic and unselfish service to our country in the prosecu- 
tion of the war, the Republican Party of North Carolina is in 
favor of the extension of the right of suffrage to women." 107 
The suffragists appealed to the Democratic convention also, 
but with less success. The Democrats refused to adopt a 
woman suffrage plank because they considered the people of 
the State too divided on the issue. 108 The Democrats of Dur- 
ham County, however, did go on record in favor of woman 
suffrage. 109 

In addition to the Republican Party, woman suffrage re- 
ceived the approval of other organizations. In May, 1918, the 
State Federation of Women's Clubs endorsed it with only two 
dissenting votes. In June the North Carolina Trained Nurses 
Association endorsed it, and in December the North Carolina 
Farmers Union did likewise. 110 Several labor organizations 
were already on record as favoring woman suffrage. 

In January, 1919, the State league sponsored an address by 
William Jennings Bryan. Bryan spoke in Raleigh to an audi- 
ence of more than three thousand. Some of the State's most 

110 Suffrage Conference, 1918, 7, 10. 

105 Suffrage Conference, 1918, 8. During its history in Congress, no North 
Carolina senator voted for the Susan B. Anthony amendment; only two rep- 
resentatives voted for it. They were Zebulon Weaver (January 10, 1918 
and May 21, 1919) and Hannibal Godwin (May 21, 1919). 

108 Suffrage Conference, 1918, 7. 

107 Greensboro Daily News, April 10, 1918. 
** Charlotte Observer, April 11, 1918. 

109 The News and Observer, April 8, 1918. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 179 

prominent people attended. Governor Thomas W. Bickett, 
Lieutenant Governor O. Max Gardner, and Judge Walter 
Clark sat on the speaker's platform. Bryan said that woman 
suffrage was being adopted throughout the world and that 
it would inevitably prevail in North Carolina. He advised: 
"You can't keep it from coming and you might as well help 
and reap some of the honor." He credited women with re- 
electing Wilson in 1916 and urged all Democrats to support 
woman suffrage. He remarked: "Shame on the Democratic 
Party if it should allow the Republican Party to have the 
honor of giving women the right to vote." ni 

In conjunction with Bryan's speech the suffragists held a 
conference in lieu of their traditional State convention. At 
this meeting Gertrude Weil of Goldsboro was elected Presi- 
dent of the State league, and Mrs. Josephus Daniels, wife of 
the Secretary of the Navy, Honorary President. 

During the 1919 legislative session attention centered on 
municipal suffrage. 112 At a joint hearing on February 25 113 
A. L. Brooks stated that women were the "strong right arm" 
of the church, the home, and the school," the bulwarks of our 
civilization." Patsy Smith maintained that woman suffrage 
was no fad and that women "were going to have it." Maude 
Bernard said that women taught the principles of government 
in the schoolroom and that they should be allowed to practice 
them at the polls. Dr. Delia Dixon Carroll said that women 
were willing for men to teach them how to vote and that they 
"hoped the legislature would let them start now." Mrs. Palmer 
Jerman and Mrs. B. H. Griffin expressed preference for en- 
franchisement through State legislation rather than through 
a federal amendment. Mrs. Jerman commented: "We are 
jealous that our first toddling steps shall come from our 

" 114 


111 Woman Citizen (New York, 1917), III (January 25, 1919), 712, 

533 Proposals to permit women to vote in primary elections and to grant 
them full suffrage through an amendment to the State Constitution were 
introduced also but received scant attention. 

"* Earlier in February the suffragists circulated in the North Carolina 
Senate a petition in behalf of the federal amendment. Twenty-six senators 
signed it. This petition was sent to United States Senator Lee Slater Over- 

114 The News and Observer, February 26, 1919. 

180 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The only speaker in opposition was Hallett S. Ward, a 
former State senator and later a United States Congressman 
from North Carolina. Ward said that woman suffrage had 
originated in the land of the I. W. W. and the region of the 
Bolshevist and that it "had no place in the sunny South, the 
land of peace and contentment, the land of chivalry and 
devoted respect for women." He doubted the fairness of 
municipal suffrage, since it enabled city women to vote but 
denied the right to country women. He concluded by remark- 
ing that "one box of mice could break up the whole general 
assembly, if it were composed of women." 115 

Two days later the measure reached the floor of the Senate. 
There was little opposition, and the Senate passed the muni- 
cipal suffrage bill by a vote of thirty-five to twelve. 116 It was 
then referred to the House. 

When the House debated it on March 6, there was intense 
interest, and some observers considered the day's proceedings 
"the most spectacular" of the entire session. 117 W. N. Everett 
of Richmond predicted that enfranchisement would mean 
"sane and safe helpfulness from the women" and called for 
the passage of the bill as an act of "elemental justice." 118 
Richard L. Herring of Sampson praised the war work done 
by women and asked that "concrete recognition of their serv- 
ice be speedily given in the form of the ballot." 119 H. S. Wil- 
liams of Cabarrus said that he had never heard a valid 
argument against woman suffrage and made an "appeal for 
the women who had served the state so patriotically and 
brilliantly, but who had not been given adequate representa- 
tion in the affairs of government." L. Clayton Grant of New 
Hanover compared the suffrage movement to the struggle 
for the Magna Carta and warned that woman suffrage was 
not coming, but was here. 120 

Harry P. Grier of Iredell called the bill the "most pernicious 
legislation ever proposed in the general assembly." He 
doubted both its constitutionality and its wisdom and ob- 

"* The News and Observer, February, 26, 1919. 
ue Senate Journal, regular session, 1919, 343. 

117 Greensboro Daily News, March 7, 1919. 

118 The News and Observer, March 6, 1919. 

119 Greensboro Daily News, March 7, 1919. 

120 Greensboro Daily News, March 7, 1919. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 181 


jected to throwing women into the "vortex of politics. 
J. H. Darden of Halifax thought that enfranchisement would 
degrade women while R. M. Cox of Forsyth urged the defeat 
of the bill for the sake of the "womanhood and manhood of 
North Carolina." 122 B. G. Crisp of Dare denied that women 
wanted to vote and said if there was one woman in his county 
who wanted the ballot he hadn't heard of her. 123 Stanley 
Winborne of Hertford refuted the argument that the house 
should pass the bill because woman suffrage was coming. "So 
is old age," he said, "and so is death, but women and men try 
to conceal the first and delay the last as long as possible. 
There is no use for us to reach and meet this evil because they 
say it is coming/' 124 

At the close of debate the house voted on the measure and 
rejected it forty-nine to fifty-four. 125 The Raleigh News and 
Observer called this action "disappointing in the extreme" 
and concluded that the house was "far behind the best 
thought of the times." 126 

Three months after the North Carolina woman had failed 
to win any concessions from the legislature, the federal 
woman suffrage amendment was submitted to the States for 
ratification. North Carolina suffragists watched with interest 
the amendment's progress, and by the time of their conven- 
tion in Greensboro in January, 1920, twenty-seven States had 

The convention opened with a memorial session for Anna 
Howard Shaw, who had died in July, 1919. The North Caro- 
lina suffragists felt this loss keenly because Dr. Shaw had 
often visited the State and had taken an active interest in 
the movement there. 127 The convention's most outstanding 
session was an evening banquet attended by three hundred 
people and addressed by several prominent speakers. 128 One 

121 The News and Observer, March 6, 1919. 

132 The News and Observer, March 6, 1919. 

133 Greensboro Daily News, March 7, 1919. 
124 The News and Observer, March 6, 1919. 
135 House Journal, regular session, 1919, 590. 
130 The News and Observer, March 6, 1919. 

137 In May, 1919, Dr. Shaw delivered the commencement address at the 
Woman's College of the University of North Carolina in Greensboro. 

128 The toastmistress was Miss Louise Alexander, an active crusader for 
women's rights. 

182 The North Carolina Historical Review 

of the speakers was Alexander F. Whyte of London, England, 
a member of the House of Commons for eight years. Whyte 
said that he "was moved to admiration for the plucky fight" 
that the American women had made for the ballot. 129 He 
praised the role of women in the First World War and re- 
lated some of the history of the woman suffrage movement in 
England. Marjorie Shuler of the National American Woman 
Suffrage Association made an "inspiring address/' while 
Mrs. Josephus Daniels described suffrage as a "latchkey" 
which would open to women the door of greater service in 
the community. "We want it so that we may do our duty for 
the children that are to come . . . ," she said. 130 

About one hundred women attended the business sessions 
of the convention. They re-elected Miss Gertrude Weil of 
Goldsboro President of the State organization. At this time 
there were twenty-four local suffrage leagues in North 
Carolina. 131 

As additional States ratified the federal amendment, the 
role of North Carolina became more significant. There was 
to be a special session of the legislature in the summer of 
1920, and the suffragists hoped that the amendment would 
be considered on that occasion. Some political leaders wanted 
the State Democratic Party to go on record in favor of ratifi- 
cation. In March, 1920, Governor Thomas W. Bickett an- 
nounced that he planned to ask the legislature to ratify and 
that he hoped the State Democratic Party would endorse 
ratification at its convention in April. 132 United States Senator 
Furnifold M. Simmons stated that he favored ratification as 
a matter of "political expediency." 133 His colleague, Lee S. 
Overman, did not agree, however. Overman felt that woman 
suffrage was inevitable, but he considered it a State, not a 
federal issue. 134 Both Simmons and Overman had voted 
against the amendment in the United States Senate. 

When the State Democratic Convention assembled in 
Raleigh in April, 1920, thrity-five States had ratified the 

™ Charlotte Observer, January 28, 1920. 

180 Greensboro Daily News, January 28, 1920. 

151 Proceedings, 1920, 176. 

132 The News and Observer, March 16, 1920. 

183 Byrd, "North Carolina," History of Woman Suffrage, VI, 496. 

134 The News and Observer, April 9, 1920. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 183 

Susan B. Anthony amendment, so that the approval of only 
one more State was needed. The convention's keynote 
speaker, Clyde R. Hoey, said that he thought the legislature 
of North Carolina should ratify. He explained: "Everybody 
can support that proposition. Those of us who believe in 
suffrage for women can vote for it upon that ground, and 
those who are opposed to it can support it because they are 
going to have it any way and it would be much more gracious 
for it to come by the vote of the men of our own state." 135 

When the platform committee reported, it recommended 
that the legislature reject the federal suffrage amendment and 
that it submit to the voters of North Carolina a State con- 
stitutional amendment to enfranchise women. A minority re- 
port asked that the convention be permitted to vote on the 
ratification issue. A second minority report suggested that all 
reference to woman suffrage be omitted from the party plat- 
form. 136 

A floor fight followed. W. P. Gildewell and John D. Bellamy 
championed ratification, while A. D. Watts and Cameron 
Morrison led the opposition. Finally, F. P. Hobgood of 
Greensboro suggested the following substitute for all reports : 
"This convention recommends to the Democratic members 
of the General Assembly of North Carolina that at the ap- 
proaching session thereof they vote in favor of the ratification 
of the proposed Nineteenth Amendment." 13T The convention 
took a roll call vote on Hobgood's proposal and adopted it 
585 to 428. 138 The suffragists rejoiced that North Carolina 
was a step closer to ratification. 

As the suffrage issue approached a climax, opposition 
forces became more active. Carrie Preston Davis, of Vir- 
ginia, who had come to North Carolina to oppose ratification 
at the Democratic convention, now endeavored to form an 
anti-ratification league. She worked quietly, talked informally 
to small groups of women, and finally succeeded in organizing 
a North Carolina chapter of the Southern Women's Rejection 

185 Greensboro Daily News, April 9, 1920. Hoey was a distinguished at- 
torney who had become a member of the United States House of Represen- 
tatives in December, 1919, to finish the unexpired term of Edwin Y. Webb. 

""Byrd, "North Carolina," History of Woman Suffrage, VI, 496. 

187 The News and Observer, April 9, 1920. 

188 The News and Observer, April 9, 1920, 

184 The North Carolina Historical Review 

League. 139 Mary Hilliard Hinton of Midway Plantation, Wake 
County, was the league's chairman. 140 Using the slogan, 
"Politics are bad for women and women are bad for politics," 
the "antis" opened headquarters in the Raleigh Hotel in June 
and began distributing quantities of anti-suffrage literature. 141 

Miss Davis had hoped to form local rejection leagues 
throughout the State but apparently never did so. The "antis" 
at Raleigh remained the only organized unit. They received 
scattered support from other parts of the State, however, and 
maintained their headquarters in Raleigh throughout the rati- 
fication controversy. 142 

Meanwhile the suffragists were rallying their forces. Ger- 
trude Weil, President of the North Carolina Equal Suffrage 
League, called upon her followers to put their "shoulders to 
the wheel and make one strong final effort to secure ratifica- 
tion. . . ." She warned: "The time is short. Let us make the 
most of it. Think Ratification, Talk Ratification, Work 
For Ratification. Make North Carolina the Perfect 
Thirty-Six." 143 Ratification rallies were staged in several 
towns. 144 Suffrage debates were held, and suffrage petitions 
circulated. 145 Several organizations adopted resolutions en- 
dorsing ratification. Among them were the State Federation 
of Women's Clubs, the State Business and Professional 
Women's Clubs, the State Society of Friends, and several 
labor organizations. 

Many prominent persons advocated ratification. President 
Wilson telegraphed Governor Bickett: "I am sure that I need 
not point out to you the critical importance of the action of 
your State in the matter of the suffrage amendment." 146 
Bickett replied that he hoped Tennessee would ratify and 

539 This league had been organized in Alabama in 1919 for the purpose of 
opposing the Susan B. Anthony amendment. 

140 The News and Observer, May 20, 1920. 

ltt The News and Observer, June 6, 1920. 

142 The North Carolina "antis" did not receive the expected support from 
outside of the State. Both the Tennessee and the North Carolina legisla- 
tures were considering ratification in August, 1920, and most of the out-of- 
state "antis" felt that their support was more urgently needed in Tennessee. 

148 Gertrude Weil to "Dear Suffragist," July 10, 1920. Weil Papers. 

144 Some towns where rallies were held were Fayetteville, Asheville, New 
Bern, and Goldsboro. 

146 Not all petitions reached the legislators. In Asheville, through some 
mysterious circumstance, the petitions were stolen. 

14a The News and Observer, June 26, 1920. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 185 

make action by North Carolina unnecessary. A. W. McLean, 
national Democratic committeeman for North Carolina, an- 
nounced that he "would unhesitatingly vote in favor of ratifi- 
cation ... if he were a member of the North Carolina 
legislature." 147 Lieutenant Governor O. Max Gardner said 
that the Democratic Party favored woman suffrage and that 
he accepted the "dictates" of his party. 148 Judge Walter Clark 
urged that North Carolina and Tennessee both ratify as a 
matter of "loyalty to the party and good faith to the 
women." 149 Ex-governor Locke Craig thought that woman 
suffrage was inevitable and that ratification would help the 
Democratic Party. 150 Josiah William Bailey favored ratification 
because he felt that "politics would be good for women and 
women for politics." 151 Dr. Clarence Poe, Editor of the Pro- 
gressive Farmer, said that failure to ratify would "result in 
nothing less than party anarchy as well as party dishonor." 152 
At the University of North Carolina thirty-three of forty pro- 
fessors questioned favored ratification. Archibald Henderson 
said that woman suffrage would increase the "number of 
eager, active minds devoted to the public welfare." Frank P. 
Graham said that the "right to vote was a human right and 
not a sex monopoly," while Louis R. Wilson considered it 
illogical in a democracy to deny women the vote. 153 

Most North Carolina newspapers favored ratification. 154 
At a press conference in Waynesville only one of more than 
twenty editors doubted that North Carolina would ratify. The 
others expected ratification to be accomplished "but by a 
narrow margin." 155 The News and Observer published a 
series of editorials answering claims that women did not want 
to vote, that ratification would violate State rights, and that 

147 The News and Observer, August 6, 1920. 

™ The News and Observer, June 17, 1920. 

149 Every woman's Magazine, IV (July-August, 1920), 7. 

550 The News and Observer, August 10, 1920. 

161 The News and Observer, August 11, 1920. Bailey was later a United 
States Senator from North Carolina. 

152 The News and Observer, August 9, 1920. 

1458 The News and Observer, August 8, 1920. 

151 Some newspapers favoring ratification were The News and Observer, 
the Charlotte Observer, the Greensboro Daily News, the Asheville Daily 
Times, the Asheville Citizen, the Smithfield Herald, the Wilmington Morning 
Star, and the Wilmington Evening Dispatch. 

166 The News and Observer, July 26, 1920. 

186 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the polls were not fit places for women. In an editorial on 
July 29 The Raleigh Times ridiculed the charge that enfran- 
chisement would "de-womanize" women and cause them to 
neglect their homes. On August 11 the Charlotte Observer 
stated editorially: "They [women] are allowed to work, re- 
gardless of sex, and they are allowed to help educate us, re- 
gardless of sex. Sex is no bar to people's being citizens 
actually, except in the right to vote. And it is high time that 
the chivalry of North Carolina should think this question 
through, because when they think it through, it will be clear 
that it is not only woman's right to vote but it is her duty to 
vote." 156 

The North Carolina legislative session began on August 10, 
1920. At that time the Tennessee legislature was considering 
the ratification question. On August 11 sixty-three of the one 
hundred and twenty members of the North Carolina House 
of Representatives sent a "round robin" to Nashville urging 
that Tennessee reject the Anthony amendment. The "round 
robin" promised that North Carolina would not ratify and 
asked that Tennessee not force women suffrage upon her. 157 
This action apparently had little influence for two days later 
the Tennessee Senate adopted a ratification resolution. 158 
Nevertheless the "round robin" constituted a show of strength 
for the North Carolina "antis" and indicated the existence of 
strong opposition. 

On August 13 Governor Bickett submitted the ratification 
question. Accompanied by Mrs. Bickett, Mrs. Josephus 
Daniels, and Mrs. Palmer Jerman, 159 he addressed a joint 
session of the two houses. Before crowded galleries, Bickett 
said that he had "never been impressed with the wisdom of, 
or the necessity for woman suffrage in North Carolina." He 
feared that enfranchisement would be bad for women and 
would have an "unfortunate effect" on race relations. He 
admitted, however, that woman suffrage was at hand and 

™ Charlotte Observer, August 11, 1920. 

157 Charlotte Observer, August 12, 1920. Byrd, "North Carolina," History 
of Woman Suffrage, VI, 498. 

158 For an account of the ratification controversy in Tennessee, see A. Eli- 
zabeth Taylor, The Woman Suffrage Movement in Tennessee (New York: 
Bookman Associates, 1957), 104-142. 

159 Mrs. Jerman was chairman of the ratification committee of the State 
suffrage league. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 187 

that at most the legislature could only delay it a few months. 
"This being true/' he concluded, "I am profoundly convinced 
that it would be the part of wisdom and of grace for North 
Carolina to accept the inevitable and ratify the amend- 
ment." 160 

On August 17 the senate debated the ratification issue. 161 
R. L. Carr of Rose Hill maintained that woman's enfranchise- 
ment was a matter of right and justice. R. D. Sisk of Franklin 
said that the amendment raised women to their proper place 
and accused the anti-suffrage senators of being backed by the 
liquor interests. D. F. Lovill of Boone, the only Confederate 
veteran in the Senate, praised the role of women in war-times 
and asked: "Can we say to them now that they have no right 
to vote?" P. W. Glide well of Greensboro reminded his col- 
leagues that the Democratic Party platform favored women's 
enfranchisement and stated that he believed that the platform 
"represented the majority will of the people of the state." 162 

Lindsay C. Warren of Washington was the chief opposition 
speaker. Warren said that the federal amendment was an 
invasion of State control of the franchise and that the "over- 
whelming sentiment of the State" was against it. He had little 
patience with the "time-worn argument of party loyalty and 
party expediency." He stated: "Simmons voted against suf- 
frage in the United States senate, and voted on principle. I 
score him now when he asks me to vote for it on the grounds 
of political expediency. For years Governor Bickett had de- 
clared his convictions against suffrage, and now he asks us 
to vote for it because it is expedient and because it is inevi- 
table. I denounce such an insidious appeal from Governor 
Bickett to our baser natures. Expediency is a word that is not 
found in my dictionary: right is right and wrong is wrong." 163 

At the close of debate Warren moved that consideration of 
the proposed nineteenth amendment be postponed until the 
regular session of the legislature in 1921. He maintained that 
if this were done, the voters would have an opportunity to 

160 The News and Observer, August 14, 1920. 

161 On August 13 A. N. Scales of Greensboro had introduced a resolution 
to ratify the proposed nineteenth amendment. 

iea The News and Observer, August 18, 1920. 
1W The News and Observer, August 18, 1920. 

188 The North Carolina Historical Review 

express themselves on the issue in the 1920 election. Warren s 
motion was substituted for the ratification resolution and was 
approved by a vote of twenty-five to twenty-three. 164 Most of 
the senators, including many who were not considered anti- 
suffragists, seemed glad to be relieved of the responsibility of 
voting directly on the ratification question. They seemed to 
regard the Warren substitute as a way out of a ticklish situ- 
ation. The suffragists were shocked by this turn of events. 
They were especially disappointed that Horace Stacy of 
Lumberton, supposedly a staunch suffragist, voted for the 
Warren substitute. Had Stacy voted against it, the result 
would have been a tie, and Lieutenant Governor O. Max 
Gardner would have broken the tie by voting against post- 
ponement. 165 

The action of the North Carolina senate proved of little 
consequence. On the following day, August 18, the Tennessee 
House of Representatives ratified the nineteenth amendment, 
thus giving the approval of both houses. This action was 
hailed as the final victory for suffrage. However, the speaker 
of the Tennessee house made a motion to reconsider, and this 
motion had to be disposed of before Tennessee's ratification 
would be final. 

On August 19 the North Carolina House of Representatives 
acted on the ratification issue. By a vote of forty-one to 
seventy-one it refused to approve a ratification resolution 
sponsored by H. S. Williams of Cabarrus. 166 At the same 
meeting the house tabled a resolution by Harry P. Grier of 
Iredell to reject the Anthony amendment. 167 Two days later, 
on August 21, the Tennessee house reconsidered, and by a 
vote of forty-nine to zero it upheld its former action. Thus, 
with Tennessee's approval, the ratification of the nineteenth 
amendment was at last accomplished. 

The ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment enfran- 
chised North Carolina women. Legal barriers no longer pre- 
vented their voting. Though never a suffragist, Mrs. Bickett 

164 Senate Journal, extra session, 1920, 64. 
185 The News and Observer, August 18, 1920. 
166 House Journal, extra session, 1920, 137. 
107 House Journal, extra session, 1920, 138. 

Woman Suffrage Movement 189 


appealed to the women of the State to register and vote. 
Mary Hilliard Hinton, president of the North Carolina branch 
of the Rejection League, made a similar appeal. She said 
that since women had had the ballot forced upon them 
through "no action nor fault" of their own, they should face 
"stern reality" and become voters. 169 At a meeting in Greens- 
boro the North Carolina Equal Suffrage League reorganized 
and became the League of Women Voters. Gertrude Weil was 
elected President. 170 North Carolina women voted in the No- 
vember election, 1920, and thereby ended their long struggle 
for enfranchisement. 

168 The News and Observer, September 27, 1920. 

169 The News and Observer, October 8, 1920. 

170 The News and Observer, October 8, 1920. 






The sixtieth annual session of the North Carolina Literary 
and Historical Association, held at the Hotel Sir Walter in 
Raleigh, December 2, 1960, drew the usual large attendance. 
The various programs were well received, and many persons 
commented on the high caliber of the different papers. Un- 
fortunately, President Hugh T. Lefler of Chapel Hill was ill 
and unable to deliver his presidential address, but he had 
written this sometime in advance and it was read by Professor 
Richard Walser of Raleigh. The numerous awards announced 
at the morning, luncheon, and evening sessions appeared to 
draw an unusual amount of favorable attention and received 
a great deal of publicity throughout the State. 

All of the papers read, or talks made, at the different ses- 
sions are included in the pages that follow. 




By John D. F. Phillips* 

I appreciate this opportunity to tell you something about 
the objectives and organization of the Carolina Charter Ter- 
centenary Commission. Before doing so, I should like to ex- 
tend to you the greetings of Mr. Francis E. Winslow of Rocky 
Mount, who is our Chairman, and of the entire Charter 

As many of you know, the Carolina Charter Tercentenary 
Commission was established by the 1959 General Assembly to 
prepare plans for and to conduct in 1963 the celebration of 
the 300th anniversary of the Carolina Charter of 1663. It was 
in that year, you recall, that the newly restored King Charles 
II of England granted eight of his supporters, who had helped 
him regain his throne, a charter to that part of the New World 
that lay between Virginia on the north and Florida on the 
south. This historic document, as you know, is on display in 
the Hall of History in Raleigh. 

Governor Luther H. Hodges appointed twenty-two distin- 
guished North Carolinians to serve on the Charter Commis- 
sion, in addition to the three heads of State Departments who 
were designated members by the law. These are the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, Dr. Charles F. Carroll; the 
Director of the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment, Mr. William P. Saunders; and the Director of the 
Department of Archives and History, Dr. Christopher Crit- 
tenden. I was appointed Executive Secretary to the Commis- 
sion last May and have opened an office on Halifax Street in 
Raleigh, next door to the Museum of Natural History. 

The Commission has met several times during the past 
year and has made a number of decisions which I would like 
to tell you about. First, it decided to extend the scope of the 
celebration to include the first century of the official existence 

* General John D. F. Phillips is Executive Secretary of the Carolina 
Charter Tercentenary Commission, Raleigh. 


192 The North Carolina Historical Review 

of the Colony— that is, 1663-1763. There are several cogent 
reasons for this action and it is important to understand them. 
After all, the actual granting of the Charter occurred in Eng- 
land, not in America. And, whereas the earliest settlements in 
North Carolina were in the Coastal Plains, the Commis- 
sion considers it essential to promote a State-wide celebration. 
By 1763 at least 70 communities which exist today had been 
established, extending as far west as Old Fort, near Asheville. 
Thus, a broad geographical base for our observance is avail- 
able. Finally, the year 1763 is considered by historians to mark 
the practical end of the Colonial period of our history. After 
that year, which saw the conclusion of the French and Indian 
War, events led rather swiftly to the American Revolution. 
The Commission feels, therefore, that our celebration should 
extend to 1763, so that in another ten years or so another 
commission can pick up the story of North Carolina in con- 
nection with the bicentennial of American independence. 

A second decision of the Commission was to organize a 
number of activities committees to deal with plans in various 
fields of interest. Thus far six committees have been organ- 
ized: Arts; Commemorative Events; Finance and Building; 
Programs in Schools, Colleges and Universities; Religious 
Activities; and Scholarly Activities. I will not take the time 
now to describe the work of these groups; this information 
may be found in the brochure which has been furnished you. 

It was apparent that the members of the Commission are 
too few to develop its plans throughout the State unassisted. 
Therefore, we have supplemented them on the committees 
with a number of prominent citizens whose interests and ex- 
perience lie in the field of the committee concerned. Thus 
far we have recruited about a hundred such associates. A 
number of them are present among you here this morning. 

Finally, the Commission decided that it would adopt as a 
major objective support of the construction by the State of a 
new building to serve as a repository for the State of North 
Carolina's priceless archives and other historical items, and as 
a modern, efficient historical musem. The lack of suitable 
facilities for these purposes, which every neighboring State 
possesses, is entirely out of keeping with the forward-looking 

Charter Tercentenary Commission 193 

attitude of this great State. We intend, therefore, along with 
the Confederate Centennial Commission, to seek public sup- 
port for this building which will afford an appropriate setting 
for the historic charter, permit the proper storage of the State 
archives and provide an up-to-date Hall of History, worthy of 
the State's proud record. 

In a very real sense it is the over-all purpose of the Charter 
Commission to make the people of North Carolina— and, in- 
deed, the people of the whole country— more fully aware of 
this proud record. The Commission shares the view, expressed 
more than sixty years ago by that great North Carolinian, 
R. D. W. Connor, when he said: 

Modesty is no doubt a commendable habit in the character of 
any people, but a sober, reasonable and intelligent pride in the 
achievements of one's country is the best incentive to public vir- 
tue and real patroitism; and a people who have not the pride 
to record their history will not long have the virtue to make 
history that is worth recording. 

The Charter Commission seeks the understanding and co- 
operation of the North Carolina Literary and Historical As- 
sociation in the pursuit of its objectives. The successful 
attainment of these purposes— which are consonant with those 
of your own organization— requires enlightened leadership 
such as is found in groups like this one. We are confident 
that we can count on your support. 


By Norman C. Larson* 

On January 8, 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhower will 
officially begin the four-year commemoration of the one- 
hundredth anniversary of the American Civil War by the 
issuing of a proclamation and the establishment of a Na- 
tional Day of Prayer. 

North Carolina will join the President, and the rest of the 
Nation, in thus paying tribute to one of the most exacting and 
exciting periods in the history of our country—and to an in- 
tangible thing— a spirit as it were— which is truly American 
in nature, and which has yet to see its equal. 

I believe that it is entirely fitting and just that this tribute 
be paid, for out of that tragic era has risen a more perfect and 
enduring Nation— indeed, the greatest, the mightiest, the 
most unified nation in the history of the world. 

The purpose of the Centennial then is not to revive bitter- 
ness and hatreds engendered by that horrible conflict between 
North and South, but rather to commemorate the greatness 
demonstrated by both sides in that momentous struggle— a 
greatness which is reflected in the greatness of our Nation 
of this twentieth century. 

Our Nation saw. I belive, its conception in our early Co- 
lonial period— in Boston, in Philadelphia, in Hartford, and 
here at home in Bath and New Bern— when a group of dedi- 
cated individuals literally hewed out of the wilderness a 
place to live and to grow. 

Our Country experienced its birth with the fighting of the 
American Revolution and the establishment of a new nation— 
and as the midyears of the nineteenth century approached, it 
found itself floundering in a mire of adolescence. 

As is so often the case with youth, a resounding "whack on 
the backside" was called for and was provided by the Great 

* Mr. Norman C. Larson is Executive Secretary of the North Carolina 
Confederate Centennial Commission. 


Confederate Centennial Commission 195 

Indeed, it was a powerful punishment. When the din of 
battle had subsided, approximately 618,000 Americans lay 
dead. Deaths of American service men in all other wars— from 
the Revolution through the Korean conflict— total only 

On the Confederate monument at Arlington, Virginia, one 
finds the following inscription "... not for fame, not for 
wealth, not for reknown, nor goaded by necessity, nor lured 
by ambition, but in simple obedience to duty, these men suf- 

At home deprivation, sorrow, loneliness, and anxiety were 
fered all— dared all— and died." 

so great as to be hardly comprehensible to us of this genera- 

These sacrifices were made by people of both the North 
and South, and were made with a fortitude and dedication 
which was nothing short of superb. Here is an example which 
should arouse in us a feeling of deep admiration and pride as 
well as a feeling of inspiration. 

It is this sacrifice and heroism of an American people of 
100 years ago that we Americans of today seek to commem- 
orate. Unless we of this generation can understand and ap- 
preciate that which has gone before, then, in my opinion, 
we will have failed in our purpose. 

Dr. R. D. W. Connor, one of our Nation's outstanding 
historians, and a former Director of the State Department of 
Archives and History, once made the following statement: 
"Modesty is no doubt a commendable trait in the character 
of any people, but a sober, reasonable, and intelligent pride 
in the achievements of one's country is the best incentive to 
public virtue and real patriotism; and a people who have not 
the pride to record their history will not long have the virtue 
to make history which is worth recording." 

North Carolinians of past generations have had that pride 
of which Dr. Connor speaks. Now to us falls the task of seeing 
that it is continued. 

This should be no chore, however, for North Carolina's 
past— and especially the record of her part in the Confeder- 
acy, is one in which twentieth-century Tar Heels can take 
especial pride. Here is a source of inspiration for us all as we 

196 The North Carolina Historical Review 

pay tribute to the self-sacrifice, the valor, and the devotion 
to a principle which was so vividly illustrated by both men 
and women during the trying years of 1861-1865. 

Here is a record which should instill in our youth a deep 
appreciation for the heritage which is theirs as Tar Heels 
and which should inspire them to appreciate even more the 
many opportunities which are theirs today. 

As we scan this record we find that the life blood of North 
Carolina's sons was spilled on virtually every battlefield of 
the Great War. At Bethel, at the very outset of hostilities; at 
Manassas, at Cold Harbor, at Fredericksburg, at Chancellors- 
ville, at Gettysburg, here on our own soil at Bentonville and 
Fort Fisher, and finally at Appomatox, the record is written 
in red. 

Vance, Pettigrew, Pender, Hill, Grimes, Branch, Ransom, 
all are a part of that record, as are the thousands of farmers, 
laborers, and merchants who comprised the ranks. 

Inscribed in that record also is a story of blockade-running— 
the lifeline itself of the Confederacy; and a tale of dedication 
by those who remained at home— the women and children, 
the aged and infirm— which reached a degree of greatness 
never before known, nor since equalled. 

Yes, this is the record, this and much more! This is a part 
of our heritage, a part of which we can be justly proud, and 
this we have taken for our message. 

But how then will we reach the people of the State and the 
Nation with our story? Therein lies the purpose of the North 
Carolina Confederate Centennial Commission and toward 
this end we have pledged ourselves for the next four years. 

Our Commission consists of twenty-five appointed members 
from all parts of the State, plus three ex officio members; the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Director of the 
Department of Conservation and Development, and the Di- 
rector of the Department of Archives and History. Colonel 
Hugh Dortch of Goldsboro serves as our chairman. 

The Commission itself is divided into committees, namely: 
Confederate Festival, Publications, Audio-Visual Aids, Local 
Commemoration, Historical Drama, Documents, Manuscripts 

Confederate Centennial Commission 197 

and Museum Items, School Education, Graves, Historic Sites 
and Markers. 

As you can see we have tried to cover every conceivable 
field of endeavor and, I believe, successfully. 

At the county level, we are busily at work organizing local 
committees. These committees are being appointed by the 
Chairman of the various Boards of County Commissioners 
and will serve as a co-ordinating group for local and State 
activities. Already some 33 counties have formed such com- 
mittees, and it is our hope that by the end of the year we will 
have succeeded in effecting a 100 per cent State organization. 

The State Commission is co-operating with the commissions 
of other States in varying ways. For instance, we have formed 
a Conference of Southern Commissions, for the purpose of 
bringing about a satisfying inter-state relationship and co- 
operation. Virginia will serve as a public relations outlet for 
North Carolina and Tennessee as well as for herself, while we 
will return the favor. We hope thereby to attract many more 
tourists to North Carolina than would visit ordinarily. 

At the present time we have two events in mind which 
might be termed "Spectaculars." One will be held in the 
spring of 1961 and will be termed a Confederate Festival. 
This two-day activity will include receptions, a parade, Con- 
federate band concert, and a gala costume ball. In the sum- 
mer of 1963 we hope to produce our second spectacular 
which will be in the form of a drama of the scope of our 
"Lost Colony" or "Unto These Hills." A site has not been 
selected as yet, however, we are very strongly considering 
the selection of an area within the Piedmont section of the 

Lest I leave you with the impression that our program is 
too much on the glamour side, let me briefly mention one 
or two of the other projects we are considering. 

We are working very closely with the Charter Commission 
in an attempt to acquire for the Department of Archives and 
History, a building which will adequately meet the needs of 
that Department and which will be called the Carolina Char- 
ter and Confederate Memorial Building. What more fitting 
monument could we erect to this fabulous past of our State 

198 The North Carolina Historical Review 

than a building which would house the treasures of that era. 

Our publications program will include a series of bio- 
graphical sketches of outstanding North Carolinians, a series 
on economic, social, and religious life of the period and a 
series on the major events which transpired in the State. We 
also hope to publish a new and accurate roster of North 
Carolina troops in the War, and if we are able, to republish 
Walter Clark's North Carolina Regiments. 

These are a few aspects of our program. I hope that 
I have mentioned something that appeals to you and I hope 
that we will be able to look to you for support during the 
forthcoming four-year period. 


By Thad Stem, Jr.* 

I am told this talk must be written out and read so that 
it may be transmitted to posterity in all its unblemished 
erudition, with all its pristine loveliness intact. I have a con- 
genital eye defect. I am a poor reader and if it gets so I 
cannot read my own tender words, I shall resume the fervent 
off-the-cuff yelling I just got through doing for Messrs. 
Kennedy and Sanford. 

I doubt that one can discuss writers and books and omit 
all the implications of the market place. I like to think, along 
with Whitman, that touching a book is to touch a man, to 
touch men, to touch a community, simultaneously. So any 
discussion of this State's literary production for a given year 
must, of necessity, reflect more than the immediate thoughts 
and attainments of the writers. You cannot deposit the writer 
in some nebulous fringe element and leave him there to dream 
alone until you require his personal services. Perhaps you 
don't incorporate him into your daily lives so freely as you do 
your filling station man. Nonetheless, his tracks are always 
discernible in the first frost. You may think of him as a part- 
time entertainer, a tranquilizer, or perhaps even as an intel- 
lectual perculator. Or you may shake him up carelessly with 
the loose change in your pocket or throw him out with the 
stale coffee grounds. But there is always the highly pertinent 
possibility that the writer, your local writer, is an unacknowl- 
edged legislator. True, there is no constabulary to enforce 
his mandates, but the accumulated effect of his influence 
within the community may outlast many statutes and ordi- 

Your writer must have readers, and I am not speaking mere- 
ly of economics, important as that may be. The reader is the 
writer's tangible avenue to expression. Naturally, I am not 
referring to fawning approbation, to lame-brained sycophants 

* Mr. Thad Stem, Jr., of Oxford is on the editorial staff of The News and 
Observer (Raleigh) and is an author and poet. 


200 The North Carolina Historical Review 

and their oily salve. I am speaking of intelligent, compassion- 
ate readers who recognize the writer's reciprocal moral and 
spiritual exchange with the community, that transcending 
rapport of minds, that exalted reciprocal trade agreement 
that was not sponsored by the late great Cordell Hull. 

The writer reflects you. He wants his work to be the crys- 
talization of the dream you could not perfect. Perhaps, your 
inability to perfect this dream is due only to the exigencies 
of toil. There is always some invisible miller extracting a toll. 
There may be also some toll-bridge keeper whose fare is more 
than you care to pay. And surely there is always the harass- 
ment of assorted distractions. The meadow flowers lie just 
beyond your reach, for fate has a cruel habit of erecting 
fences that time can't afford to climb. 

Hence, the writer in your midst. You are his grindstone. 
He sharpens his blade upon you. Or maybe he is the grind- 
stone and you are the instrument. It doesn't matter because 
the dualism is obvious, is irrevocably intact. There you are 
and here is your writer. The best writers, I think, are those 
who are closely attuned to society and these writers celebrate 
the passions and the follies, the human geography, the topo- 
graphy of the will, the heart, and the intellect. These writers 
enunciate the qualities that unite men. There are other writ- 
ers who emphasize their intricate differences from society, 
who harp upon the bagatelles and nuances that separate men. 
They seem to sit eternally in a dark room developing minute 
and fragmentary pictures of the complexities of their big 
toes. Fortunately, it is my privilege today to speak of those 
writers who are for and of mankind. Such men and women 
live among you. Some of them are here in this room. 

They are entitled to their inning, to many such warm and 
intimate innings as this day. A portion of what they do is ac- 
complished amid travail and vexation. Writing may be easy 
and romantic, a lavishly paying profession when the TV 
auditor is sitting comfortably and watching an actor play the 
role of a well-heeled, good looking, universally beloved 
author. It must be rather more formidable and less romantic 
in Seaboard, Weldon, and Raleigh. I know it is in Oxford. To 
be here today gives me happiness. For I am proud, deeply so, 

North Carolina Fiction 201 

to be a small part of this celebration. But this is enough merin- 
gue, a plenty of icing. I know you are waiting anxiously to get 
on to the cake. In getting to the cake, I can't resist the story 
of William Butler Yeats' winning the Nobel Prize. Yeats was 
called by 'phone late at night by a Dublin editor named 
Fogerty, who had just received the grand news from a wire 
service. Amid paroxysms of convoked emotion, Mr. Fogerty 
relayed the news to Yeats, who was still half asleep. Continu- 
ing, Mr. Forgerty chewed his tears and wailed: 

"Mr. Yeats, this is the greatest day in old Ireland's history. All 
the saints are listening. All the saints know the news and all 
the saints join to preserve this rich, rare moment. Mr. Yeats, 
the magnificence of this holy hour is like unto. . ." 
Here Yeats blurted in: "Forgerty, for God's sake, get hold of 
yourself, man. Tell me, Fogerty, How much, Fogerty, for God's 
sake man, how much money." 

The AAUW Competition for Juvenile Awards has entries 
varying considerably in length, style, and appeal. There is 
always tremendous difficulty in judging such works accurate- 
ly, appreciately. Surely, the children under 12 require books 
vastly different from those that appeal to teen-agers. Perhaps, 
some day there will be two awards, as is the custom in the 
national field. A case in point, possibly, is Julia Montgomery 
Street's beautifully produced book, Candle Love Feast. Really 
an exquisite work, this is a picture presentation for small chil- 
dren. It portrays the Moravian Love Feast on Christmas Eve. 
The text is delightfully simple, written in the first person by 
two children, as they describe this singularly moving service. 
However, as excellent as its merits are, as high as the quality 
of the work, this book is not a juvenile in the accepted con- 
sideration. I like this book so well I gave it to a neighbor's 
child, to a little girl whom I love more than any child in the 
world. Obviously, though, Mrs. Street was not thinking of 
compatibility with the confinements of the AAUW competi- 
tion. Her beautiful book should be judged on its own merits, 
not by the inflexible standards of any award. But there cer- 
tainly should be some award for such a notable achievement. 
In lieu of a trophy, Julia, I give you my love. 


202 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Trail to Oklahoma by Jim Booker is a study of the Cherokee 
removal to Oklahoma. Mr. Booker has an agonizing tale to 
tell and he tells it well, movingly. This story is redolent with 
all the classic features of unvarnished tragedy. This story had 
to be told. So to do is almost morally mandatory. And Mr. 
Booker's account is vividly delineated. Through no fault of 
authorship this books does not make the most of its theme- 
matic possibilities as related specifically to the interests of 
children. Trail to Oklahoma deserves a place on the shelves 
of all good Tar Heels. Some of the bloody sagas in our State's 
history should not be forgotten and this account stands etern- 
ally like a question mark in the conscience of time. 

Two splendid books that may have been elected were re- 
jected, maybe, as the author expected, and so he probably 
isn't dejected, it is ardently suspected. These are Glen Round's 
books, The Blind Colt and Whistle Punk of Camp 15. This is 
one of those off-again, on-again, gone-again Finnegans that 
inevitably occur in such competitions. The high scribes and 
elders decided Mr. Rounds' material had been reworked and 
was, thereby, not eligible. 

Manly Wade Wellman's entry, Appomattox Road, is an 
excellent book for boys. Mr. Wellman is an acknowledged pro 
who can write a book as easily as Mrs. Joseph Kennedy, Sr. 
could have babies. Appomattox Road is the last of three books 
about Clay Buckner and the Iron Scouts. Ardent boys and 
Civil War buffs have met Clay previously in The Ghost 
Battalion and in Ride, Rebels. In these books, Mr. Wellman 
fuses history and fiction admirably. Clay Buckner and his 
Iron Scouts pivot around the historical legends we all know. 
Mr. Wellman has a fine touch; fact and fiction blend charm- 
ingly. The total effect is for vivid reading. In Appomattox 
Road, Clay is captured and is taken to General Grant's head- 
quarters. The essence of the book is in Clay's escape, of his 
ultimate participation in the abortive fight at Fort Stedman. 
It interests me to think that many living Tar Heels knew Clay 
Buckner, or his twin brother. Mr. Wellman's fictional soldier 
had many flesh and blood prototypes across the State. He 
grew up in North Carolina, enlisted in the army, dreamed of 
being a hero, and became one. Those of you who once saw 

North Carolina Fiction 203 

the Confederate Veterans parade on May 10 must have seen 
Clay Buckner as an old man, an old man smoking a cheroot, 
drinking a sugar toddy, cussing Gen. Longstreet, and for- 
bidding his grandson to defend the north end of a football 
field. May the good Lord love all the Bonnie Blue Boys for- 

Mr. Jonathan Daniels has reduced the odds that prevailed 
at the Camp Town Race Track. You will recall that some of 
the sports bet on a bob-tailed nag and others wagered on 
the bay. Mr. Daniels has two stout horses in this sweepstakes, 
both militant grays. His books are Stonewall Jackson and 
Mosby, Gray Ghost of the Confederacy. Both are excellent 
books. Although John S. Mosby has been on a TV series, Mr. 
Daniels has presented him ane was a vibrant human being. 
This axacting discourse might well be subtitled "A Study in 
Minor Mayhem." Mosby was daring as a ravenous mountain 
lion, as lick as a thousand eels in a grease pit. As the sports 
announcers say, he came to play. Physically, he was more 
the choir boy and less the crusader but for four years he 
was a series of miniature tornadoes. Stonewall Jackson was 
really hell on wheels but Mosby was a huge yellow-jacket 
deep inside the seat of the britches. He fought so freely, with 
such consummate skill, there must have been a temptation to 
smear him into a plaster saint. God knows, and the Yankees 
knew, Mosby was no saint. But, he is important as a brilliant 
partisan raider. Such he is shown to be by Mr. Daniels, warts 
and all. By tactful implications, Mr. Daniels tells his young 
readers that John Mosby was not cut out for life in a Trappist 
monastery. And Mr. Daniels succeeds admirably in depicting 
Mosby as he really was— a bantam rooster with marlin spikes 
in lieu of cocks' spurs. The Jackson book is a notable conquest. 
I say conquest because Mr. Daniels has rescued old Stonewall 
from a Presbyterian Valhalla and put him to walking a bloody 
earth. He has rescued Jackson from John Esten Cooke and 
some of the other over-zealous hero- worshippers. In this con- 
nection, someone asked Bernard Shaw why he bothered to 
write the play about Joan of Arc. Shaw said he did it to save 
St. Joan from John Drinkwater. I can not emphasize the sim- 
ilar debt we owe to Mr. Daniels and his Jackson. The old 


204 The North Carolina Historical Review 

writers (and some of the moderns) have deified and canon- 
ized Jackson. My prediction is that newer writers wlil see him 
as a psychiatric case, or as a mililtary sadist in the Prussian 
mold who understood, perhaps understood too well, the con- 
cepts of total, unmitigated war. Mr. Daniels gives us a man 
and not a recitation in the proper usages of embalming fluid. 
The freshness of the book is amazing, when one recalls the 
millions of words previously written about the subject. To 
deviate a second, Robert Bridges spent 20 years thinking of 
something new to say about the nightingale. Mr. Daniels 
didn't wait so long. He now comes precisely to the point, 
amid charm, coherence, and understanding. There is within 
his writing, here, a tenderness that is the distillation of the 
sweet breath of sympathetic understanding. And so, the top 
of this good morning to old Stonewall and to Mr. Jonathan 
Worth Daniels. 

The Sir Walter Raleigh Competition has some good novels, 
two or three are really outstanding. Some others do not mea- 
sure up to the extraordinary quality that makes a novel out- 
standing, but taken as a unit, these entries deserve time and 
close attention: Frank Landing's War Cry of the South con- 
cerns itself with phases of naval operations during the battle 
of the 'sixties. Unquestionably, Mr. Landing did a lot of re- 
search. Perhaps, it is the nature of this research that keeps 
the novel from achieving unity. It seems to me that Mr. 
Landing's preoccupation with actual history is a subconscious 
impediment that mars the full development of characters. The 
book reaches several climatic episodes, but, by this very fact, 
it is too episodic to attain that corporal unity that is essential 
to outstanding works of fiction. This story reveals much of 
importance about the "Albemarle," the famous fighting ship 
that is so important to North Carolina's Civil War history. 
Mr. Landing is to be congratulated for telling a story that 
needed to be told. 

Ernest Frankel's Tongue of Fire is a long novel, one that 
is carefully put together. It is filled with action and there is 
more than enough sex to satisfy those who are more than 
morbidly curious. This novel is a fictional study of the late, 
unlamented Senator McCarthy, even though the fictional 

North Carolina Fiction 205 

character is set down as a Tar Heel senator. The action car- 
ries the reader through Washington to the Giesha sorority 
halls of Japan. Kane O'Connor, the bogey-man senator, par- 
lays his world war record and a small town law practice to 
the role of America's most feared man. The Senator rails about 
Communist infiltration but he proceeds directly to total dis- 
integration and deterioration. Mr. Frankel makes the reader 
hate Kane O'Connor's guts. Eventually, O'Connor dies on the 
sidewalk as any stray dog might die from a traffic accident. 
The reader is profoundly grateful for this death, even if it 
takes an uncommonly long time to come. Mr. Frankel won 
this Sir Walter Award in 1959. He is a good writer and will 
be heard from again. 

Now a word about John Ehle's Kingstree Island. Mr. Ehle 
is a young man whom readers will watch with increasing 
pleasure, and writers will watch with poorly concealed envy 
and exasperation. Kingstree Island is a story of the Outer 
Banks. John Ehle's good prose style develops an exciting 
plot. But it seems to me that Mr. Ehle never quite delivers 
the Joe Louis knock-out punch he is obviously seeking. He has 
his story, on the ropes, so to say, but never quite wraps it up. 
Too, this novel has a central romantic theme that appears to 
be forced, at times. Nonetheless, there are places of distinct 
merit. And the book never flags the reader's attention. In my 
mind there is little question that, ere long, Mr. Ehle will pro- 
duce a novel of major significance. I'll tell you this: If I were 
a competing novelist, John Ehle would soon have me on 
Sominex or Night- All. 

Inglis Fletcher's novel, Comorant's Brood, reveals her 
amazing understanding of colonial life in North Carolina. It is 
with unmistakable skill that Mrs. Fletcher recreates the early 
days in Edenton and the Chowan River area. Her account 
is well-written. So any mention is superfluous, in consideration 
of her long record of meritorious creations. The book is 
packed with adventure, keeps the reader's anticipation and 
his sensibilities fastened upon the fast-flying, swashbuckling 
exploits. The time is 1725 and the forests are surrendering to 
farms. All is quiet superficially. No war is on, but powerful 
discontent lies below the tranquil surface. The people are 


206 The North Carolina Historical Review 

sick of "comorant's brood," of the greedy, careless men who 
rule them, who take all and give practically nothing in return. 
This is the stage that Mrs. Fletcher dramatizes by dint of a 
profusion of glittering characters, the elegant and the unre- 
fined, the weak and the strong, the impotent vacillators and 
the strong hearts. Those who succumbed long ago to Inglis 
Fletcher's spell will not be disappointed. 

To review Paul Green's entry, The Stephen Foster Story, 
is simultaneously to revel in exhilaration and to be choked 
by consternation. This is a drama, a book published from a 
thrilling stage pageant. This is a play that Paul Green wrote. 
Any comment relative to craftsmanship is as banal as saying 
FDR was a successful candidate. Unfortunately, we have no 
award for drama. This work was submitted to the judges 
along with the novels. But let us disregard its want of func- 
tional application, and think of the marvelous totality of Paul 
Green. What I am about to say may seem corny to self- 
winding esthetes but it is not singular that Stephen Foster, 
the "beautiful dreamer of his song" is dramatized by Paul 
Green, our own beautiful dreamer. For Paul Green's won- 
drous identification with the American Dream makes the 
concept and the man well-night inseparable. Surely, there is 
an hourly spiritual award for Paul Green, our sweet-singing, 
yea-saying apostle of the nobility of democratic affirmation. 
His garment is soaked with the blood and sweat of his people. 
He has eaten the sour dough of mankind's frustration and he 
has drunk their wormwood and gall, all the while fiddling in 
the morrow with the unbounded passion of "The Mountain 
Whippoorwill." His tall shadow is irrespressibly amongst us. 
It is solace to the weak and inspiration to the cheerless, and 
best of all, fat men in warm rooms can not forget hungry 
men in dispirited places so long as Paul Green's icy shadow 
taps at the window. He is our tall man in the saddle, our 
goodly brother, our water brook, the strong arm of our hope- 
fulness, the song of the morning bird with the mist in its 
throat and the scents of the fields on its coat. 

The phrase, "Paul Green, too," is an implied line in every 
celebration of the State's prowess: 

North Carolina Fiction 207 

We've got tobacco, cotton, peanuts, corn, and fruits galore, 
More highways and school buildings than ever before; 
We've got forests and mines and 10,000 kinds of mills, 
Saints and sinners, the Research Triangle and whiskey stills, 
And Paul Green, too. 

We've got Grahams all the way from Billy to Frank, 

Stocks and bonds and money in the bank ; 

We've got ideals that are celebrated in verse, 

To, Terry Sanford and the new Secretary of Commerce, 

And Paul Green, too. 

But you may have them all, 
If you will give me Paul. 

Paul, if you will over-look the innocuous frivolity of the 
ditty, I am happy to be your man. The magic medicines come 
and go as the diseases change, but you are always good for 
what ails the soul. 

On A Lonesome Porch is Ovid Pierce's second novel. When 
I say this book is as good as his previous novel, The Plantation, 
I exhaust praise. Mr. Pierce is such a painstaking craftsman 
one gets the impression that words are so fragile they will 
break if used improperly. He handles words as if they were the 
last good seed on earth and his paper is the only fruitful 
spot left. He adheres to the school that maintains a sentence 
should not have an extra word or a paragraph an extra 
sentence. But there is tremendous lyricism in his pared, 
lean style. 

The late James Street hailed The Plantation as the peak 
opposite Look Homeward, Angel. I don't know what novel 
the new Pierce book will be coupled to, nor what Clingman's 
Dome will compare with his new Mt. Mitchell. I do know 
that to read On A Lonesome Porch is to know intimacy 
with sheer realism, a transcending reality that contains no 
preachments. Mr. Pierce's native music is sweet and long to 
the ear because its unadorned simplicity precludes false notes. 
Mr. Pierce is the great weather man amongst us. He knows 
all the outer and inner weather so well he can pour it in the 
palm of your hand. His sense of time and place is almost in- 
credibly expressed. He is as fundamental as a buttered biscuit. 

208 The North Carolina Historical Review 

He has created a geography of the mind that can be repro- 
duced by manmakers of the spirit. His is the richness and 
rareness of the apple reddening and ripening on the heavy 
tree. His story is simple and yet it is the entire history of a 
vanquished world, told exquisitely, in indelible miniature. On 
A Lonesome Porch is a poignant study of a slice of rural life 
in Eastern Carolina at the end of the Civil War. This tale has 
been written countless times and has been spoken on shaded 
porches a million times more. Tar Heels know this story as 
well as they know there was once a man named Zeb Vance. 
But Ovid Pierce has been up on the mountain with Moses 
and he has come down with our past laid so bare one surely 
thinks one is a character in the saga. That's how Mr. Pierce 
performs his unhurried magic. The reader isn't a reader nearly 
so much as he is a vibrant participant in what he is reading. 
This book is just as good as good can be. I wish I were some 
sort of exalted literacy John L. Lewis that I might challenge 
and dispatch immediately any poppinjay who has the un- 
mitigated termerity to say a word against it. 

To conclude, the cause of Ovid Pierce and all the others, 
will win out ultimately. The spirit of man is bound to triumph. 
The cause of sense and sensibility will sweep all the decks, 
ultimately. If we don't believe that, if we aren't willing to 
work for that ideal, we may as well go to the top of this hotel 
and jump off now. 



By Spencer Murphy* 

I approach my assigned task today with some trepidation 
and a great deal of humility. It is most flattering to be asked 
to reduce countless thousands of hours of research and literary 
composition on the part of more than two-score authors into 
twenty minutes of evaluation. At the same time I must cou- 
rageously face the fact that somebody must have thought I 
would be foolish enough to accept such a chore if it were 
offered me. 

Now that I have contributed a great deal of eye-strain 
to proving I am just that foolish, I, frankly, do not feel too 
badly about it. If you find any merit whatsoever in my efforts, 
I shall be very proud. If you do not, let me shrug the whole 
thing off right now with the observation that it has been a 
job which nobody could have done really well. 

If you do give me your approval, however, I would like 
at the outset to acknowledge the valuable assistance given 
me by another of the Mayflower Cup competition judges who 
lives in the same town of Salisbury. Mrs. William C. Stanback, 
a literary critic of widely recognized talents, has given gen- 
erously of her time and skills in helping to compress this 
presentation to fit into the busy schedule of your annual 

With this pressure of time in mind, we have chosen to 
neglect biographical identification of our authors, and to 
concentrate upon the books themselves. 

An outstanding characteristic of American literature in 
the immediate past has been a devotion to the production of 
what we might best term guidebooks to salvation. 

North Carolina writers of recent non-fiction, however, 
have seemed to be preponderantly assailed by a fever for in- 
vestigation and report. 

* Mr. Spencer Murphy is the editor of The Salisbury Post. 


210 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Many of them have been on a statistical binge in scholarly 
environs while the national output of roadmaps to Utopia has 
ranged broadly from a New Hampshire physician's prescrip- 
tion of honey and vinegar for all bodily ills, to a Texas bro- 
chure outlining procedure for conquering world Communism 
by grassroots morality. 

A single North Carolina volume falls wholly in this cate- 
gory, but on a high level of competence and interest. It is 
Spiritual Therapy, by Richard K. Young and Albert L. Mei- 
burg, a convincing account of successful attack on psychoso- 
matic disorders by combined resources of medicine, psychia- 
try, and spiritual ministration. The book may well become a 
milestone of recognition in the history of human healing. 

If we broaden the guidebook to salvation category some- 
what we must include Harry Golden's For 2 Cents Plain, 
incidentally the only national best seller in our list, and Rev. 
John Redhead's Putting Your Faith to Work as two distin- 
guished works each devoted in a different way to philosophies 
of "the better life," Golden's approach is that of an ultra- 
sophisticated cracker-barrel philosopher who blends homely 
observations and quotations from the classics with reckless 
and fascinating abandon in the cause of the brotherhood of 
man. Dr. Redhead's volume is made up of some of his short 
radio sermons designed to ease the aches of spiritual distress 
and moral befuddlements. 

Within this general group, too, falls the little volume 
Beauty and Truth, by Lena Pittman Weeks, a collection of 
folksy homilies created out of an obviously sincere and 
dedicated spirit. 

Personal philosophy and interpretations of life in general 
are also dominant in several other works, most notably The 
Perennial Alamanac, by Thad Stem, Jr., and Unguarded 
Moments, by Zoe Kincaid Brockman. The former is a collec- 
tion of sprightly familiar essays on a fine variety of subjects; 
the author has a distinctive and attractive style, and a flair 
for novel approach. Brockman's offering is a handsome variety 
of "mood," nostalgia, and "atmosphere" musings by a truly 
gifted writer. 

North Carolina Nonfiction 211 

With only these few of the Mayflower Cup candidates 
mentioned we begin to encounter some difficulty of classifi- 
cation into specific fields. Quite a few of the submissions fit 
partially into two or more groups each. 

Perhaps, since this is strictly a North Carolina excursion in 
literary merit, it should be permissable to consider as a single 
group, those works restricted to a native content no matter 
how various they may be otherwise. 

Outstanding among these is a history, The County of 
Warren, by Manly Wade Wellman. The writing of a county 
history is ordinarily a chore as pedestrian as it is likely to be 
onerous, but the story of Warren undoubtedly has more than 
ordinarily interesting subject matter, and the author has had 
the skill to take full advantage of it. 

John R. Larkins is author of Patterns of Leadership Among 
Negroes in North Carolina, sl scholarly report on a modest 
scale sincerely explored. 

We Made Peace With Polio, by Luther Robinson, is an 
absorbing account of a community and personal reaction to 
crisis and epidemic threat in an alert and public-spirited 

Illustrated Guide to Ghosts, is a neatly ornamented col- 
lection of the better-known occult tales and legends of the 
State, told without attempts at hair-raising; it is by Nancy 
and Bruce Roberts. 

In I Have Called You Friends, Francis C. Anscombe pre- 
sents a valuable collection of fact and circumstance in a sphere 
of sparse record where the Quakers of North Carolina have 
made contributions which have far out-reached their numbers. 

Asheville and Land of The Sky, is a combination history, 
geography, chamber of commerce presentation of the famous 
resort area, written by Martha Norburn Allen. 

Ivan M. Proctor and Dorothy Long have written One 
Hundred Years History of The North Carolina Board of 
Medical Examiners. It is a readable record of the long and 
often rebuffed efforts of North Carolina leaders in the medical 
profession to raise standards of their practice, and to safe- 
guard themselves and the public by legislative enactment. 

212 The North Carolina Historical Review 

A book of somewhat restricted interest is North Carolina 
in The Mexican War. In it William S. Hoffmann presents a 
factual review of a brief and little publicized episode in our 
State's history during a pre-atomic era when Mexico was 
actually more remote from us than Tibet is today. 

Moving from North Carolina in particular to the southern 
States in general we find several books of geographical 

One unusual work in this group finds Manly Wade Wellman 
on our list again, this time with his sister. They offer The 
Rebel Songster, a meaningful collection of words and music 
of songs of the Confederacy from the sublime to the ridicu- 
lous, given extra vitality by a spirited narrative of the emo- 
tions and events which gave them birth and perpetuity. 

Another unusual creation is of dual authorship, Edward 
and Elizabeth Waugh's, The South Builds, gives us a gen- 
erously and beautifully illustrated survey of changing times 
in residential, commercial, and governmental architecture 
and building once the corner grocery has given way to the 

Completing this category are Southern Life in Fiction, sl 
stimulating discussion of regional stock characters by Jay B. 
Hubbell, and The South In American History, by William B. 
Hesseltine and David L. Smiley, a brilliant narrative and 
analytical outline of the historic, cultural, and economic 
peculiarities and characteristics of the southern region as a 
part of, and not something apart from the nation. 

And, finally, in an area of transcendant southern interest, 
there is Christians in Racial Crisis, by Thomas F. Pettigrew 
and Ernest Q. Campbell. These co-authors give us a pene- 
trating study in depth of the motivation, reaction, and conduct 
of the ministers of Little Rock, Arkansas, under the lash of 
integration, turmoil, and violence. 

Oddly enough there are only three biographies included in 
this year's Mayflower Cup listing. One, not truly a biography, 
but rather a character sketch both critical and biographical 
in nature, is a short and perceptive monograph in interpre- 
tation of one of the nation's literary great; it is Thomas Wolfe, 
by C. Hugh Holman. 

North Carolina Nonfiction 213 

The second is the story of a significant segment of the 
consecrated life of a man of God, in which John Ehle re- 
cords the trials and tribulations of an Episcopal minister's 
life and labors of love in the Puerto-Rican slums of New 
York. The book is titled Shepherd of The Streets. It makes 
engrossing reading. The third is a true biography, dealing 
with a Civil War General, not a hero in gray, but a leader in 
the Union armies. Hancock The Superb, by Glenn Tucker, 
is a persuasively sympathetic biography of a military genius, 
and an adroitly compressed story of the fortunes of the Army 
of the Potomac. 

The phenomenon of War motivates three other books in 
our list. 

George Washington s Navy, by William Bell Clark, is a 
superb recording of naval activities during the American 
Revolution. War In The Modern World, by Theodore Ropp, 
is a painstaking treatise devoted to strategies and technicali- 
ties of national warfare, and their progressive mutation at 
the instance of science and politics. 

In The Ignorant Armies, E. M. Halliday tell us a gripping 
and informative story of the obscure American role in the 
allied invasion of northern Russia at the end of the First World 
War, a gallant adventure which may have had greater import 
in the shaping of current crisis than many other more 
publicized expeditions. 

A study of international diplomacy against a background 
of war and rumor of war comes from Raymond H. Dawson 
in his book, The Decision To Aid Russia, 1941. Here, as in 
the volume last mentioned, we have record of behind-the- 
scenes events which time has demonstrated to have been of 
far greater lasting significance than they were accorded in 
their own day. 

Having covered 75 per cent of the Mayflower Cup aspir- 
ants, we have come to a final miscellaneous group of nine 
volumes none of which has much in common with any of the 
others, save that in each instance we find to some extent 
what I referred to at the outset as a fever for investigation. 

Reviewing these volumes briefly in alphabetical order, we 

214 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The Cost of Democracy, by Alexander Heard. It is a minute 
exploration of the visible and near- visible areas of American 
political financing, and much interesting conjecture as to its 
greater areas in obscurity; an achievement of a truly formid- 
able total of research. 

Lionel Stevenson's The English Novel, is a masterful pres- 
entation of the subject with interesting and plausible sug- 
gestions of cause and effect as between temporal influences 
on the novel form, and the novel's influence upon social 

Charles I. Foster is author of An Errand of Mercy, sl keen 
and extensive study of inter-relation and inter-action of 
British and American Protestant churches in quest of religious, 
social, and political prestige during the nineteenth century. 

Inside Secrets of Selling, comes from the prolific type- 
writer of Jack Wardlaw. He gives us a lucid and forceful ex- 
position of sales psychology reinforced by an interesting and 
outspoken philosophy of life. 

Claude S. George, Jr., gives us Management In Industry, 
a far-reaching textbook on the intricacies and complexities 
of modern industrial management and machinery during an 
era of technological revolution. 

The Negro Vanguard, by Richard Bardolph is an uncom- 
promising research and evaluation of the emergence of 
American Negroes of outstanding talents and abilities in aug- 
menting the status of their division of the family of the 
United States. It is a work calculated to have ponderable 
social impact in a disturbed period of our history. 

Science and State Government, by Frederic N. Cleaveland 
gives evidence of extensive and knowledgeable research, and 
adroit synthesis within the several spheres of activity ex- 
amined among a small number of selected States. Its appeal 
is necessarily limited to a specialized audience. 

The same element of limited appeal also applies to the 
scholarly volume The Social Psychology of Groups, by 
John W. Thibaut and Harold H. Kelley, a complex searching 
into the voluntary and forced association of individuals and 
groups, action, response, possibilities and impracticalities of 
control, mutation, and direction. 

North Carolina Nonfiction 215 

And, finally, we find appeal limited to the scholarly in 
Oliver C. Cai-michael's work Universities: Commonwealth and 
American, sl brilliant survey and inquiry into a precinct of 
increasingly critical importance. Dr. Carmichael uncovers 
details of challenge to accomplishment in the free world 
which educators both in America and in the nations of the 
British Commonwealth will doubtless ponder with concern. 

In summary, I have no hesistancy in boasting with native 
pride that North Carolina authors of nonfiction have strewn 
more than a sufficiency of literary laurels over the land of the 
balsam and the long-leaf pine during the past year. 



By Hugh Talmage Lefler* 

Writing to General Joseph Graham on July 20, 1821, Archi- 
bald D. Murphey said: 

. . . Your letter to Col. Connor first suggested to me the plan 
of a work, which I will execute if I live. It is a work on the his- 
tory, soil, climate, legislation, civil institutions, literature, &c. 
of this State. Soon after reading your letter, I turned my atten- 
tion to the subject, in the few hours which I could snatch from 
business, and I was surprised to find what abundant materials 
could, with care and diligence, be collected; materials which, if 
well disposed, would furnish matter for one of the most interest- 
ing works that have been published in this country. We want such 
a work. We neither know ourselves, nor are we known to others. 
Such a work well executed, would add very much to our standing 
in the Union, and make our State respectable in our own eyes. 
Amidst the cares and anxieties which surround me, I cannot 
cherish a hope, that I could do more than guide the labors of 
some man who would take up the work after me and prosecute 
it to perfection. I love North Carolina, and love her the more, 
because so much injustice has been done to her. We want pride. 
We want independence. We want magnanimity. Knowing nothing 
of ourselves, we have nothing in our history to which we can 
turn with feelings of conscious pride. We know nothing of our 
State, and care nothing about it. 1 

Murphey proposed a five- or six-volume history for which 
he worked out an elaborate outline. He estimated that the job 
of collecting data and "examining and extracting from public 
records" alone would cost $3,000. In 1823 he asked the Gen- 
eral Assembly to lend him $10,000 for eight or ten years to 
complete this ambitious project, but no action was taken on 

* Dr. Hugh Talmage Lefler is Kenan Professor of History at the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. This article was his presidential address to the 
North Carolina Literary and Historical Association and was read in his 
absence by Mr. Richard Walser. 

1 Stephen B. Weeks, Historical Review of the Colonial and State Records 
of North Carolina (Raleigh, 1914), 16-17, hereinafter cited as Weeks, The 
Historical Review. 


North Carolina History — A Summary View 217 

his proposal. In 1825 and again in 1827 the legislature autho- 
rized Murphey to hold a lottery to raise money for his pro- 
jected history. Both lotteries were almost complete financial 
failures; they fell far short of raising the revenue needed to 
do the requisite job of collecting documents and writing and 
publishing a multi-volume history. Murphey's history was 
never written, but the legislature from time to time authorized 
the governor to have documents copied in this country and in 
England. Thus it may be asserted that the pioneer in the work 
of collecting historical materials in North Carolina was 
Archibald D. Murphey. 2 

Writing in 1914, Stephen B. Weeks, one of the State's first 
professionally trained historians, said: 

Before the name of Murphey all North Carolinians uncover. 
He had the instincts of and feelings of the scholar, the en- 
thusiasm of the collector, and, if judged by the outline of his 
proposed work, is the greatest of all students of North Carolina 
history. In boldness of outline, in breadth of view and firmness 
and grasp of the subject as a whole, he surpassed not only his 
contemporaries, but all those who have come after. But it was 
Murphey's fate to be ahead of his day. The man was ready, but 
the times were not ; he could not force them, and there were no 
disciples in that generation to take up the work of this pro- 
tagonist of historical learning. His work as it has come down 
to us is hardly a torso, for of all the materials collected by him 
only a few fragments have been saved. But in the scope of his 
work Murphey was far ahead of all competitors and furnished a 
scheme of historical work which measures up to the modern 
German ideal of Social History. ... It covered every phase of 
the life of the State, and was so comprehensive that no suc- 
ceeding writer has dared to fill in his outlines. 3 

A careful examination of the Murphey outline reveals the 
accuracy of Professor Weeks' statement. It was wholly correct 
in 1914. It is true in many respects in 1960. 

Now I do not mean to say that there has not been a vast 
amount of good State history written and published in the 
more than a century and a quarter since Murphey announced 

2 Hugh T. Lefler, History of North Carolina (New York: 2 volumes, 
1956), I, 320. 

3 Weeks, The Historical Review, 15-16. 

218 The North Carolina Historical Review 

his plan. At the time of his proposal, Hugh Williamson had 
already published a slender two-volume History of North 
Carolina (Philadelphia, 1812). And a great part of the literary 
effort of North Carolinians for the remainder of the nine- 
teenth century was directed toward the writing of history and 
biography. In 1829 Francois Xavier Martin published a two- 
volume history of the State, and in 1851 there appeared 
John H. Wheeler's Historical Sketches of North Carolina to 
1851, a book which had a reputed sale of 10,000 copies. In 
1857 and 1858 Francis Lister Hawks published a two-volume 
History of North Carolina, the first volume of which was doc- 
umentary, but the second volume of which partially followed 
the pattern outlined by Murphey, in that it had chapters or 
sections on such topics as agriculture, industry, education, 
and religion. The only other general history of the State pub- 
lished prior to 1900 was a two-volume history by John 
Wheeler Moore in 1880. This too was largely political and 

In the twentieth century, for the first time, the literary pro- 
duction of North Carolinians began to achieve more than local 
distinction in quantity and quality. During the first quarter 
of the century the chief interest and activity were in the 
fields of history and biography. Many local untrained authors 
wrote or edited historical works from patriotic impulse. 
Among this group were Samuel A. Ashe, Kemp P. Battle, 
Walter Clark, Charles L. Coon, Marshall DeLancey Hay- 
wood, William L. Saunders, and others. Ashe is best known 
for his eight-volume Biographical History of North Carolina 
(1905-1917) and his two-volume History of North Carolina 
(1908-1925); Battle for his two-volume History of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina ( 1907-1912); Clark as editor of the 
five-volume North Carolina Regiments, 1861-65 (1901) and 
the sixteen-volume State Records of North Carolina (1895- 
1905); Coon for his editing The Beginnings of Public Educa- 
tion in North Carolina (1908) and North Carolina Schools 
and Academies (1915); Haywood for his Governor William 
Try on (1903, reprinted recently), his Lives of the Bishops 
of North Carolina ( 1910), and his Beginnings of Freemasonry 
in North Carolina ( 1906 ) ; and Saunders for his ten-volume 
Colonial Records of North Carolina. 

North Carolina History — A Summary View 219 

Stephen B. Weeks, a professional historian, writing about 
these men and other authors of their day, said: 

They had liberty, and sometimes used it with great freedom. 
Their culture was broad and their view was large. They were 
frequently weak on fact, but strong on interpretation. They 
understood the bearing of things, and translated dry details into 
living pictures of real life. 

For the first time there appeared a group of scholars trained 
in modern scientific historical methods. Among these profes- 
sional historians were John Spencer Bassett, William K. Boyd, 
R. D. W. Connor, J. G. deR. Hamilton, Charles Lee Raper, 
Henry M. Wagstaff, Stephen B. Weeks, and others. All of 
these men have made distinctive contributions to North Caro- 
lina history. 

In 1919 there appeared the first general history of North 
Carolina written by trained historians, a three-volume history 
by Connor, Boyd, and Hamilton. These authors followed a 
different plan from that of earlier writers. Their effort was "to 
emphasize movements rather than events, ideals rather than 
men; orderly developments rather than phenomena of anti- 
quarian interest." This same pattern was followed in succeed- 
ing multi- volume North Carolina histories; the two- volume 
North Carolina: Rebuilding an Ancient Commonwealth by 
Connor in 1929; the two-volume North Carolina, the Old 
North State and the New in 1941 by Archibald Henderson; 
and the two-volume History of North Carolina by Lefler in 
1956. And, I hope I may be pardoned for mentioning the 
Lefler-Newsome North Carolina: The History of a Southern 
State, published in 1954. 

All of these volumes added materially to the knowledge of 
State history. Meanwhile other, and perhaps more significant, 
developments were taking place. In the past forty years scores 
of excellent monographs have been published on numerous 
phases of North Carolina history. Among the most scholarly 
and readable monographs are: C. C. Crittenden, The Com- 
merce of North Carolina, 1763-1789; Guion Johnson, Ante- 
Bellum North Carolina; David Stick, Graveyard of the 
Atlantic; Blackwell P. Robinson's biography of William R. 

220 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Davie; and Archibald Henderson's Campus of the First State 
University. We also have reason to be proud of the scores of 
documentary books and other publications which have eman- 
ated from our State Department of Archives and History 
(formerly the North Carolina Historical Commission), and 
perhaps the greatest contributions which have been made to 
our history have been the hundreds of articles which have 
appeared in The North Carolina Historical Review. Recogni- 
tion should also be given to the University of North Carolina 
Press, the Duke University Press, and to several private 
presses in the State for the publication of numerous scholarly, 
readable, and beautiful books about the Old North State. 

Most of the books mentioned above placed major emphasis 
on political history, military affairs, and biography. But even 
in these areas of historical investigation there are great gaps 
and deficiencies. There is still a vast dearth of books and 
articles on scores of important aspects of political and military 
history; extremely little has been published about North Car- 
olina leaders, even those in politics and war, and we have 
almost completely ignored our outstanding leaders in agri- 
culture, manufacturing, commerce and finance, education, re- 
ligion, law, medicine, journalism, and the like. 

Comparisons between the accomplishments of historians of 
one State and another are likely to be invidious, but one way 
to get at what needs to be done in North Carolina history is 
to glance at what has been published in our neighboring 
States. Accordingly as I mention and discuss briefly some neg- 
lected areas of North Carolina history, I shall give a few 
illustrations of what has been done in other States— in the 
hope that sometime we may produce the same sort of studies. 

I shall begin this portion of my paper with the first topic 
which Murphey proposed for his history, the Indian. We have 
a readable book by Douglas Rights, The American Indian in 
North Carolina, and there are numerous articles which relate 
to our aboriginal population, but we have failed to produce a 
study which deals adequately with all of the tribes and their 
relationship to the whites. Some tribes have received no study 
whatsoever. There is no good study of Indian trade and en- 
tirely too little published about various Indian wars. 

North Carolina History — A Summary View 221 

In their efforts to settle Carolina, the Proprietors printed a 
vast amount of promotional literature. Murphey overlooked 
this topic as have later historians, although there is an un- 
published doctoral dissertation at Brown University on this 
fascinating subject. 

The actual process of settlement is one of the most impor- 
tant aspects of the history of any State or region. When and 
where were the first permanent settlements made? Whence 
did these people come? What size land grants did they re- 
ceive? When and how did they develop agriculture, industry, 
and trade? What about their churches, schools, and social 
life? The third section of Murphey's history would have cov- 
ered this important subject, but to this day there are no 
scholarly studies in print of the settlement of ancient Albe- 
marle County, of the Lower Cape Fear, the Upper Cape 
Fear, the Piedmont, and other regions within the State. There 
are studies in progress on the settlement of some of these 
areas, but so far there is no satisfactory published account of 
any of them. We do not have studies of the exploration and 
settlement of our State comparable to some volumes on other 
States, such as R. L. Meriwether, The Expansion of South 
Carolina. A book such as this for North Carolina would be an 
arduous undertaking, but it would shed considerable light on 
both State and national history. 

Related to this topic is another subject of tremendous im- 
portance, that of immigration and national stocks in the 
State's population. R. D. W. Connor, Adelaide Fries, Carl 
Hammer, Jr., and a few other writers have dealt with this 
general theme, but there is no thorough study of any of the 
national groups which settled this State— English, Scotch- 
Irish, Highland Scots, French Huguenots, Welsh, and others. 
We have nothing comparable to W. F. Dunaway, The Scotch- 
Irish of Colonial Pennsylvania, Fredric Klees, The Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch, or J. P. Wayland, The German Element in the 
Shenandoah Valley. 

In the area of colonial government, there is a good book- 
now out of print— by Charles Lee Raper, North Carolina: A 
Study in English Colonial Government, but this volume covers 
only the royal period from 1729 to 1776. There is an urgent 

222 The North Carolina Historical Review 

need for a scholarly and readable book on the Proprietary 
Era in North Carolina, a gap which may be filled by a study 
now in progress by Herbert Paschal. 

Proprietary North Carolina had many problems and a num- 
ber of popular uprisings, the most important and dramatic 
of which was Culpeper's Rebellion in 1677. Book after book 
has been written about Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia which 
occurred about the same time, but no book, not even a good 
article, has appeared on Culpeper's Rebellion, which Wil- 
liam E. Dodd called "the first democratic uprising in Ameri- 
can history." 

There is a distinct need for an economic history of North 
Carolina, a multi-volume work which will explore as thor- 
oughly as Philip Alexander Bruce did for Virginia in the 
seventeenth century, the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twen- 
tieth centuries in North Carolina. C. O. Cathey has published 
a scholarly monograph on Agricultural Development in North 
Carolina to 1860, but there is no such study for the century 
since 1860, by far the most important era in the State's agri- 
cultural development. C. C. Crittenden has an excellent 
volume on North Carolina Commerce, 1763-1789, but there 
is no similar study for the years prior to 1763 or the long 
period since 1789. There should be a history of the Port of 
Wilmington, the State's most important port since the late 
colonial period. North Carolina had the longest plank road 
ever built in the world, but there is no good account in print 
of our first good roads movement, that of the 1850's. There 
are a few books relating to specific railway companies and to 
highways, but there is an urgent need for a history of trans- 
portation, especially in the twentieth century. And historians 
have done entirely too little in the area of communication. 
The evolution of the postal system should be studied, and for 
the modern period, something should be written about our 
mass media of communication: newspapers, radio, and tele- 

We have done virtually nothing in other areas of our eco- 
nomic history. There is no book comparable to Kathleen 
Bruce's Virginia Iron Manufacture in the Slave Era. We have 
written entirely too little about naval stores, the leading 

North Carolina History — A Summary View 223 

industry of the State for more than a century and the one 
which gave to North Carolina its nickname. Fletcher Green 
has published some excellent articles on "Gold Mining in 
North Carolina," but we need accounts of other mining 
operations, such as iron, coal, and copper. There have been 
many books and articles about tobacco and textiles, but much 
remains to be written about these two leading manufactures. 
And next to nothing has been published about the State's third 
largest industry, forest products: furniture, lumber, and paper. 
We have had some novels, a few articles and one or two 
brief books about piracy, but there is still no good account of 
this intriguing subject. Documents in England which relate 
to piracy have gone unworked. 

In the area of military affairs, much has been written in 
the older histories, particularly in Ashe, and there have been 
some splendid articles on a few battles and campaigns of the 
War for Independence. But we still have no competent his- 
tory of the American Revolution as it was conducted in North 
Carolina. We have no studies comparable to those done for 
Virginia and South Carolina during the Revolutionary era. 
Very little has been written about the home front and the 
non-military aspects of the war. Most of our accounts of the 
War of 1812 relate to the exploits of three Tar Heels in this 
conflict. There is a brief book about the State's role in the 
Mexican War, but more could be done here. And despite the 
constant interest in the Civil War, and the rash of books and 
articles which are now appearing about this sectional conflict, 
so much more remains to be done. John G. Barrett has a 
scholarly and highly readable book on Shermans March 
Through the Carolinas, but this covers only a few months of 
the war. D. H. Hill's A History of North Carolina in the War 
Between the States: Bethel to Sharpsburg was never com- 
pleted. There is still need for a first-class volume on North 
Carolina's unique role in the Civil War. 

In the field of political history, where one might expect the 
story to be fully told, we find many glaring gaps. There are 
rather satisfactory accounts of the Federalist party, of Jeffer- 
sonian Democracy, and of the Democratic party to 1860. But 
there are no books on the Whig party, 1835-1860, on the 

224 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Democratic party since 1860, or the Populist party of the 
1890's. There is no history of the Republican party and there 
is an urgent need for such a work, as there is for a scholarly 
study of the Democratic party since 1900. Very little has been 
written about suffrage and elections in the State, although 
there are a few outstanding monographs and articles on some 
of the most important elections. And no historian has yet 
published a volume giving the complete story of one of the 
most obvious and potent forces in our State's history from its 
very beginning, that of sectionalism. 

In Virginia there are three good books in the field of 
criminal law, but North Carolina has produced no satisfactory 
account of a most important phase of our life, that of crime 
and punishment. Guion Johnson, in one of the best books ever 
written about the State, Ante-Bellum North Carolina, has 
some valuable facts about this subject, and there have been 
some articles which bear on this theme, but we have failed 
to make a thorough study of the court system from the begin- 
ning to the present. Legislators and others talk about court 
reform, but historians have failed to write about the court 
structure or the actual operation of the law. 

Slavery and the Negro have always been favorite themes 
of historians throughout the nation, and North Carolina is no 
exception. John Hope Franklin has an interesting volume on 
The Free Negro in North Carolina to I860, and there have 
been several short monographs and numerous articles relating 
to slavery and to the Negro since his emancipation in 1865, 
but this State has produced no scholarly study of slavery com- 
parable to those for Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. This 
despite the fact that the University of North Carolina Li- 
brary contains the largest collection of plantation records in 

In the field of religious history, many books have been pub- 
lished on particular denominations, and there are some short 
histories of individual churches. Most of these have been 
written by clergymen and fail to measure up to standards of 
modern historical scholarship. With the possible exception 
of the Baptists and Moravians, there is need for historical in- 

North Carolina History — A Summary View 225 

vestigation of every religious sect in the State. Such studies 
would shed much light on our general history. 

There are a few books and many articles dealing with edu- 
cation in North Carolina, but there is need for an up-to-date 
history of public education, with particular emphasis on the 
present century. And, despite the fact that there are histories 
of many of our colleges, much remains to be done. We still 
need a good one-volume history of the University of North 

In the general areas of health, science, and medicine, little 
has been written. We could use a work on medicine and 
health covering the whole sweep of State history. We have 
nothing comparable, for instance, to W. B. Blanton, History 
of Medicine in Seventeenth Century Virginia. 

What I have said about medicine likewise applies to law 
and other professions. Due attention has not been given to 
newspapers and to outstanding editors, and even those few 
writers who have studied newspapers have failed to make ade- 
quate use of one of the most informative portions of the 
papers, that of advertising. A careful investigation of adver- 
tising in the press, especially in our earlier history, would 
throw much light on the economic and social life of our 

In the field of biography, where one might expect to find 
the greatest interest and perhaps the largest number of 
books, one encounters the most frustration. The plain fact is 
that most North Carolina leaders, in all areas of activity, have 
simply not been studied. Books have been published on only 
two of the colonial governors, and very few governors since 
1776 have had published biographies. Time will permit me 
to list only a few leaders who merit more study and, perhaps, 
full-length books: 

James Iredell, distinguished judge and "letter writer" of 

the American Revolution. 
Richard Caswell, first Governor of the independent State. 
William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, and John Penn— signers of 

the national Declaration of Independence. 

226 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Willie Jones, "father of Jeffersonian Democracy in North 

Nathaniel Macon, the personification of North Carolina of 
his day. 

Archibald D. Murphey, one of the greatest statesmen in 
our history. 

Calvin H. Wiley, first State Superintendent of Common 

David L. Swain, Governor and long-time President of the 
University of North Carolina. 

Edward B. Dudley, first Governor elected by popular vote. 

John M. Morehead, Governor and industrial leader. 

William A. Graham, who probably held more important 
offices than any man in North Carolina history. 

Zebulon B. Vance, beloved Civil War Governor. There is 
an old and inadequate biography of Vance, but we 
eargerly await the new one by Frontis Johnston. 

William W. Holden, one of the most powerful— and per- 
haps one of the most hated men in the State's history. 

Charles B. Aycock, educational Governor. Oliver Orr's 
forthcoming book will fill this gap. 

All of the other Governors since Ay cock's Day. The papers 
of most of these men have been published and there are 
some biographical studies in progress on Gardner, Mor- 
rison, and McLean, but so far little has been published 
about our twentieth-century Governors. 

There have been many distinguished judges in the State's 
long history, but only William Gaston and Walter Clark 
have received biographical treatment. Among those who 
need and merit biographies are Thomas Ruffin, Rich- 
mond Pearson, and Henry Groves Connor. 

Marion Butler, "Muley Bob" Doughton, and Josephus 
Daniels all deserve biographies and such studies are 
under way. 

In the field of industry, trade, and finance, there are books 
on "Buck" Duke, but we need studies of many other 
leaders past and present in the general area of economic 

North Carolina History — A Summary View 227 

A number of religious and educational leaders merit more 
attention than they have received. Conspicuous in this 
list would be such educational statesmen as William 
Louis Poteat. 

And, with the exception of Cornelia Phillips Spencer, his- 
torians have paid practically no attention to the women 
who have played important roles in many aspects of our 
development, such women, for instance, as Harriet More- 
head Berry, "mother of the good roads movement" in 
North Carolina. 

An area in which North Carolina history is terribly weak 
is in what may be termed "regional studies." We have nothing 
comparable to Kercheval's History of the Valley of Virginia. 
We are represented, for example, in the Rivers of America 
series by only The French Broad. While this an an excellent 
book and a fascinating river story, it is representative of only 
one of North Carolina's several regions and ways of life. We 
need a book on the Cape Fear River and region, for example. 
We need a history of the North Carolina frontier on the scale 
of Seedtime on the Cumberland. 

We have some good county histories; many others are in 
progress. There are books about Bath, New Bern, Durham, 
Greensboro, Raleigh, and a few other towns and cities, but 
we need studies of Edenton, Halifax, Hillsboro, Fayetteville, 
and other historic towns. 

In closing, let me repeat that much good work has been 
done in North Carolina history. A vast amount of research 
and publication is going on at present. But the fact remains 
that in many areas of the State's history the surface has hardly 
been scratched. We have good reason to be proud of the his- 
torical writing which has taken place in the past forty years. 
But we must not stand on our record; we must build on it. In 
1960, however, we cannot agree with what Murphey wrote 
in 1821: "We know nothing of our State, and care nothing 
about it." 

By Edward P. Alexander* 

Harpers Magazine has a monthly department, "After 
Hours," which occasionally takes note of the progress of 
American culture. Not long ago, it carried a story called 
"Signs of the Times," that concerned a television producer 
who found himself in Cleveland between trains. A porter in 
the station recognized him and asked whether he would mind 
settling an argument the porter had been having with a friend 
who drove a taxi. The taxi driver insisted that a television 
program produced by the traveler opened with music com- 
posed by Walter Piston. The porter thought this could not be 
so, that Piston never wrote counterpoint like that; he was 
sure the music was by Aaron Copland. The porter was right; 
the piece was Copland's. 

Of course, not every porter and taxi driver enjoy the lean, 
atonal pleasures of contemporary music. But this anecdote, 
indicating as it does a deep American popular interest in 
serious music, can be buttressed by solid statistics. There are 
today more than 1,000 symphony orchestras in the United 
States. There are also 450 opera-producing groups, which 
give an average of seven operas every day. Some 33,000,000 
Americans play musical instruments. Even more significant, 
Americans bought 472,000,000 phonograph records in 1959. 
The masterpieces of concert music have become widely avail- 
able because of the "hi-fi" long-playing record. 

Ashley Montagu in The Cultured Man ( 1958 ) points out 
"that Beethoven is probably performed more frequently, and 
heard by more, people in the United States than in any other 
country in the world." American contemporary composers are 
well known also: Barber, Bernstein, Ives, Schuman, and Ses- 
sions, as well as the porter's Piston and Copland. But Ameri- 
cans appreciate popular art in music as well as elite art. Jazz, 
that lively, kaleidoscopic musical idiom created by sad-happy 
Negro musicians, is still revered in America as it is throughout 

*Dr. Edward P. Alexander is Vice-President and Director of the Division 
of Interpretation, Colonial Williamsburg, Williamsburg, Virginia. 

[228 ] 

The American Cultural Explosion 229 

the world. George Gershwin's "Porgy and Bess" and other 
musical comedy productions such as "Oklahoma!" "South 
Pacific," and "My Fair Lady" constitute another American 
art form with a world-wide audience. 

Music is only one aspect of culture, a word most difficult 
to define. Alfred North Whitehead considered it "activity of 
thought, and receptiveness to beauty and humane feeling." 
Ashley Montagu distinguishes four cultural elements: "the 
humane mind, the sensitiveness to beauty, an intense interest 
and curiosity, and an ability to think soundly." A typically 
American pragmatic approach is to declare that a cultured 
person is interested in the arts and the humanities: architec- 
ture, painting and sculpture, music, the theater, literature, the 
decorative arts, the dance, motion pictures, and television. 

Today American culture has broadened to include the 
popular as well as elite arts. Once there was an art of the 
masses and an art of the classes. In 1924 in a brilliant book, 
The 7 Lively Arts, Gilbert Seldes attacked the stuffiness of the 
genteel tradition and called attention to the flowering of the 
popular arts in the entertainment field. He shocked many of 
his readers by finding Al Jolson more interesting than John 
Barrymore, Ring Lardner more entertaining and important 
than James Branch Cabell, George Herriman's comic strip 
Krazy Kat "the most amusing and fantastic and satisfactory 
work of art produced in America today," the circus often more 
artistic than the Metropolitan Opera, and Irene Castle worth 
all the pseudo-classic dancing ever seen on the American 

Since that day the boundaries between classic and popular 
art have become still more blurred. The powerful mass media 
—paperback books, popular magazines with huge circulations, 
long-play recordings, motion pictures, radio, and television- 
transmit lowbrow and highbrow arts alike. Elite artists such 
as Hemingway or Bernstein or Jackson Pollock would once 
have had comparatively small audiences; today technical ad- 
vances in reproduction and the big media have made their 
work known to millions of Americans. 

Max Lerner in America as a Civilization ( 1957 ) sees "both 
the strength and confusion of American popular culture as 

230 The North Carolina Historical Review 

flowing from the nature of the open-class system in America." 
In that fluid society, "the cult of the comic strip spreads to 
the intellectuals; symphonies find millions of listeners, while 
musical comedies may achieve a classic permanence almost 
overnight; jazz and abstract painting may develop cult pro- 
portions not only in Bohemia but among the middle classes." 

A simple way to discover what has happened to American 
culture in a single generation is to compare its treatment 
thirty years ago and today in two of the more thoughtful 
literary periodicals, The Atlantic Monthly and Harpers Mag- 
azine. Since both publications consider almost every article 
they carry to be literature, the following analysis will dis- 
regard literature as a manifestation of culture. 

In 1930 the Atlantic published only four articles that dealt 
with cultural subjects. Of the three that concerned painting, 
Frank Jewett Mather, Jr., Director of Princeton University 
Art Museum, in "Atmosphere versus Art," argued that art 
museums should exhibit paintings and sculpture in galleries 
enhanced by good lighting, generous space, and simple, neu- 
tral backgrounds. This process would guarantee that the 
viewer concentrated his attention on the paintings or sculp- 
ture rather than on period rooms or the elaborate trappings of 
the decorative arts so often used to provide atmosphere. One 
article considered music; M. A. De Wolfe Howe's "The Song 
of Charleston" praised the work of the Society for the Preser- 
vation of Spirituals in gathering and singing the Negro low- 
country folk songs of South Carolina. 

Harpers did only a little better by culture, with five articles 
in 1930. Four of them are of interest today. Jeanette Eaton's 
"The Twilight of the Concert Gods" prophesied that "the 
concert artist is likely soon to be as extinct as the cavalryman." 
Only one young musical artist in a thousand could look for- 
ward to success on the concert stage, though teaching music 
and singing or playing in radio concerts offered remunerative 
outlets for musical talent. Daniel Gregory Mason in "Our 
Musical Adolescence" dealt with the increasing interest of 
young Americans in participating in musical activities such as 
college glee clubs, the Westchester County Music Festival, or 
the National High School Orchestra and Band Camp at In- 

The American Cultural Explosion 231 

terlochen, Michigan. He found that young people no longer 
felt the shame that their parents did in confessing an interest 
in the fine arts, that they were singing in glee clubs, playing 
in orchestras, writing, sketching, or modeling in a matter-of- 
fact way. R. L. Duffus paid proper attention to cultural 
activities in his articles on two American cities: "Is Pittsburgh 
Civilized?" and "Detroit: Utopia on Wheels." Though he 
found Pittsburgh only slightly civilized because of the blight 
of heavy industry and a dull, even stuffy social life, Detroit 
seemed to him tolerant, vivacious, and promising, thanks 
especially to the Detroit Institute of Arts with Edsel Ford on 
its board and Dr. W. R. Valentiner, its imaginative director. 
Eighty master paintings in its Rembrandt Show in 1929 at- 
tracted 90,000 viewers in twenty-eight days, better than a 
similar exhibit had done in Berlin. 

Thirty years later, in 1959, the Atlantic contained nine 
major cultural articles and eight shorter pieces in its monthly 
departments, while Harpers had ten major and ten shorter 
articles. Both magazines also reviewed the new phonograph 
recordings almost every month. 

A few samples will show the cultural significance of these 
articles. In the Atlantic, A. Whitney Griswold, President of 
Yale, examined "The Fine Arts and the Universities." He 
found thousands of students taking courses dealing with 
architecture, painting, sculpture, graphic arts, music, and 
drama. Creative artists were teaching in the universities, men 
like Paul Hindemith, Douglas Moore, Robert Frost, Archibald 
MacLeish, and Walter Gropius. The burgeoning interest in 
the arts he attributed to greater ease of foreign travel, the 
efforts of collectors and patrons, the mass media such as 
radio, and the coming of age of American civilization. 
James S. Plaut, Deputy Commissioner of the United States at 
the World's Fair in Belgium, reported on "The Arts and the 
People at Brussels." He found Edward Stone's lacy, delicate 
building housing the United States exhibit the most successful 
and popular of the whole fair. The American exhibits did not 
dwell upon material accomplishments of American everyday 
life such as the automobiles and supermarkets already familiar 
to most Europeans but instead tried to reveal the conditions 

232 The North Carolina Historical Review 

of thought, process, and custom that had made the United 
States the kind of society it is. This was a fresh image of the 
American people at work and at play in a vast continental 
land, great individual diversity within the national unity. 

In Harpers for 1959 Frances McFadden wrote of "Culture 
Under Colorado's Aspens," relating how Walter Paepcke, 
Chairman of the Board of Container Corporation, had 
achieved with his contagious enthusiasm a great summer cul- 
tural center as Aspen, complete with music school, music fes- 
tival, institute for humanistic studies, executives' program, 
health center, humanities course, and special events such as 
the Ninth International Design Conference. Robin Boyd's 
well illustrated article on "The Counter-Revolution in Archi- 
tecture" shows that architects today are designing daring 
curves and exciting shapes to challenge the "glass box" build- 
ing that has become so common in American cities. In 
Raleigh this movement is not news, of course; back in 1953 
Matthew Nowicki's State Fair Arena or "Cow Palace" of par- 
abolic design won many national architectural awards and 
was even called "the most significant new building in this 

Both magazines have developed attractive special depart- 
ments with informal and amusing shorter pieces that often 
have cultural connotations. "Mr. Harper's After Hours" de- 
partment, for example, during 1959 discussed a New Jersey 
radio station that plays good music with a minimum of com- 
mercials, the unfortunate Taft Memorial in Washington, the 
successful revival of "Macbeth" at the Metropolitan Opera, 
the upheaval going on in popular music, the Canadian Na- 
tional Exhibition at Toronto, the exhibit "Glass 1959" at the 
Corning Glass Center, the Williamsburg International Assem- 
bly for foreign graduate students held annually by Colonial 
Williamsburg, and "Mr. Wright's [Guggenheim] Museum." 

Russell Lynes, its editor, illustrates the civilized approach 
of this department in his criticism of President Eisenhower's 
unfavorable comments on the American paintings selected 
for the United States National Exhibition in Moscow. The 
President especially disliked Jack Levine's "Welcome Home," 
a satirical picture of a dinner party for a returning general. 

The American Cultural Explosion 233 

Mrs. Lynes urged her husband to keep calm and commented 
acidly, as wives sometimes will: "Now that the Postmaster 
General is taking care of our morals and the President is 
taking care of art, what do we have to worry about?" Mr. 
Lynes recalled that Teddy Roosevelt in 1913 visited the famed 
Armory Show with its radical paintings that included Marcel 
Duchamp's "Nude Descending a Staircase." T. R. thought 
that much of the show represented the lunatic fringe of art, 
but he went on to say: 

There was one note entirely missing from the exhibition, and 
that was the note of the commonplace. There was not a touch of 
simpering, self-satisfied conventionality. . . . 
There was no stinting or dwarfing, no requirements that a man 
whose gifts lay in new directions should measure up or down 
to stereotyped and fossilized standards. 

Mr. Lynes recommended that these words be cast on a bronze 
plaque to be hung in the White House for the edification of 
future Presidents. 

This rapid review of the changed attitude toward cultural 
subjects in two leading American literary magazines shows 
that there has been in the last thirty years a great growth in 
interest in cultural subjects; an increase of 400 or 500 per cent 
in space devoted to the arts can be termed at least a mild 
cultural explosion. 

Another test of the cultural advance of the country can be 
made by examining the American museum movement. Mu- 
seums may once have been dull an deven dead institutions 
with their crowded, unimaginative exhibits, their heavy glass 
cases, and their interminable labels, but today they are at- 
tractive and busy cultural centers. Joseph Allen Patterson, 
Director of the American Association of Museums, well de- 
scribes their modern functions: 

The emphasis is no longer on collecting and preservation, but 
on education and the interpretation and use of assembled re- 
sources. The museum has, in fact, become the cultural center 
of the community. Its audience includes not only the student 
and connoisseur, but the entire family from its youngest to its 
oldest member, and at all economic levels. Its many educational 

234 The North Carolina Historical Review 

programs are integrated with the curricula of the local schools, 
colleges, and universities, and its facilities are made available for 
cultural activities ranging from music, drama, and dance to 
courses in painting, sculpture, and ceramics, and lectures in 
the arts, natural sciences, and history. 

Dr. Douglas Allan, Director of the Royal Scottish Museum 
at Edinburgh, visited the States this past spring. He was 
especially impressed by the cultural vitality of American 
museums and said in an Edinburgh newspaper: 

In many towns of America . . . the museum or art gallery con- 
stitutes, along with the church, the main community centre, 
where one meets neighbors and spends leisure hours acquiring 
skills and learning hobbies. . . . 

Anyone associated with a museum or art gallery there enjoys 
a considerable social status, and appointment ... as a trustee is 
regarded as providing the entree to quite an elevated social 

In 1938 there were 2,489 museums in the United States 
and in 1960 there are 4,484. The rapid rate of growth con- 
tinues; 54 new museums were established in 1959. The eleven 
southeastern States have made remarkable progress. They 
contained only 52 museums in 1938; by 1955, 75 new ones 
had appeared, making a total of 127. In 1956 the North Caro- 
lina Museum of Art opened at Raleigh, a major art center of 
the nation with a State appropriation of one million dollars 
for the purchase of art. The museum audience in this country 
is a huge one, perhaps three or four times as large as that of 
major league baseball; it is estimated that about 75,000,000 
persons visit museums each year. 

Special notice should be taken of a particular kind of mu- 
seum, the historic house or historic village. They have been 
blossoming in the American countryside, especially since the 
advent of the automobile. Places such as Mount Vernon, Co- 
lonial Williamsburg, Greenfield Village, Old Salem, and Tryon 
Palace have as their main purpose the use of a carefully pre- 
served or restored historical environment to teach historical 
perspective and inspiration. But preserving and interpreting 
the American heritage has important cultural overtones. 

The American Cultural Explosion 235 

Knowing the architecture, gardens, and furnishings of an- 
other day, together with its literature, music, and drama 
makes for better understanding of the culture of our own 
time. The outdoor museum, just as its older and synoptically 
arranged indoor cousin, is a mighty force for transmitting 

What has brought about the American cultural explosion? 
Is it likely to continue? Or is the businessman right who said 
recently: "Art is just a fad. It's like those miniature golf 
courses that were everywhere a few years ago." 

All agree that the United States is the most intricately in- 
dustrialized nation in the world, that its surging production is 
providing a higher and higher standard of living, and for 
nearly every citizen under the open-class system, to say noth- 
ing of increased leisure time with shorter working weeks, 
longer vacations, and earlier retirements. This dynamic eco- 
nomic advance is turning the attention of more and more 
Americans from production to consumption. Whether we call 
these new Americans outer-directed with David Riesman in 
The Lonely Crowd (1950), Upper Bohemians with Russell 
Lynes in A Surfeit of Honey ( 1957 ) , or the New Class with 
John Kenneth Galbraith in The Affluent Society ( 1958 ) , they 
all share some of the same characteristics. 

According to Galbraith, the new American elite realizes 
that the power of wealth has declined, that nearly everyone 
can have fine possessions, and that material things are not 
enough to bring a satisfying and lasting feeling of status. The 
continuing scientific revolution in industry makes it possible 
for more Americans to enjoy their work. They no longer need 
to do a fatiguing, boring, and monotonous stint of physical 
work with pay as their chief incentive; instead they can hold 
jobs that encourage creative and thoughtful endeavor. Early 
in the nineteenth century only a handful of educators and 
clerics, together with a few writers, journalists, and artists 
enjoyed such work; now those who work chiefly for the 
pleasure of creativeness instead of the financial income they 
receive number in the millions. 

With the new emphasis on consumption, creativeness, and 
ideas, the cultural leaders of the affluent society know what 

236 The North Carolina Historical Review 

plays are current and imminent; they read or at least talk 
about the latest books; they listen to music and discuss the 
technical excellence of binaural recordings; they go to see 
excellent motion pictures, especially documentaries and art 
films, often foreign made; they admire ballet and the modern 
dance; and they possess discriminating taste for paintings 
and sculpture, furnishings and foods, sport cars and sleek 

Galbraith points out that the affluent society demands more 
beauty from industry. In "The Muse and the Economy" in 
Horzion, he observes that as American consumers take more 
interest in the goods they buy, they demand that manufac- 
turers pay attention to artistic design. If American firms fail 
to do this, Americans buy their automobiles, furniture, glass, 
ceramics, leather, and metalwork in Italy, France, Germany, 
or Sweden. "And the American businessman having accom- 
modated himself to the scientists in the course of accommo- 
dating himself to the twentieth century, must now come to 
terms with the artists. Artistic perception is as necessary to 
the modern manufacturer of consumer goods as engineering 
skill. Indeed, now more so." 

The American cultural explosion has certain practical value 
in meeting the great immediate problem facing the world— 
the preservation of peace and the avoidance of atomic war 
that may cripple or even destroy entirely what civilization 
man has achieved. American cultural attainments can be 
used to gain international friends and influence. 

For the past few years, Colonial Williamsburg has held a 
Williamsburg International Assembly. To it have come an- 
nually some fifty foreign graduate students, who have been 
in American universities for a year or more and are about to 
return home. These students are not callow youths; their 
average age has been about twenty-six, and they are chosen 
because they give promise of becoming leaders in their own 
countries. Each year the Assembly has had a theme to en- 
courage the students to engage in uninhibited discussion 
about what they liked and disliked about America, something 
like "The American Dream— Myth or Reality?" The Assembly 
has invited distinguished leaders in American life to direct 

The American Cultural Explosion 237 

the discussion, normally a historian, a politician, businessman, 
friend of labor, educator, and cultural authority. 

Members of the Assembly have much to say about Ameri- 
can culture. A student of philosophy, age twenty-nine from 
behind the Iron Curtain in Poland, argued that a wealthy 
country like America should support its artists, its opera, or 
its theater with government funds. 

My general impression about culture in the United States [he 
said,] is that there is an enormous rift between your possibilities 
and your achievements in this field. Nowhere in the world can 
you find such libraries and art museums, theaters, etc. Never- 
theless, the level of culture is much lower than in western 
Europe. I feel it is impossible to improve this situation without 
[government] intervention from the outside, because all the 
organs of culture in the United States are operated by means of 
business. It is impossible to make a good TV picture without the 
support of General Motors or some other sponsor. 

A mature student of music education, age thirty-nine from 
New Zealand, showed considerable admiration for American 
music. He asked: 

Why is it that the Americans don't make the rest of the world 
aware of the fine musical culture that you are building up in 
this country? Young people get very good musical training, in 
the main, and yet we still have the idea that the country is just 
riddled with cheap popular music. It seems to me that there is 
a slightly apologetic feeling about the wonderful musical work 
that is going on in this country. 

These typical statements show how interested the rest of 
the world is in American cultural achievements. Proper un- 
derstanding of American advances in art fields can help bal- 
ance the impression of American materialism and win the 
respect of peoples who consider spiritual and artistic values 
all important. This is true even in Russia as shown in two 
recent articles in the Atlantic by Richard B. K. McLanathan, 
Director of the Munson- Williams-Proctor Institute, a first- 
rate small art center in Utica, New York. Mr. McLanathan 
served as Curator of Art at the American National Exhibition 
at Moscow in 1959, about one-third of which consisted of 

238 The North Carolina Historical Review 

abstract paintings. The Russian official attitude is that the 
only good art is representational and realistic, and that art 
must be an efficient tool of political policy. Experimental and 
abstract painting is regarded as showing the degeneracy of 
capitalistic society and as a plot to undermine Communist 
culture. Khrushchev, himself, paid a surprise, half-hour visit 
to the exhibit. He thought the non-representational art fan- 
tastic and remarked: "People who paint like that are crazy, 
but people who call it art are crazier still." 

McLanathan found, however, that many young scientist 
intellectuals visiting the exhibit knew American abstract art 
just as they knew the work of Hemingway, Faulkner, O'Neill, 
Gershwin, and the latest varieties of jazz, pure or progressive. 
He discovered also that some of the younger artists unoffici- 
ally painted in abstract style, justifying such experimentation 
as exercise in color and composition; they, of course, did not 
exhibit this work. McLanathan also met an older artist who 
had known the paintings of Russian pioneer modernists, 
Malevitch, Kandinsky, and Chagall. In this painter's opinion: 

They were Russia's contribution to the world of art of our day, 
and when they could no longer live and work in Russia, then 
Russian art became expatriate. I do not understand all I see 
around me here because I am old and much of it is new to me, 
but I know what it means — that you in America have inherited 
the leadership, and you represent freedom and the future. 

After years of imitating western European models, America 
has begun to develop its own art forms. Warmly nurtured by 
the material affluence of a remarkably efficient economic 
system, swirling with restless force over barriers between the 
traditional and popular as practiced in an open-class society, 
and reaching remote corners of the country and world through 
the communication marvels of the big media, the arts in 
America are achieving a new independence, a new maturity, 
and a new authority. 

Every American can help forward this cultural advance. He 
should be tolerant of new approaches, willing to try to under- 
stand free-form swimming pools, the twelve-tone scale of 
music, or the paintings and sculpture of non-objective art. 

The American Cultural Explosion 239 

("Doesn't anybody object to it any more?" asked a bright 
youngster recently.) There is no need that he prefer the 
experimental to the traditional, of course, but he should avoid 
castigation such as President Truman's "If that's art, I am a 
Hottentot." He must remember that practitioners of the arts 
are usually intense individuals who thrive best under com- 
plete freedom. 

Another way in which all of us can help the American 
cultural thrust is by supporting community cultural activities. 
The Little Theater group, the chamber music series, the film 
society, and the local art center with its exhibitions and 
classes are grass-roots movements toward cultural maturity. 
Many Europeans think American civilization especially weak 
in its smaller cities and towns. The Metropolitan Opera and 
Broadway stage may be the best in the world but are too con- 
centrated for a vast country like the United States. In Poland 
today, for example, every little provincial town has enorm- 
ous and attentive audiences for the theater, films, music, 
painting, and literature. Katowice, a drab Silesian mining 
town, somewhat larger than Charlotte, North Carolina, has a 
theater stock company that plays Shakespeare and Arthur 
Miller's "A View from the Bridge." Krakow, with a popula- 
tion of one-third million, supports ten legitimate theaters, one 
puppet theater, an operetta company, and a Philharmonic 
orchestra. The plays of Aeschylus, Shakespeare, and Shaw 
are popular there. Active cultural pursuits such as these— and 
this Culture Week shows that North Carolinians appreciate 
this truth— offer opportunities for personal participation in 
performance or production, a higher level of creativeness 
than passively sitting at the movies or before the television 

Supporting the arts in one's community also pays dividends 
in developing artists. Young opera singers, for example, have 
difficulty in securing the broad variety of roles they need for 
their artistic growth. Too often their financial needs drive 
them to sing in choruses or choirs, for radio or night clubs. 
This country does not yet present widely enough the long 
professional operatic seasons found, for instance, in Ger- 
many's 120 opera houses. Just as big league baseball demands 

240 The North Carolina Historical Review 

its minor league farm teams, the performing arts need busy 
centers in the smaller cities and towns of the country. 

Perhaps some of you have read in the Saturday Review of 
Literature about Gumperson's Law. It accounts for the fact 
that if you throw a match out of a car, you start a forest fire, 
while it takes a whole box of matches and an edition of the 
Sunday newspaper to start a fire in the fireplace. It explains 
why the good parking places are always on the other side of 
the street. Gumperson had much to tell his times but un- 
fortunately he met his death not long ago. He was walking 
down the left side of the road in a white suit facing traffic 
when he was clipped from behind by a Hillman Minx driven 
by an English visitor and hugging the left side of the road. 

A Gumperson would have fun with American culture. If 
you cited the million-a-day paperback book sales, he would 
point to the big-busted gals on some of the covers. If you 
told him of the FM good music radio network, he would tune 
in numerous whining hillbilly stations. If you exulted in the 
brilliant triumphs of Lawrence Olivier and Leonard Bern- 
stein on TV, he would ask what you thought of millions of 
viewers dozing like zombies before boring westerns or mur- 
der mysteries. 

Both views of American culture are true, but the hopeful 
sign is that the cultural renaissance has come so far in thirty 
years. Just as North Carolina leaders have carried the vision 
of developing the arts to an entire State, so hundreds of 
American cultural impresarios are organizing the theater, 
music, painting, and all the rest so as to attract millions. It 
is about time Americans stopped apologizing for their arts. 
Today culture is stimulating; culture is stylish; and culture 
is fun. 


Edited by John Bowen Hamilton* 

Part II 

July 1st 

This day being Sunday I was shut out from the usual employ- 
ments of every day of enjoyment and labor, and could but devote 
it to the serious concerns of religion 51 . . . . [38] When I entered 
the Church I felt verry much like listening attentively to the 
sermon, but I hope I may be allowed to beg for and excuse when 
several persons were put to sleep and all the efforts of the mini- 
ster either with his lungs, or hand upon the desk could not rouse 
them, while the other portion of the congregation, if they showed 
more civility made poor use of their time, neither listening to 
the sermon nor refreshing themselves with a nap. . . . r)2 

* Dr. John Bowen Hamilton is Associate Professor of English, Rollins 
College, Winter Park, Florida. 

51 Compulsory attendance on religious exercises (ordained by University 
laws in 1795, see Connor, Documentary History, I, 377-378) and prayers 
was a constant source of conflict; in the Faculty Journal by far the great- 
est number of offenses are those connected with religious activities. Accord- 
ing to the University historian, ". . . All students were compelled to attend 
prayers every day, long before sunrise in winter, and near sunrise at other 
seasons, and each afternoon, except Saturdays. Compulsory attendance on 
divine worship in the Chapel on Sundays at 11:00 a.m. was insisted on, 
even in bitter cold weather without fires. The classes must all sit together, 
and the roll was called by a Tutor beginning with the Seniors in alphabeti- 
cal order, then with the Juniors, and so on. The President sat on the rostrum 
with the officiating minister at evening prayers, the other members of the 
Faculty being located so as to enclose the 'student body' with a cordon of 
detectives. Absences were carefully noted and delinquents often offending 
were called up for reprimands and even subjected to deprivation of diplomas. 
Napoleon Daniel, A.B., 1846, was notified that his cup of grace was run 
over. He determined to be on hand. He carried into Chapel at bed time a 
blanket and spread himself for sleep on a rear bench. The backs of the 
benches were high and he was unobserved. When he awoke the sun was 
high in the heavens and the worshippers had dispersed." Battle, History of 
the University, I, 558-559. 

At the eleven o'clock Chapel Service, " . . . self-respect caused the stu- 
dents to don their best clothes, because ladies were present, and did not 
appear in shirt and drawers, covered with a bed quilt, as was often the case 
at morning prayers. The service lasted about one hour and a half . . . ," 
Battle, History of the University, I, 518-519. "Compulsory attendance 
brought on the usual number of disturbances, especially in winter when 
there was no heat; one of the tricks was to bring in a bull yearling and 
tie him up in the nave, the corner thus became known as 'the bull pen.* " 
Battle, History of the University, I, 454. For some of the other disturbances 
and incidents reported by Garrett, see the entries for July 1, July 29, and 
November 4, 1849. 

62 It is impossible to tell where Garrett is attending church here, in the 
Episcopal or the Presbyterian gathering. 


242 The North Carolina Historical Review 

July 2nd . . . [40] I took a verry long walk this evening with a 
crowd of students. ... In the streets of the village we chanced 
to meet a verry delightful scence. About a douzen negroes had 
assembled at the door of a little hut enjoying the innocent amuse- 
ment of playing the bangor [banjo]. The interest which they 
displayed marked that their whole soul was wraped up in the 
delerious swell of music which the player thumped from the 
strings. A natural reflection rose in my mind of the happiness 
which they enjoyed — the freedom from care which marked their 
attention, their minds never being [41] extracted to dwell upon 
any distant object, and the figure of the player, by the motion of 
his head, feet and body, producing the note almost when relayed 
by the strings — 53 

July 4th . . . [43] I met with serious disappointment to day. A 
great celebration was to come off at Hillboro', under the direction 
principly of the Sons of Temperance, and I was verry much in 
hope of being able to join in it, because I am a member of that 
order. 54 I failed however to get a conveyance and it was impos- 
sible to get there It seemed that the whole village of C. Hill 
poured out, and every horse cart waggon, buggy, carriage, and 
whatever else that was ever made to ride in were filled, besides 
not a few "rode their mother's colts" 55 We had however a cele- 
bration here. The students who remained upon the Hill thought 
that they would not let the "forth" pass without some noise, and 
accordingly held a meeting and [44] appointed George Haughton 
alias the N. Carolina bard to deliver the oration. 56 This morning 
the Poet arrived and about 11 O'clock we formed a procession 

53 The modern reader is likely to regard this kind of scene as idyllic ro- 
manticism found only in such novels as Uncle Tom's Cabin, until one sees 
it documented by a less biased observer than Mrs. Stowe. 

°* It is uncertain from the available evidence whether this society is the 
one entitled "The University Temperance Society," formed by Ruffin Wirt 
Tomlinson, see his diary edited by John L. Sanders, in The North Carolina 
Historical Review, XXX (January, April, 1953), 244, in 1842, or a Temper- 
ance Society formed in 1829, see Battle, History of the University, I, 340- 
342, or still another. 

55 The modern slang for this, walking, is "ankle express." By general 
agreement among the faculty, students were discouraged and practically 
forbidden to have personally owned horses. 

50 A slave poet, George Moses Horton. "He was a good servant, generally 
working on the farm of his master, James Horton, but whenever he wished 
allowed to hire his time at fifty cents a day. On such occasions he would 
visit Chapel Hill and write for the students acrostics on the names of their 
sweethearts. When his employer was willing to pay fifty cents the poem 
was generously gushing. Twenty-five cents procurred one more lukewarm 
in passion. He flourished from 1840 to 1860. About 1850 he published a book 
of poems in paper. After the Civil War he published another edition bound 
in boards. The book is rare. There is a copy in the Boston Public Library 
.... Self-taught, he taught himself to read, write and spell from scraps 
he happened upon." Battle, History of the University, I, 603-605. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 243 

and conducted the orator upon the stage. He made a speech of 
about 5 minutes length, to the great disappointment of all pres- 
ent, who expected a long oration. The loud, long and repeated 
applause occupied however about 15 minutes. With this the 
celebration of the day ended with us. . . . 

[46] July 5th 

I have just returned from the Devision room of the Sons of 
Temperance in the village, where we had a verry pleasant meet- 
ing. I had prepared a few remarks which I wished to express to 
them, but the meeting was continued verry long on account of 
some extraordinary business, and when I was called upon I beged 
to be excused, but the cries of go on ! go on ! sounded so pleasantly 
in the ear of an youthful orator like myself that I could not 
resist. I spoke several minutes and from the earnestness which 
I manifested more than from any thing which I said I gained 
some applause — yet it is vanity to boast of it. It is late and a 
drowsiness is almost fit to close my eyelids, and as I can not 
recollect any important event of the day I will close. 

July 9th . . . [50] I had the pleasure of an introduction to Mr. 
Nash the present candidate for Congress in this district who 
addresses the people of the county about eight miles off. 57 I am 
verry fond of politics and as we may expect some tall sparing 
and jarring, between this gentleman and Mr. Venable his op- 
ponent, I shall endeavor to get amongst the audience. I was 
verry much interested in the appearance [51] of the man and 
wish to hear him— 

July 10th 

I was fortunate enough this morning to procure a conveyance 
to the scene of political discussion, about eight miles from 
College, and as I was verry much interested I shall endeavor 
to give so far as I am able from memory. We had a verry plesant 
ride to the place, where we found a considerable gathering — 
The crowd pesented a better appearance upon the whole than 
any I have seen assembled in this part of the state ; for although 
it is a general notion that the people of this section of the state 
are finer-looking men, I have never seen a crowd here that will 

87 This graphic description of a scene at a political meeting in central 
North Carolina in the mid-nineteenth century is parallel to similar scenes 
made a part of Hugh Henry Brackenridge's early (1792) novel, Modern 
Chivalry, to say nothing of similar scenes in twentieth-century campaigns. 
One of the contestants here, Henry Kolloch Nash (1817-1897) of Hills- 
boro, graduated from the University without honors in 1836. Battle, History 
of the University, I, 428. Abraham Watkins Venable (1799-1876) was a 
member of Congress from 1847-1853. 

244 The North Carolina Historical Review 

compare with advantage to one of the east. What most offended 
my senses, were the drunkards, who having procured some 
stinking whiskey, that a hog would not drink were sporting with 
it in a brave manner, swallowing glasses full at a time making 
beast and hogs of themselves, depriving themselves of reason, 
debasing their image, by prostrating their bodies with suicidal 
poison and be it said for the good of the temperance cause, that 
those men wore the most squalled garments, were filthier, and 
had the wor[s]t countenances than any other part of the com- 
pany. 58 The place was a verry plesant one, a fine grove of oaks 

58 Earlier political campaigns than this had provoked difficulties in Chapel 
Hill. "The heated excitement of the log-cabin Hard-cider campaign of 1840 
reached the secluded groves of Chapel Hill," Battle relates. History of the 
University, I, 564. "I find that the faculty, fearing trouble, made a formal 
request of the county candidates not to speak at Chapel Hill, a request 
probably not granted. And when three of the students were chosen to be 
managers of the Whig dinner, which was to be given in the village, they 
were peremptorily forbidden to accept the honor. Nearly all of the Faculty 
were Whigs, but it was the settled policy of President Swain to keep the 
University out of politics. . . ." The University trustees were forbidden to 
hold seats in the General Assembly in 1790. Connor, Documentary History, 
I, 88. 

A case involving the faculty itself was that concerned with Professor 
Benjamin Sherwood Hedrick, born in Davidson County, 1827, graduated from 
the University with first honors in 1851, and a classmate of Garrett's. Hed- 
rick did graduate study at Harvard in mathematics, taught chemistry there, 
and was later principal Chemical Examiner in the U. S. Patent Office. After 
proclaiming himself a free-soiler, and being attacked in the North Carolina 
Standard (Raleigh) in a letter written by a law student, Joseph A. Engel- 
hard, honor graduate of 1854, the public press demanded his dismissal from 
the faculty. He was burned in effigy to the accompaniment of funeral bells. 
The faculty resolved on a motion of Dr. Mitchell that, "First, Professor 
Hedrick's course is not warranted by our usage, and his political opinions 
are not entertained by any other members of the Faculty; second, that the 
Faculty have none other than feelings of personal respect and kindness and 
sincerely regret his indiscretion." Battle, History of the University, I, 654- 
657. Vote was unanimous with one exception. The Executive Committee 
expressed its regret ". . . because it violated the established usage of the 
University which forbids any professor to become an agitator in the excit- 
ing politics of the day, and was well calculated to injure the propriety and 
usefulness of the institution." It further resolved that Hedrick had de- 
stroyed his usefulness, but Hedrick refused to resign. The Committee later 
declared his chair vacant. 

Hedrick was replaced on the faculty by Garrett's pre-college tutor, Pro- 
fessor Kimberley. An unpublished letter from the University Archives, 
1851, from David L. Swain to Charles Manly, Chapel Hill, October 17, 1851, 
makes President Swain's position in the matter most clear; it incidentally 
frees him of any possible accusation of violation of academic freedom — an 
idea which was not of national importance until the early decades of the 
twentieth century. The letter points out that the Executive Committee 
could not act for the Board of Trustees, that only the Board under the 
Ordinances of the Board could remove a professor and then only for "mis- 
behavior, inability, or neglect of duty" — none of which Hedrick was guilty 
of, Swain concludes, "Hedrick may be very properly arraigned for mis- 
behavior in departing from our established usages, and this should be the 
only count in the impeachment." 

On occasion, however, the faculty did give half-holidays for the students 
to hear political speakers, such as Nash and Venable; Battle records one 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 245 

under which shade is a fine coat of grass which afforded tolerably 
conf ortable seats where no others could be obtained. In this grove 
it was proclaimed that the candidates would address the people. 
The candidates for county court clerkship of Chatham addressed 
the people first, and such an array [52] they did present. Five 
candidates appeard and in succession set forth their claims to 
the sufrages of the people. Some alleged their poverty and con- 
sequent reliance on the public for support. Another his honesty 
and faithfulness, another his self sacraficing love of the people 
and capacity, so that none had nothing, and all had some thing 
to recommend them, but the people no doubt will choose the best 
The candidates then addressed the people. Mr. Venable the 
democratic candidate led the way and as I wished to find out 
the lines of the parties now I will give some account of the 
speeches and the measures advocated in them. Mr. Venable like 
a true democrat begins and recounts the measures which have 
divided the two parties for several years, the bank, tariff, the 
veto-power &c, all of which he boast have been eminently suc- 
cessful under the policy of the Democratic party, a truth so far 
indeed as the prosperity of the country is concerned, but that 
this prosperity of the country results more from its native 
strength and vigor, than any measures of government is equally 
true ; for even a bad administration under Mr. Polk, and the 
prosecution of a war, and even the heavy load of public debt oc- 
casioned thereby have not checked the prosperity and onward 
course of the country He then dismisses them as oblsolete, and 
discusses the question of Slavery He begins by recounting from 
his vivid imagination the many insults and aggression, which 
the people of the north have heaped upon the south, none of 
which as it seams to me have ever happened, for the emblem of 
our honor has [53] ever been held untarnished, and I deem 
that insults can not come from any measures of government 
however oppressive or injurious to any portion. As regards ag- 
gressions In no case has any act by Congress of the subtance 
of the Wilmot Proviso or the abolition of Slavery to which the 
people of the south were not willing and which they did not in 
fact most strenuously advocate. Our rights have in every instance 
been protected by the laws of the country, and especially in 
Congress where we have always had a number of representatives 
sufficient to oppose any aggression. But Mr. Venable advocates 

such instance when Romulus M. Saunders and Henry W. Miller were candi- 
dates for Congress. "This was probably for the improvement of their [the 
students'] oratory .... The Whig, Miller, . . . was famous as an orator 
.... Miller always used polished language." Garrett's comments on the 
Nash-Venable episode, and others, verifies Battle's contention that the good, 
or bad, examples were not wasted on the more discerning students, Battle, 
History of the University, I, 565. 

246 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the wild and rabid measure of non intercourse with the north. 
He deems that our property is [in] imminent danger, and that 
for retaliation for the injury and insult already done us, that 
it is expedient for the southern states to pass acts in their legis- 
latures against the recovery of debts due the north as indemnity 
for the recovery of fugitive slaves already escaped from their 
owners and that for future security against the decoying of 
slaves to a free state these states shall pass acts prohibiting ves- 
sels from entering their ports. 59 When we reflect upon the char- 
acter and cause of this man, just fears arise against both his 
ability and faithfulness [also] when we reflect that he was an 
accomplice of Mr. Calhoun in the recent caucus held at Washing- 
ton City who published the address to the people of the south, and 
that Mr. Calhoun is liable to the suspicion of attempts at agitat- 
ing the people and preparing them for disunion. When we hear 
him make an open declaration [54] that he prefers disunion to 
dishonor and insult and affect to think that even the proposition 
by a member of Congress for preventing the introduction of slav- 
ery into the territories, or the abolition of it in the district of 
Columbia, an insult and submission to the introduction of such 
measures a dishonor, the people have just cause to fear that he is 
not free from treasonable purposes. But how he can conceive the 
passage of an act by Congress, on the submission by any portion 
can dishonor them I can not imagine, and laying aside every 
consideration else he is in favor of disunion upon the passage 
of the Wilmot Proviso And he advocates measures which if car- 
ried out must sever the bonds of our political union. He is in 
favor of keeping the marriage vow to which he likens the con- 
stitution of the U.S. — sacred but if it is violated by one party, 
or if one party insults or degrades the other, it renders the vow 
liable to be broken by both. He advocates the principle of retal- 
iation that if one man steals another's hog, he must steel his 
neighbors sheep, and then lock them up to keep him from steal- 
ing more. Mr. Nash replied to Mr. Venable in a verry able and 
eloquent speech. He has a manner peculiarly pleasing, nothing 
affected, no demagouguism, a countenance mild and animated 
a voice full and sonorous. He denies Congress the right to legis- 
late upon Slavery in the teritories, but does not admit the right 
of justice in the passage of the Wilmot Proviso. He is in favor of 
mild and peacable measure He took occasion to detail the course 

69 One can see now the improvement in Garrett's writing ; he is not only 
summarizing speeches from memory, but handling complex sentence struc- 
ture and ideas with considerably more ease. He has been studying rhetoric, 
both formally and by example in the diary, for about three weeks. The 
combination of study, and practice (spoken as well as written), and hear- 
ing speeches has proved to be in his case, at least, an effective teaching 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 247 

of Mr. Calhoun, points out the [55] inconsistences of his course 
and charges him with treasonable desighns toward the peace 
and perminance of the Union, and with aspiration to power 
in the south. He charges him with endeavoring to excite the 
people of the south by inducing them that their property is in- 
secure, that their rights have been invaded, that their interest has 
been trampled under foot and by these means endeavors to alen- 
iate one portion of the country from the other, and thus render 
the deslution of the union inevitable. He believes that the ques- 
tion is a mere abstraction, at least that it will not affect the 
interest of the south, and therefore that the preservation of 
the Union should be superior to this or any like consideration. 
He looks for a remedy against the insecurity of slave property 
in the federal courts He is in fine against nulification, and in 
favor of law and order. My wishes are for him, for in addition 
to support I give his principles I admire the man, his honest, 
mild and lovely countenance. He is a plaine, sincere, firm, high- 
minded man. He resorts to nothing to mistify the people, which 
most unfortunately for him as a candidate, but not as a man, 
will not probably succeed against wily demagouguism of his 
adversary. 60 

July 11th 

I must acknowledge that I am too excitable upon political 
matters a disposition which I fear will result rather unfortun- 
ately for me I hope however to find that peace of mind, and con- 
tentment which a close application to my [56] profession may 
bring me, and that I shall not be induced to leave these for the 
turmoil and strife of politics Experience teaches us that few 
men have ever been advantaged by endeavoring to prosecute two 
professions, while a swap especially for politics is infinitely 
worse. A little fame is a contemplated thing. Write your name 
high upon the list of the illustrious, never where the casual ebb- 
ings of the tide may alternately hide or disclose it. 61 This is my 
sentiment, and the most successful, the most agreable and the 
most honorable way of obtaining to this is to prosecute with all 
your might. I am obliged to close the high-toned strain of 
thought by reflecting that I am culpably negligent, in not keeping 
this before me to-day for I have passed it without any improve- 
ment, except that which may be derived from social conversation 
with my companions here 

60 Garrett's suspicions were realized ; the "wily demagogue" was elected. 

61 This recalls clearly Garrett's ambitious nature, see Introduction, Part I. 

248 The North Carolina Historical Review 

July 12th 

I have to day felt the heav [y] sword of anguish. A letter reached 
me this morning which by its contents renders it impossible to 
remain at this place longer, if I would not be most unnatural. It 
was with difficulty that I was able to arrouse my friends to my aid 
in my first attempt to go to College and in order to be secure 
against any mishaps I solicited Uncle Augustus Holley 62 to give 
me the assurance of his support in pecuniary matters, which he 
verry willingly granted me. I have come to C. Hill and spent one 
year, my expenses have been great and I have almost arrived at 
that period at which I can neither proceed with decency, not that 
I have yet despaird [57] of the dependance which I had placed 
upon Uncle but from a circumstance which I must relate, both 
for the sake of having a record of his kindness and liberality 
which he has displaid as well as for explanation of my present 
situation About the end of last session, I received a letter from 
Aunt telling me that Uncle had purchased a scholarship in the 
institution at Boydton Va — Randolph and Macon College — and 
wished me to except the offer of it with its benefits and conven- 
iens to me. 63 This of itself somewhat disconcerted me. I did not 
wish by my refusal to bring upon myself the displeasure of Uncle, 
while I know that it was inflicting an absolute injury on myself 
to leave this place under the circumstances under which I was 
then. I answered the proposition made me, in stating the dis- 
advantage which attendant upon my changeing my situation, 
and appealed to his judgment, that if it was not better for me 
to remain and refuse the offer when I should be doing an injury 
to myself to except it. I had however written to my brother and 
guardian, that I would request him to consult with uncle, examine 
the statements that I had made, and decide for me the important 
question He did so, but both return the answer, that I might do 
as I deemed most advisable, givng up to my judgment, that 
which it gives me exceding anguish to decide. When fortune 
decides that man shall inflict a wound upon himself it is hard 
indeed. Such is the case, for with the answer from my brother, 
is coupled the information, that Aunt was excedingly anxious for 

83 George Stanley Holley from Bertie County graduated in 1837, possibly 
an uncle of Garrett, and a brother to Augustus Holley. 

63 Randolph-Macon College is, its historian says, the oldest Methodist 
college in the United States, chartered in 1829-1830 at Boydton, Virginia, 
so as to be available to students from both North Carolina and Virginia; 
it was named for Nathaniel Macon, congressional representative from 
North Carolina, and John Randolph, from Virginia. It matriculated its 
first students in 1832 and received most of them from Georgia, North and 
South Carolina. Herbert B. Adams (ed.), U. S. Bureau of Education Cir- 
cular of Information, No. 2, "Thomas Jefferson and the University of Vir- 
ginia," of the series, Contributions to American Educational History 
(Washington: Government Printing Office, 1888), 240-251. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 249 

me to accept the offer [58] and that it was through her solicitude 
for my welfare that Uncle was induced to purchase it, a circum- 
stance with which I was not at all acquainted. Now that this has 
come to light I am constrained to accept the offer. I shall always 
deem myself happy if I can render this sole relation of mine 
happy with me and shall make no opposition to her will, whatever 
may be the consequences. But I go home with higher hopes than 
R. Macon, I anticipate that shall succeed in a desighn which I 
have in view of going to some northern college. 64 I shall throw 
myself upon the generosity of Uncle, and tell him that I only 
wish an education but I wished such an one as will afford me the 
advantage of a good one 

[59] July 14th 

I have been a prey to anxiety, the whole day. I had the company 
of my friend [Richard H.] Powell 65 during the whole day, and 
must have betrayed, should he have suspected any thing preying 
upon me, absence of mind, while I run over the regrets which I 
suffer in the idea of leaving this place, But all my hours have 
not been thus weary ; besides the pleasure I experienced [60] in 
the company of my friend I could occasionally cogitate with 
delight upon the visionary scheme of going to Harvard, and in 
the evening I had an oportunity of uttering my sentiment, which 
did me much good. This, however, is not so much a visionary 
scheme, for I never had a dertermination so fixed and unalterable 
as to make a trial of the favor of Uncle, and I feel confident that 
he can not consistently refuse me. I would give my existence to 
go to Harvard ! — The day has been verry warm and in the eve- 
ning the Sun getting low in the west shone in my window so 
unrelentingly as to make any room almost unbearable. After 
supper in company with Mr. Powell I went to the bath, and found 
the water verry pleasant. The bath adds verry much to my 
agrable feelings at present. 

64 Southern institutions of higher learning had competition outside their 
respective States quite early; in the Colonial period, Europe was the mag- 
net drawing southern gentlemen (northward) ; later, northern colleges drew 
numbers of young southerners. See Knight, Documentary History of Edu- 
cation, I, 553-570; V, 278-316; and Charles W. Dabney, Universal Education 
in the South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2 volumes, 
1936) , I, 166-167. See Garrett's entry for July 14, below, on his desire to go 
to Harvard. 

65 From Buckhorn (North Carolina). Garrett introduced Powell into his 
diary on July 13 as ". . . my new friend, Richard H. Powell. " Battle does 
not mention that Powell graduated; he does record a William H. Powell 
from Bertie County as graduating in 1853, then records the cryptic com- 
ment, "Dead." Battle, Sketches, 194. Garrett may have recorded the first 
name in error, 

250 The North Carolina Historical Review 

[62] July 19th 

[Isaac] Watts 66 recommends that you review your conduct during 
the day, count the profitable and unprofitable acts, and be always 
sure that the former oughweigh the latter. But unfortunately 
for me I only remember the admonition, and admire the plan, 
while I fail to comply with that which alone it is intended to 
effect, I have indeed done nothing to day. The Ladies disturbed 
me in the library to day and I thus got out of employment and 
could find nothing to interest me afterwards. 67 My mind when idle 
involuntarily turns upon my anticipated trip home, and it is 
wearisome to think of this place it has become daily more dull 
and inanimate. Some of the students have returned, and I have 
had the pleasure of greeting some of my friends. This circum- 
stance has rendered it doubly disagreeable to leave When I turn 
my back upon old C. Hill, feelings of regret must rise within me. 
I did have some hopes, even ambitious hopes when entered here. 
I made it my boast to get a diploma before I left the University, 
but my plans are broken the disjoined fragments lie scattered 
about the path which I have trod, and it may require all my 
energy and strenth to connect them again for another field of 
action. I cannot avoid feeling deep dejection, for who does not 
feel humble and begin to distrust his strenhgth [63] when he 
makes an unsuccessful attempt upon a part. I have this consola- 
tion however that the foible not is mine, for however high, how- 
ever exalted, however strong, I have been so far eminently 
successful, my undertaking has been so far as I am concerned 
successful. But I have been called to act another part in the field 
of action. I even feel that I have a higher command to execute, 
a more important part to carry, and I feel too that the responsi- 
bility of such a station is an awful one 

July 18th [sic] 

... I met the stage to night on its arrival but found only two 
students. But there was a lovely girl in the stage, I found her 
name on the way bill Miss White of Newbern, she suited my 
taste as regards beauty, but I can not say what that taste is, 
what it prefers, and it may be so far as I have experience al- 
together indefineable. I was irrasistably excited by this lady's 
appearance which I deem truely interesting. We ganged down to 
the office and after standing about the door waiting for it to 

66 Isaac Watts, English theologian and hymnologist, 1674-1748. 

07 Garrett mentions several times the visits of the ladies to the Society 
libraries; examination of the Di and Phi minutes reveals no specific regu- 
lations on women visitors; they were apparently allowed in as a matter of 
course, perhaps in the belief that they provided a civilizing influence on 
normal male exhuberance. See also the entry for November 3, below. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 251 

open the old post-master McDade told us that he was not going 
to open it, [64] a source of serious vexation to me, and if I may 
judge from the execrations which fell from the lips of some of 
them that were with me I was not the only one discommoded 

July 19th 

Nothing of interest occured to day except that I was verry much 
joyed at the arrival of the students whom I greeted with a hearty 
good will. But to night I have been one of the agents of a most 
disgraceful broil, not indeed to myself but to a crowd who were 
the oi polloi of the mob. A verry trifling man, a man who has 
been caught in lying publicly, and in stealing, and has been dis- 
approved upon all his studies, returned to college after being dis- 
mised and laid claim to my room, which I had given to my friend 
Powell in the event that I went away, Of course as I had not 
taken possession without a right I determined to support my 
claim to the utmost extent. 68 Having collected a dozen or so of 
his friends he came to my door and demanded that I should give 
up my room and upon my refusing it, he endeavored to lay forc- 
ible hands on it. I shut the door and after its being forced open, 
I endeavored to use forcible means, but he being a verry strong 
man or rascal, as I ought to call him, succeeded amid the accla- 
mations of his friends and of some twenty students, in dragging 
me out of the room. My friend Powell raised a stick and was 
about to let fall when an infamous rascal, Watson, caught his 
arm. 69 After having been disengaged from him by some fellows, 
and partly those who were my enemies, and had got into my room 
again I got hold of my shovel lying at the fireplace [65] and with 
that dealt one blow which did me some good, though so much 
more powerful was he that I soon could not do any thing, but 
soon found some disinterested hand to my assistance. The dispute 
however was not settled he still persisted in coming into the 
room, and I still persisted in my attempt to secure it, and for 
that purpose endeavored to get some weapons which a fellow 
wished to lend me, but my friends, who verry often from an over- 
kindness really are enemies, persuaded me that I ought not to 

68 It seems strange to a modern observer that room occupancy in a State 
University could be the source of so much difficulty. Battle makes this ob- 
servation of the prevailing practice as early as 1810 and unchanged in 1850: 
"Rooms were not retained for anyone absent at the beginning of the ses- 
sion. At one period the students were allowed to race for them, as soon as 
prayer was finished, on the first morning." Battle, History of the University, 
I, 192; see also Knight, Documentary History, III, 286; and the diary entry 
below for January 12, 1850. 

The other claimant, Ruffin, named below on July 20, cannot be positively 
identified, since Garrett says he was dismissed and did not graduate. 

69 Possibly George W. Watson from Courtland, Alabama, who graduated 
in 1851. Battle, History of the University, I, 803. 

252 The North Carolina Historical Review 

use them, and after some considerable time persuaded me to 
leave it to the arbitration of the society which I am fearful will 
turn out to my disadvantage 70 

70 This remark, combined with one immediately below about "carrying 
the matter before the society" and then as an afterthought, taking the 
grievance to the faculty, is indicative of the position occupied by the two 
debating societies, formally known as the Dialectic Society and the Phil- 
anthropic Society. Battle is in error in stating that they were founded 
through the influence of Tutor Charles W. Harris who had been a member 
of the Whig Society at Princeton where he was a student, even though 
Harris's name appears first on the list of signers of the preliminary ar- 
ticles, Battle, History, I, 72 ff. The Di was founded first, April 19, 1798, 
by a group of students including Hinton James from Wilmington, first 
matriculate of the University, who walked the entire distance to enroll, ar- 
riving February 12, 1795; see Connor, Documentary History, I, 477-504. 
The expressed object of the Societies was to form lasting friendships and 
promote useful knowledge. The Di was first organized in June, 1795, under 
the name "The Debating Society"; later a new society was formed called 
"The Concord Society," on August 11, 1795; later this new society became 
the Phi. The Societies met in East and West Buildings, Di in the south ends, 
and Phi in the north ends; Knight, Documentary History of Education, III, 
288. Originally the Di met once a week for debates. One of its first acts was 
to purchase books. Originally one could belong to both the Di and the Phi, 
but the usual rivalries attendant when men organize for anything, advance- 
ment or self-destruction, broke out and soon one could belong only to one. 
The rivalry led to both amusing and destructive events; in 1820 a conflict, 
beginning personally between two students, both named Martin, Robert and 
Henry (the latter a Di, the former a Phi), while in the attic over the Phi 
room, resulted in one of the student's leaping over rafters and falling 
through the ceiling. The Phi's took it as an insult, and a pitched battle 
nearly resulted. The Society's censure was worse than that of the adminis- 
tration — one boy who stole $10 from his roommate was dismissed from the 
University, but was brazen in his defiance of their order to leave; when he 
was tried, convicted, and told to leave by the Society to which he belonged, 
his spirit was broken and he left, despite pleas by his mother before the 
Society, Battle, History of the University, I, 568. 

A unique and powerful officer of the Societies, chosen by ballot every six 
weeks had the duty ". . . to inspect the conduct and morals of the members; 
and report to the Society those who presevere by inattention to the Studies 
of the University, by Neglect of his duties as a Member or by acting in 
such a manner, as to reflect disgrace on his fellow members." Connor, Doc- 
umentary History, I, 481. Garrett once held this influential post, Censor 

Battle sums up the influence of the Di and Phi thus: "The order and 
decorum of the meetings of the two Societies were worthy of all praise. Not 
only was parliamentary law learned, but the power of extempore speaking 
and writing compositions, as well as gracefulness in delivery were ac- 
quired. The members were proud of their society and afraid of its censure. 
The habit of self-government, of using their own liberty so as not to inter- 
fere with the liberties of others, was inculcated. Many young men who 
neglected text-books obtained here a valuable education, while those who 
were candidates for offices learned here what they could not learn in the 
class room — how to manage men. Indeed, men who attained distinction in 
after life as Senators, Governors, Judges, and the like, have been known to 
date their beginning of success from their forensic exercises in the Society 
Halls. The chief debaters studied their subjects well and argued them with 
intelligent zeal and often eloquence. . . ." Battle, History of the University, 
I, 566. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 253 

July 20th 

From the circumstances of my situation, being under extreme 
excitement and moving from one place to another I neglected 
this day to write off the events of to day. Yesterday, I experienced 
some of the most outrageous imposition, not in fact by an on- 
slaught from a party of students as the day before, but by the 
regular constituted authority of the College Instead of carrying 
the matter before the Society as was proposed I took occasion to 
lay the whole matter before the faculty. In the mean time I had 
given intimation to the President that I wished a dismission from 
college, and on account of such an intention it was decided that 
I had no room at all, nor could claim any, while my room-mate 
had a right to the room, but could not prevent the other claimant 
Ruffin from comming in on him. But Powell reflecting upon the 
disagreeable situation in which he was placed relinquished [66] 
his right to the room and procured a place with a new student 
from Buckhorn. So that seeing my friend pleasantly situated, I 
relinquished all claim to the room, abiding in all things by the 
decision of the faculty, and set down peacibly and as quietly as 
possible to enjoy the company of my old acquaintances from 
Buckhorn, 71 anticipating the arrival of a letter which would 
bring me the funds necessary for getting off homeward. 

July 21st 

This morning I attended early at the Post Office to get my letters 
&c but I was seriously disappointed. I did not get a letter from 
home as I expected, and as I was to receive the money in that 
necessary to settle my affairs here, and get home I was obliged 
to make a considerable revision in my former determination. I 
reflected that it would put me to a serious disadvantage to be 
delayed untill monday (if not longer) ; for I could not then 
possibly get to R.M. College, by the commencement of the session 
or indeed some time after. I know in fact that if I could get to 
some northern college, I should be greatly benifited, but I reflected 
that it was by far better to remain here than to go home and 
risk the chances of bettering my situation, while too I hesitated 
[to] greatly press my claims to the consideration of my friends 
whose displeasure I might excite, even if I obtained the aid 
solicited. The arrival of my old acquaintances to join college, 
who would make up a corresponding number of regrets. With 
these and like considerations I persuaded myself to stay. I ac- 
cordingly had me a room fitted up in the East Building where I 

71 Powell, see note 65, above. For a comment by Garrett on the rivalry of 
the organizations, see his entry for August 10, below. 

254 The North Carolina Historical Review 

intended to deposite my room-mate Brett, and myself. 72 But some 
thing more of the disputed room. When I informed the faculty 
that I intended to remain, they immediately concluded that I had 
a right to go into the room, but that still I could not prevent the 
other claimant from rooming with me, if he chose to do it. I have 
not yet decided whether I will make another attempt to get it or 
not. Brett and Barnes have just arrived, who bring with them 
good news of the fine health, flourishing crop, and happy and 
prosperous condition of their country. Brett and myself will de- 
cide to morrow what we will do. 

July 22nd 

The day has been verry pleasant, the weather being quite fine, 
often a considerable rain, which made every thing have a gloomy 
appearance. I attended Church to day at the College Chapel, this 
being the first Sabbath of the session, and heard a sermon from 
Dr. Green, princaply on the character of Satan and his emiseries, 
the craft and assault with which they beset men, and how these 
might be avoided and security against his power maintained. 73 
In the evening we had a verry interesting recitation in the 
Bible, 1 st and 2 nd chapter Kings. Dr. Mitchell is a verry humerous 
old man, and certainly a man who never spoke without display- 
ing some learning. I am confident I never heard such an enter- 
taining lecture, in my life. He brought in every sciance to 
illustrate some point, and seemed perfectly acquainted with each 
of them. 74 After recitation I [68] attended prayers and as regards 

72 George Brett, graduated with second honors, 1852. Battle, History of 
the University, I, 803. Prior to this time, Garrett had lived in West Build- 
ing. William D. Barnes, mentioned immediately below, graduate of 1852, 
was also from Bertie County, and like Garrett, a lawyer; he was a Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel in the Confederate forces, lived to serve a term in the Florida 
General Assembly, was Speaker of the Florida Senate in 1879, and Comp- 
troller in 1881. 

73 William Mercer Green (1798-1887), see note 108 below on the students' 
presentation to him of a silver service. Bible classes still met regularly on 
Sunday evening, unchanged from the practice required by a University reg- 
ulation of 1795. Connor, Documentary History, I, 360-362. See also note 103 
below. The regular fall session began six weeks after the first Thursday in 
June; a second vacation period of the same length began about the first of 

74 Elisha Mitchell's nominal monument is Mount Mitchell in western North 
Carolina; his activities at the University were mountainous in volume but 
spread like a broad plain over the University. No official biography has 
been written; there is in the North Carolina Collection of the University 
Library a typescript biography by Mitchell's granddaughter, Mrs. Hope 
Summerell Chamberlain, given with the stipulation that it is not to be pub- 
lished "by quotation" or in part, but only as a whole. Born in Washington, 
Conn., in 1793, and descendent by his mother, Phoebe Eliot, of John Eliot, 
apostle to the Indians, he was graduated from Yale in 1813, was licensed 
to preach from Congregational Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass., 1818, 
and began teaching in Chapel Hill the same year. He was Chairman of the 
faculty until the arrival of President Swain, and began his teaching as pro- 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 255 

this part of my college duties, I will put at some point in the page 
on which I write of the events of the day the initials P.A. signi- 
fying — prayers attended, that it may produce some regularity in 
the matter that I may have a record of my punctuality, and keep 
an account for the Faculty 75 

July 23 rd 

Probably no time in the life of any one is more pleasant than that 
spent at College, and of all the times the beginning of the 
session is the most agreable of the whole, when all the students 
rush as it were, rush together like a tremendious shock of an 
earthquake exciting and arousing the feelings of friendship, and 
brotherly love besides at the commencement of the session, there 
is not a little noise, caused by the moving and shifting of the 
room furniture &c, the bustle and hurry of the examination of 

fessor of mathematics and natural philosophy from 1817 to 1826, when he 
took over the chair for chemistry, minerology, and geology which he held 
for the rest of his life. The bylaws of the University in 1825 created the 
appointment of a Superintendent of the Property and Financial Concerns 
of the University, bonded at $10,000 and with a salary of $500 a year. Dr. 
Mitchell was the first such Superintendent, his duties including visiting- 
all rooms at least once a week, noting injuries to rooms and the perpetrators 
of them. Upbraided once by President Swain because of the quality of work 
being done by the Department of Chemistry and Geology, he answered that 
his work had not suffered in the least compared with that of others. Given 
to colorful language, he wrote the following letter in making a report to 
the Clerk of the North Carolina Senate, throwing much light on his own 
personality as well as some phases of University life when Garrett was 
there as a student: "I do suppose the business connected with this same 
Bursarship is of as complicated and vexatious character as is done in North 
Carolina. There have been paid in this session something more than $1200.00. 
This I have to pay out, and not a little of it in tens, fives, fours, and thus 
and so on down to a few cents, and to keep all these matters regular between 
Trustees, Faculty, Parents, Students, Merchants, Boarding-house keepers, 
Washerwomen and niggers, and be able to prove that all is correct at any 
time, requires that a man be wide awake. A student changes his boarding- 
house or his washerwoman, and neither party dreams that it can be of any 
importance to note the time. So I have to investigate the whole matter and 
make all straight as best I can. I should do better if I had to do with men 
— knowing what the rules and proprieties of business are, but the petticoat 
has the ascendancy at the Hill. My principal customers are women, some 
fifteen in number — married women, widow, and maid — to say nothing of 
those that are neither — and such a time as I have !" Mitchell's jibe at the 
superior academic gods, when a student hell-raiser was caught and threat- 
ened with dismissal, was typical — his plea for one such being, "Let him 
go! Let him go! He is good legislature and Trustee material!" Battle, 
History of the University, I, 441-442, 466. Mitchell's influence on the facul- 
ty was strong and pervasive. His stand on the religious issue referred to 
in notes 51, above, and 100, below, is clearly set forth in a hitherto unpub- 
lished letter to Bishop John Ravenscroft, Raleigh, 1825; see Appendix F. 

75 Hereafter Garrett faithfully records the letters, "P.A." at the begin- 
ning of each entry, and when he does not, calls attention to the fact and 
and apologies; these have been excised by the editor to reduce superflous 

256 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the "newyeans" [ ?] 76 these and like circumstances, producing 
considerable excitement. The pleasure of this cannot well be 
appreciated or if at all at a time when stillness has changed the 
scence. There has been, it is true, a considerable assemblage at 
the doors of the College buildings today some hallowing at the 
"Fresh in the Campus", 77 yet despite of this a marked change 
has taken place in this respect since yesterday, so that looking 
back a day or two, my excitement I find has been so intense that 
the few days past have gone away, at least in happy f orgetf ulness 
of the events they brought, if not in absolute enjoyment. I have 
taken possession of a room in [69] the East Building with Brett, 
there is yet a deal of labor to spend in putting it in order, for 
most everything is thrown pelmel fashion about it I have experi- 
enced an interruption in my serious contemplation and reveries 
of late on account of the disorder I have witness in everything 
about me, which like the confusion experienced by the philosopher 
at the price of a "white-washing day of an old woman", allows 
no time and if time no place, and if place, no opportunity for any- 
thing either contemplative, or otherwise. I recited my first session 
in Charles XII this morning; under Professor Hubbard, 78 this 
evening the recitation was quite dull and I could scearce keep 
myself from going to sleep. 

July 24 th . . . The lessons for the day have been first Charles XII 
by Voltaire, and Horace's Art of Poetry. In this are laid down 
some excellent rules of composition, rules [70] which addressing 
themselves to the common sense of mankind in every age, must 
form the principles of good taste, and style in every age. There 
simplicity renders them plain, and easy of application a most 
important circumstance in matters of style. I have commenced 
reading the History of England by Hume, which I shall continue 
in that by McCauly, 79 I shame myself for being so ignorant of 
History. Although I know that novel reading is a destructive 
habit, I have engaged my mind with them instead of reading 
History which is equally as agreable and by far more instruc- 

78 The undecipherable word is perhaps a slang" term for freshmen who 
would be arriving on campus about this time. 

77 Hazing for freshmen was not a hazard even up to the 1850's; Garrett's 
report agrees with that by Battle; sometimes the freshman's face was 
blacked. One student, however, determined to resist any action, armed 
himself with a pistol and fired it, but someone fortunately knocked his 
arm up, spoiling his aim; as a result the Di and Phi then agreed to halt all 
hazing if the University would not dismiss the participants. This bargain 
apparently eliminated even mild hazing for several years, Battle History 
of the University, I, 576-577. See also the entry below for July 25, 1849. 

78 Fordyce M. Hubbard, professor of Latin, Battle, History of the Univer- 
sity, I, 408, 518; chief custodian of the University library in 1868. 

79 Thomas Babington Macaulay, The History of England from the Acces- 
sion of Jct/mes II. 

Diary op Thomas Miles Garrett 257 

tive. 80 I made me out a list a few days ago of what I meant to 
read this session, if my strength did not fail me. I comprehend 
[propose] Hume and MaCauly, Thier's French Revolution, Gib- 
bon's Rome, and Mitford Greece. 81 I shall not probably read all 

80 Garrett responded little to literature, or what is now known as "belles 
lettres." He states, for example, on July 3, "I can remember numbers better 
than words, and events better than either." This kind of preference is not 
conducive to an interest in literature, per se. 

81 David Hume, The History of England from the Invasion of Julius 
Caesar to the Revolution in 1688; Adolph Thiers, The History of the French 
Revolution; Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire; and William Mitford, The History of Greece. 

Garrett's more or less disorganized statement of his course of study 
here, plus his announced statement elsewhere (see entry for August 22, 
1849) that he has no intention of recording specifically what he took at 
any given time makes necessary a summary statement of the University 
curriculum during these years, and earlier, based on Battle's History of 
the University, Connor's Documentary History, Knight's Documentary 
History of Education, and University catalogs, together with allusions in 
the Faculty Journal, University Archives. 

On the opening of the University in 1798, the curriculum had all the 
essentials studied by Garrett: Latin, Greek, rhetoric, mathematics, natural 
philosophy (chemistry, physics, geology, etc.), history, logic, moral philos- 
ophy, belles-lettres, and Bible. The natural sciences were strengthened in 
1815, and foreign languages added. In 1795, however, there were only five 
professorships; rhetoric and belle-lettres, moral and political philosophy 
and history, natural philosophy, mathematics, and languages; a professor- 
ship of Latin was added in 1800, French and Greek 1801. This curriculum 
prevailed until after 1875. 

A statement of fees or tuition published in 1795 called for $8 per annum 
for reading, writing, arithmetic and bookkeeping; $12.50 per annum for 
Latin, Greek, French, English grammar, geography, history and belles- 
lettres; $15.00 per annum for geometry, with practical branches, astronomy, 
natural philosophy, moral philosophy, chemistry, and the principles of 

The time spent on various subjects, however, is a better index of the 
meaning of the curriculum than a list of subjects offered for the period of 
the 1850's when Garrett was a student, Battle sums the matter up thus: 
"The curriculum exercises were chiefly Latin, Greek, and mathematics. 
Chemistry, Geology, Minerology, Botany, Zoology, occupied only three hours 
a week for nine months; Metaphysics, Political Economy, Constitutional 
and International Law occupied the same time. Even after the inaugura- 
tion of the School of Engineering and Agricultural Chemistry, more than 
one-third of the student's time was spent in the Dead Languages; one-half 
in the Languages, Ancient and Modern; three-fifths in Languages and 
Pure Mathematics; only one-fifth in Physics; in Mental Philosophy, Logic 
and Rhetoric, only one-twentieth ; and in Political Science, Law Psychology, 
and Rhetoric all combined, only one-eighth of the time of four years. The 
English studies were assigned to the department of Metaphysics and allowed 
three hours a week for one year. In that time were attempted to be taught 
Logic, Psychology, Rhetoric, and the English Language and Literature. 
This is a brief statement of the curriculum for the twelve years of the 
period beginning with June, 1856. Prior to 1856 the proportion of Latin, 
Greek, and Pure Mathematics was much greater." Battle, History of the 
University, I, 552-553. It is small wonder that Garrett responded as little 
as he did, for example, to fiction or poetry. For some of Garrett's references 
to the various subjects he studied and the dates, see: history, July 24, 
October 9, 1849; rhetoric, July 26, August 4, 10; French, July 30; natural 
philosophy, August 8, September 6; logic, August 5; chemistry, August 7; 
law, August 10; mental philosophy, August 12; political economy, Au- 
gust 26. 

258 The North Carolina Historical Review 

these this session But I will read nothing else, but continuly read 

July 25 th 

The day has been quite on a pang [ ?] , nothing happened to cause 
any excitement, in the way of fun, and only a little pleasure de- 
rived from studying two lessons in mathematics of which I am 
very fond There has been a considerable noise in College to day. 
The old students have a custom of hollowing at the Fresh when 
they go out in the Campus, and they have kept up a continual 
sally of hoops and hollows, but as is usual with many things that 
come from the mouths of men, this is sound, empty and void and 
without sense so that it is better calculated to disturb, than excite 
by interesting. . . , 82 

[71] July 26 th 

This day has contained something of interest, although at the 
expense of much trouble. It was announced yesterday evening 
that the exercises of college for the day would close at 12 o'clock 
in consequence of a public gathering to be held on the subject of 
railroad improvements in the state. In the morning I prepared 
my first lesson in Rhetoric. The textbook used for this branch of 
education is the excellent lectures of D r Blair, which originally 
were delivered to the students of Edenburg. 83 The lecture which 
we had for a lesson to day had for its subject the rise and pro- 
gress of language, one fraught with interest, and which in this 
case was discussed with ability and which made peculiarly in- 
teresting by the many curious and entertaining observations. 
After dinner I attended the gathering in the village and heard 
speeches from Govs. Graham 84 and Swain. The former made a 
verry instructive and entertaining speech pressing the impor- 
tance of the subject upon the minds of the people He endeavor d 
to bring the public mind to act upon it, made use of many illus- 
trations affording proof of the opinion he entertained and en- 
deavored [72] to persuade the people to embrace the opportunity 

82 This may be an unconscious echo of two literary works Garrett surely 
read: Macbeth, Act V, Sc. V, 11. 26-28, ". . . it is a tale/ Told by an 
idiot, full of sound and fury,/ Signifying nothing."; or, Goldsmith's "The 
Deserted Village," lines 121-122, "The watch-dog's voice that bay'd the 
whisp'ring wind,/ And the loud laugh that spoke the vacant mind." 

83 Hugh Blair, Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres. 

M Governor William Alexander Graham (1804-1875) was a strong propo- 
nent of preservation of the Union; Speaker of the House, 1833; Senator, 
1840; Governor, 1843-1849; Secretary of the Navy under President Millard 
Fillmore. His position on union or secession may have helped mold Gar- 
rett's opinion. For Garrett's comment on Governor David L. Swain (for 
whom Swain Hall at the University was named) see entry for August 31, 
1849, below, and note 102). 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 259 

of creating the work proposed. The legislature of the State at its 
last Session passed a bill of charter for a Central railroad from 
Raleigh to Charlotte, and made an appropriation of two millions 
of dollars for the work with the provision that the people of the 
state would procure a subscription of one million. Gov. Graham 
a man of considerable influence amongst the public, a man in 
whose jud[g]ement the people put explicit confidence, with a 
view to the advancement of the public good and that the people 
may be correctly informed with regard to this matter and the 
minds arroused to a proper sense of their duty. Gov Swain made 
a few interesting remarks, and in the way of wit punning &c. of 
which the "old hoss" as the people call him is some what fond 
made some verry apt and striking illustrations, related a few 
incidents of his late trip to Tennessee, during the last vacation. 
The trouble which I spoke of in the beginning was that which I 
experienced from being obliged to stand to hear the gentlemen 
speak, an inconvenience which I am not accustomed meet with 
in the Eastern part of the state. I think that the people of this 
part of the state ought to feel a little more pride and always pro- 
vide accomidation for the crowd for an orator undoubtedly meets 
with a dificulty in the unpleasanness of the assembly 

July 27 th 

Nothing has occured to day out of the usual order of things either 
rendering the day verry agreable or disagreable. We had lessons 
in Rhetoric which to say the least were very highly interesting. 
I think I have not found during my course any study which will 
be of more delight and advantage to me and while I am attempt- 
ing it I mean to apply myself diligently to it. I shall not only 
consult Blair but shall pay some attention to others which I may 
procure in the library. I think Campbell 85 is in it and a good 
author. I feel inclined to write longer but a parcel of noisy 
students have got their instruments and are giving us what is 
called a Calathumpian serinade, some hwoping, some playing on 
instruments, others ringing the bell, and a general confusion 
throughout 86 My friend Neal 87 has just arrived, complains of 
symtons of the cholera 

[74] July 29 The week has again roled round and the Sabbath has 
arrived and passed. ... I cannot of myself say that I take such 

85 George Campbell, The Philosophy of Rhetoric. 

88 The term "calathumpian" seems to be a coinage by Garrett; his curious 
spelling, "hwoping" could be either a phonetic spelling of the colloquialism, 
"whopping" meaning striking forcefully on an object, or a combination of 
phonetic spelling and a misspelling of "whooping." 

87 John Neal, Franklin County, graduated in 1854, Battle, Sketches, 184. 

260 The North Carolina Historical Review 

interest in religion, but it must feel grating to the feelings of a 
humane man to meet the sneer of the infidel, and hear the abuse 
of the wicked and perverse. I attended service in the Chapel and 
heard a sermon from D r Mitchell. Its subject was the history of 
Saul, which being pretty well known, rendered it dull, and added 
to the insipid manner of the professor put [75] many to sleep, 
and it was with the greatest effort on my part that I could drive 
off the importune God. The Chapel on such an occasion presents 
rather a rediculous scence, I had almost said a disgraceful one. 
It is certainly not befitting intelligent men to sleep under the 
sound of the orators voice but this was something like the old 
poets reciting in the month of August mentined by Horace which 
he lashes with his satire. It affords a fine illustration of how 
much depends upon gesticulation, for besides the account of 
Horace, we find an audience reveling as high in the region of 
sentiment in their dreams, as the speaker in his discourse, and 
all for the want of enthusiasm, pathos and spirit. Modern oratory 
will ere long become entirely intolerable 

July 30 th 

After retiring to rest last night, I was disturbed by quite a serious 
accident which happened to the inmate of the room adjoining 
mine. 88 He had attempted to replenish his lamp with oil or cam- 
phine, without extinguishing the light of it, and as might have 
been expected from the ignitable quality of the fluid, the liquid in 
the lamp and canister both caught fire, and produced a general 
conflagration. His bed caught fire, and loosing all presence of 
mind took no measures for extinguishing it nor of giving the 
alarm. The blaze of the fire was seen from a window of the South 
Building, and but for this circumstance the whole building in 
which were quart [er]ed fifty students all wrapt in sleep might 
have been extinguished. Some one who must have been verry 
much [76] frightened gave a most horrible scream, which awoke 
me, I sprang from my bed and ran out, in the passage, where I 
found some dozen in the utmost confusion. I saw in a moment 
that a little water would make an end of the conflagration, and 
ran into my room, got some water, but when I got to the door of 

88 Considering the "pranks" which the students resorted to, one is sur- 
prised that South, East, and West Buildings have survived and are still 
very much used and occupied in modern times. As early as 1800 the Faculty 
Journals record that students were admonished by the faculty for firing 
pistols in the college buildings; the Trustees were petitioned, Battle states, 
in 1837 and 1838 to build a new building for the Phi and Di respectively, 
among other reasons because of the fact that the accumulated Society 
libraries then totalled about 7,000 volumes, housed in a building (South), 
shingle-covered, in which about twenty-five fires were kept going continuously 
during the winter months. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 261 

the room, such crowd had blocked up the portal that it was with 
greatest difficulty that I could get in the room, and after I did 
get in I found a greater part of my water spilt and that too on 
myself. I dashed the remainder upon the side of the ceiling which 
had caught fire, and prevented a more horrid prospect of danger. 
The effort proved successful, and the fire was extinguished. It is 
impossible to conceive how much excitement this produced. Some 
student of such strong lungs hollowed fire ! fire ! fire ! so long and 
so loud, that the country people caught the alarm, and giving the 
sound a still louder prolonged echoe, it verberated and rever- 
berated among the hills for some distance around and possibly 
waked the owles hawks, bears and panthers of the Blue ridge, 
and it may be that the sound is yet resounding among the shores 
of the Atlantic and that the wild Arabs of the Eutopans realms 
have been aroused from their drousy slumber. . . . 

[77] July 31 st 

I rose early this morning, learned the French recitation, which I 
had left, for the sake of reading Hume This is a practice to which 
I did desire not to addict myself, but it is much pleasanter to get 
the recitation in the morning, during a time allowed of almost 
an hour and a half, and besides it is pleasanter to read in night. 
I have not had much rest to day. I have been harrased consider- 
ably by committing a piece for declamation 89 I do not know when 
I had a more unpleasant duty to perform. It is with great effort 
that I am able to memorise any thing, especially any writing. I 
can remember numbers better than words and events better than 
either. I desire to read to night but must get again to the dis- 
agreable task of committing, for tomorrow. I have to perform 
upon the stage before the Faculty. I have just returned from 
meeting a number of the Sons of Temperance, the object of which 
was to procure a room, of which we have been deprived by the 
overflush of students this session. We agreed that we should 
petition the Faculty or if they had not the right of disposition 

89 Garrett's anxiety about his speech was justified; great importance 
was attached to this activity, since University regulations (see Connor, 
Documentary History, I, 361) set aside Saturday morning as a day for 
speaking, reading, and exhibiting of compositions by the entire student 
body. The majority of the speaking, of course, went on in the halls of the 
Di and the Phi. Commencement was a particularly gruelling occasion, 
speakers being selected on the basis of a year's performances, by members 
of the Societies; election to speak was an honor; speeches were given with 
the speakers wearing black silk gowns belonging to the Society. Battle 
states that for weeks before Commencement, the piney woods around the 
campus resounded with students practicing lest they suffer the intolerable 
disgrace of forgetting and being forced to sit down with the declamation 
incomplete. Freshmen declaimed on Monday night of Commencement week. 
Garrett addressed the Commencement of 1851 on "Virtue Alone Makes 
Men Free." Battle, History of the University, I, 556, 625. 

262 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the Trustees that the student be allowed to occupy the new rooms 
under the new halls of the society, and that the room we had 
occupied be delivered up to us — . . . 

[To be Continued'] 

By William S. Powell* 

Bibliography and Libraries 

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literature of the U. S. A. Durham, Duke University Press, 

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Anscombe, Francis Charles. I have called you Friends, the 

story of Quakerism in North Carolina. Boston, Christopher 

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the imitation of Christ through the centuries. Richmond, John 

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1 Books dealing with North Carolina or by North Carolinians published 
during the year ending June 30, 1960. 

* Mr. William S. Powell is Librarian of the North Carolina Collection, 
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 

[26S ] 

264 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Graham, Ruth Bell. Our Christmas story, by Mrs. Billy Gra- 
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Krentel, Mildred. I see 4, a story based on the third chapter 
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McCarter, Neely D. The gospel on campus, rediscovering 
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Marney Carlyle. Beggars in velvet. New York, Abingdon 
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Oates, Wayne E. The revelation of God in human suffering. 
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Redhead, John A. Putting your faith to work. New York, 
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Roberts, Nancy. An illustrated guide to ghosts & mysterious 
occurrences in the Old North State. Photographs by Bruce 
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Shepherd, Massey Hamilton, editor. The liturgical renewal 
of the church. New York, Oxford University Press, 1960. 160 p. 

The Paschal liturgy and the Apocalypse. Rich- 
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Stinnette, Charles Roy. Faith, freedom, and selfhood, a study 
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Weeks, Lena Pittman. Beauty and truth. [Raleigh, Edwards 
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Young, Richard K. Spiritual therapy, how the physician, psy- 
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Economics and Sociology 

Abernethy, George L., editor. The idea of equality, an anthol- 
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Abrahamson, Julia. A neighborhood finds itself. New York, 
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Bardolph, Richard. The Negro vanguard. 2 New York, Rine- 
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Carmichael, Oliver Cromwell. Universities: commonwealth 
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Winner of the Mayflower Award, 1960. 

North Carolina Bibliography 265 

Crook, Roger H. The changing American family, a study of 
family problems from a Christian perspective. St. Louis, Mo., 
Bethany Press, 1960. 160 p. $2.95. 

Downs, Robert Bingham. The first freedom, liberty and jus- 
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Germino, Dante L. The Italian Fascist Party in power, a study 
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Heard, Alexander. The costs of democracy. Chapel Hill, Uni- 
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Larkins, John Rodman. Patterns of leadership among Neg- 
roes in North Carolina. Raleigh, Irving-Swain Press, Inc., 
1959. 60 p. $1.50. 

Larson, Arthur. What we are for. New York, Harper, 1959. 
173 p. $2.95. 

McClure, Wallace Mitchell. World legal order: possible 
contributions by the people of the United States. Chapel Hill, 
University of North Carolina Press, 1960. 366 p. $7.50. 

Ropp, Theodore. War in the modern world. Durham, Duke 
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Scott, Andrew MacKay. Political thought in America. New 
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Thibaut, John W. The social psychology of groups, by John 
W. Thibaut and Harold H. Kelly. New York, Wiley, 1959. 
313 p. $7.00. 

Tolbert, E. L. Introduction to counseling. New York, McGraw- 
Hill, 1959. 322 p. $5.95. 

Vaughan, Curtis M. Faubus' folly, the story of segregation. 
New York, Vantage Press, 1959. 160 p. $3.50. 

Wilson, Robert Renbert. United States commercial treaties 
and international law. New Orleans, Hauser Press, 1960. 381 p. 


Bell, Thelma Harrington. Thunderstorm. Illustrated by 
Corydon Bell. New York, Viking Press, 1960. 128 p. $3.00. 

Casanova, Richard. Fossil collecting: an illustrated guide. 
London, Faber and Faber, 1960. 142 p. 18/. 

Cleaveland, Frederic N. Science and State government, a 
study of the scientific activities of state government agencies 
in six states. Chapel Hill, [Published for the Institute for 
Research in Social Science by] The University of North 
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Crockford, Horace Downs. Fundamentals of physical chem- 

266 The North Carolina Historical Review 

istry, by H. D. Crockford and Samuel B. Knight. New York, 
Wiley, 1959. 463 p. $7.00. 

Ferguson, John Howard. Lipoids and blood platelets, with 
reference to blood coagulation and the hemorrhagic diseases. 
Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1960. 278 p. 

Hesler, Lexemuel Ray. Mushrooms of the Great Smokies, a 
field guide to some mushrooms and their relatives. Knoxville, 
University of Tennessee Press, 1960. 289 p. $5.50. 

Kirkpatrick, Charles Atkinson. Advertising, mass communi- 
cation in marketing. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1959. 638 p. 

Mann, Peggy. A book of ideas, Peggy Mann's best to you. 
[Durham, Author, I960?] 81 p. $1.50. 

Procter, Ivan Marriott. One hundred year history of the 
North Carolina State Board of Medical Examiners, 1859-1959, 
by Ivan M. Procter and Dorothy Long. [Raleigh, Board of 
Medical Examiners, 1959]. 87 p. 

Robinson, Luther. We made peace with polio. Nashville, 
Broadman Press, 1960. 165 p. $2.75. 

Scheer, Julian. First into outer space, by Theodore J. Gordon 
and Julian Scheer, New York, St. Martin's Press, 1959. 197 p. 

Snow, William Brewster. The highway and the landscape. 
New Brunswick, N. J., Rutgers University Press, 1959. 230 p. 

Ullman, Berthold Louis. The origin and development of 
humanistic script. Rome, Edizioni de Storia e Letteratura, 
1960. 146 p. 4.000 Ire. 

Westpheling, Helen Todd. Army lady today. Charlotte, Heri- 
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Wynne, Mary Avera, comp. A cook book of treasured recipes 
from American and foreign kitchens and many original recipes 
tested and approved from 1776 to 1959. [Wake Forest, Au- 
thor], 1959. 323 p. 

Fine Arts 

Caudle, Edwin C. Collegiate basketball, facts and figures on 

the cage sport. Winston-Salem, J. F. Blair, 1960. 393 p. $6.95. 
McGuire, Frank. Defensive basketball. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 

Prentice-Hall, 1959. 268 p. $4.95. 
Squire, Elizabeth Daniels. Fortune in your hand. New York, 

Fleet Publishing Corporation, 1960. 228 p. $3.95. 
Waugh, Edward. The South builds, new architecture in the 

Old South, by Edward Waugh and Elizabeth Waugh. Chapel 

North Carolina Bibliography 267 

Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1960. 173 p. $12.50. 
Wellman, Manly Wade. The rebel songster, songs the Con- 
federates sang. Music scores by Frances Wellman. Charlotte, 
Heritage House, 1959. 53 p. $2.00. 


Blackstock, Walter. Miracle of flesh. Francestown, N. H., 

Golden Quill Press, 1960. 55 p. $2.75. 
Creeley, Robert. A form of women. New York, Jargon Books, 

1959. unpaged. $1.50. 
Fletcher, Harold H. Faith of a salesman. Charlotte, Heritage 

House, 1959. 53 p. $2.00. 
Langston, John Dallas. Life's gleanings. Durham, [Seeman 

Printery, 1959]. 60 p. 
Lorenz, Lincoln. Quest at dawn. Mill Valley, Calif., Wings 

Press, 1960. 137 p. $2.75. 
MacCormack, Vonnie. Doodle of Dee. New York, Vantage 

Press, 1959. 43 p. $2.00. 
McNair, Lura Thomas. Midnight fire. Francestown, N. H., 

Golden Quill Press, 1959. 64 p. $2.00. 
Reid, Nelle June. Pause for meditation. New York, Exposition 

Press, 1960. 47 p. $2.50. 
Sandburg, Carl. 3 Harvest poems, 1910-1960. New York, Har- 

court, Brace, 1960. 125 p. $1.35. 
Summerow, Dorothy Edwards, editor. Silver echoes. A poetry 

anthology. Charlotte, Poets Press, 1959. 52 p. $2.50. 
Walker, James Robert. Musings of childhood. New York, 

Comet Press Books, 1960. 115 p. $2.75. 
Walser, Richard Gaither, editor. Nematodes in my garden 

of verse, a little book of Tar Heel poems. Winston-Salem, J. F. 

Blair, 1959. 132 p. $3.50. 
Williams, Jonathan. The Empire finals at Verona. Highlands, 

N. C, Jargon Books, 1959. unpaged. $2.50. 
Wilson, Sidney Ann. Moonwebs. Raleigh, Glover's Printing 

Company, 1960. 100 p. $2.25. 


Coolidge, Jane Toy. Mrs. Parker's portrait, a one-act play for 
women. Boston, Walter H. Baker Co., 1960. 21 p. 

Green, Paul Eliot. The Stephen Foster Story, a symphonic 
drama based on the life and music of the composer. New York, 
French, 1960. 107 p. $1.50. 

3 Winner of the Roanoke-Chowan Award for poetry, 1960, for the body of 
his work written over many years. 

268 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Fiction 4 

Anderson, Alston. Lover man. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 
1959. 177 p. $3.75. 

Booker, Jim. Trail to Oklahoma. Nashville, Broadman Press, 
1959. 184 p. $2.95. 

Burgwyn, Mebane Holoman. Hunter's hideout. Philadelphia, 
Lippincott, 1959. 153 p. $2.75. 

Eaton, Charles Edward. Write me from Rio. Winston-Salem, 
J. F. Blair, 1959. 214 p. $3.95. 

Ehle, John Marsden. Kingstree Island. New York, Morrow, 
1959. 281 p. $3.75. 

Fletcher, Inglis. Cormorant's brood. Philadelphia, Lippin- 
cott, 1959. 345 p. $4.50. 

Frankel, Ernest. Tongue of fire. New York, Dial Press, 1960. 
502 p. $4.95. 

Gerson, Noel B. The Yankee from Tennessee. Garden City, 
N. Y., Doubleday, 1960. 382 p. $3.95. 

Hardy William M. Wolfpack. New York, Dodd, Mead, 1960. 
183 p. $3.50. 

Kurtz, Ann. Pendy. Charlotte, Heritage House, 1960. 274 p. 

Meader, Stephen Warren. Wild Pony Island. New York, 
Harcourt, Brace, 1959. 192 p. $2.95. 

Owen, Guy. Season of fear. New York, Random House, 1960. 
337 p. $3.95. 

Pierce, Ovid Williams. On a lonesome porch. 5 Garden City, 
N. Y., Doubleday, 1960. 237 p. $4.50. 

Powell, Talmage. The killer is mine. New York, Pocket 
Books, 1959. 147 p. .25f 

Ruark, Robert Chester. Poor no more. New York, Holt, 1959. 
706 p. $5.95. 

Shirreffs, Gordon D. Roanoke raiders. Philadelphia, West- 
minster Press, 1959. 160 p. $2.95. 

Slaughter, Frank Gill. Lorena. Garden City, N. Y., Double- 
day, 1959. 262 p. $3.95. 

Pilgrims in paradise. Garden City, N. Y., Double- 
day, 1960. 319 p. $3.95. 

Steele, William O. Andy Jackson's water well. New York, 
Harcourt, Brace, 1959. 80 p. $2.75. 

Street, James Howell. Pride of possession, by James Street 
and Don Tracy. New York, Lippincott, 1960. 218 p. $3.75. 

Street, Julia Montgomery. Candle love feast. New York, 
Coward-McCann, 1959. unpaged. $2.75. 

4 By a North Carolinian or with the scene laid in North Carolina. 
c Winner of the Sir Walter Raleigh Award for fiction, 1960. 

North Carolina Bibliography 269 

Styron, William. Set this house on fire. New York, Random 

House, 1960. 507 p. $5.95. 
Taylor, Peter Hillsman. Happy families are all alike. New 

York, McDowell, Obolensky, 1959. 305 p. $3.95. 
Wellman, Manly Wade. Appomattox Road, final adventures 

of the Iron Scouts. New York, Washburn, 1960. 181 p. $2.95. 
The dark destroyers. New York, Avalon Books, 

1959. 224 p. $2.95. 

Giants from eternity. New York, Thomas Boure- 

gy and Co., 1959. 223 p. $2.75. 

Literature, Other Than Poetry, Drama, or Fiction 

Adams, Nicholson Barney. Spanish literature, a brief survey, 
by Nicholson B. Adams and John E. Keller. Paterson, N. J., 
Littlefield, Adams, 1960. 196 p. $1.75. 

Brockman, Zoe Kincaid. Unguarded moments. Charlotte, Her- 
itage House, 1959. 112 p. $3.00. 

Golden, Harry Lewis. Enjoy, enjoy! Cleveland, World Pub- 
lishing Company, 1960. 315 p. $4.00. 

For 2<f: plain. Cleveland, World Publishing Com- 
pany, 1959. 313 p. $4.00. 

Hartley, Lodwick Charles. William Cowper, the continuing 
revaluation. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 
1960. 159 p. $5.00. 

Hubbell, Jay Broadus. Southern life in fiction. Athens, Uni- 
versity of Georgia Press, 1960. 99 p. $2.50. 

Mitchell, Joseph. The bottom of the harbor. Boston, Little, 
Brown and Company, 1959. 243 p. $3.95. 

Morrah, Dave. Who ben kaputen der Robin? Mein Grossfader's 
rhymers and fable tellen. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 1960. 
96 p. $1.95. 

Snuggs, Henry Lawrence. Shakespeare and five acts, studies 
in a dramatic convention. New York, Vantage Press, 1960. 
144 p. $3.50. 

Stem, Thad, Jr. The perennial almanac. Charlotte, Heritage 
House, 1959. 118 p. $3.00. 

Stevenson, Arthur Lionel. The English novel, a panorama. 
Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1960. 539 p. $4.00. 


Bass, Cora. Marriage bonds of Duplin County, North Carolina, 
1749-1868. [Clinton, Author, 1959.] 144 p. $10.00. 

Smallwood, Marilu Burch. Birch, Burch family in Great 
Britain and America. Vol. II. Macon, Georgia, J. W. Burke 
Company, 1959. 491 p. $10.00. 

270 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Staton, John Samuel. Staton History. Charlotte, Brooks 
Litho., 1960. 406 p. $10.30. 

History and Travel 

Clark, William Bell. George Washington's Navy, being an 
account of His Excellency's fleet in New England waters. Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1960. 275 p. $5.00. 

Daniels, Jonathan Worth. Mosby, Gray Ghost of the Con- 
federacy. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1959. 122 p. $2.95. 

Dawson, Raymond H. The decision to aid Russia, 1941, foreign 
policy and domestic politics. Chapel Hill, University of North 
Carolina Press, 1959. 315 p. $6.00. 

Ferguson, Arthur B. The Indian summer of English chivalry, 
studies in the decline and transformation of chivalric idealism. 
Durham, Duke University Press, 1960. 242 p. $6.00. 

Forest, Herman Silva. Jessie's children. New York, Vantage 
Press, 1959. 116 p. $3.00. 

Halliday, Ernest Milton. The ignorant armies. New York, 
Harper, 1960. 232 p. $4.50. 

Hoffmann, William Stephany. North Carolina in the Mexi- 
can War, 1946-1848. Raleigh, State Department of Archives 
and History, 1959. 48 p. .25^. 

Holmes, Edison Parker. Angels in dream bring fortune to 
Aunt Ellen. Winston-Salem, Clay Printing Co., 1959. 295 p. 

Johnson, Gerald White. America grows up, a history for 
Peter. New York, Morrow, 1960. 223 p. $3.75. 

America is born, a history for Peter. New York, 

Morrow, 1959. 254 p. $3.95. 

America moves forward, a history for Peter. New 

York, Morrow, 1960. 256 p. $3.95. 

Pittard, Pen Lile. Alexander County's Confederates, by Pen 
Lile Pittard and W. C. Watts. [Taylorsville, Authors, I960.] 
67 p. $3.00. 

Rankin, Hugh Franklin. The pirates of colonial North Caro- 
lina. Raleigh, State Department of Archives and History, 1960. 
72 p. .35^. 

South, Stanley A. Indians in North Carolina. Raleigh, State 
Department of Archives and History, 1959. 69 p. .25^. 

Thomas, Cornelius M. Dickinson. James Forte, a 17th cen- 
tury settlement. Wilmington, Printed by J. E. Hicks, [1959]. 
56 p. $5.00. 

Walker, Alexander McDonald, editor. New Hanover Court 
minutes. Part 2. Bethesda, Md., Alexander M. Walker, 1959. 
120 p. $5.00. 

North Carolina Bibliography 271 

Walker, Peter Franklin. Vicksburg, a people at war, 1860- 
1865. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1960. 
235 p. $5.00. 

Wellman, Manly Wade. The county of Warren, North Car- 
olina, 1586-1917. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina 
Press, 1959. 282 p. $6.00. 

Yearns, Wilfred Buck. The Confederate Congress. Athens, 
University of Georgia Press, 1960. 293 p. $5.00. 

Autobiography and Biography 

Carson, Gerald. The roguish world of Doctor Brinkley. New 

York, Rinehart, 1960. 280 p. $4.95. 
Chambers, Lenoir. Stonewall Jackson. New York, W. Morrow, 

1959. 2 vols. 597, 536 p. $20.00. 

Clark, Elmer Talmage. Arthur James Moore, world evange- 
list. New York, Board of Missions of the Methodist Church, 

1960. 45 p. $2.25. 

Cronon, Edmund David. Josephus Daniels in Mexico. Madison, 

University of Wisconsin Press, 1960. 369 p. $6.00. 
Daniels, Jonathan Worth. Stonewall Jackson. 6 New York, 

Random House, 1959. 183 p. $1.95. 
Hamilton, James G. de Roulhac, editor. The papers of Wil- 
liam Alexander Graham. Vol. II. Raleigh, State Department 

of Archives and History, 1959. 552 p. $3.00. 
Holman, Hugh. Thomas Wolfe. Minneapolis, University of 

Minnesota Press, 1960. 47 p. .65^. 
Jones, Weimar. My affair with a weekly. Winston-Salem. J. F. 

Blair, 1960. 116 p. $2.75. 
Keith, Alice B., editor. The John Gray Blount Papers. Vol. II. 

Raleigh, State Department of Archives and History, 1959. 

689 p. $3.00. 
McBee, May Wilson. The life and times of David Smith, 

patriot, pioneer and Indian fighter. [Greenwood, Mississippi, 

Author?, 1959]. 84 p. $6.00. 
McKitrick, Eric L. Andrew Johnson and reconstruction. 

Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1960. 533 p. $8.50. 
McLoughlin, William Gerald. Billy Graham, revivalist in a 

secular age. New York, Ronald Press Co., 1960. 269 p. $4.50. 
Moore, Allen Hoyt. Mustard plasters and printer's ink, a 

kaleidoscope of a country doctor's observations about people, 

places, and things. New York, Exposition Press, 1959. 262 p. 


a Winner of the American Association of University Women Award for 
juvenile literature, 1960. 

272 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Moore, Claude Hunter. Thomas Overton Moore, a Confederate 

governor. Clinton, Commercial Printing Co., 1960. 78 p. $3.00. 
No well, Elizabeth. Thomas Wolfe, a biography. Garden City, 

N. Y., Doubleday, 1960. 456 p. $5.95. 
Tucker, Glenn. Hancock the superb. Indianapolis, Bobbs-Mer- 

rill, 1960. 368 p. $5.00. 
Williamson, Myrtle. One out of four, a personal experience 

with cancer. Richmond, John Knox Press, 1960. 77 p. $1.50. 
Wilson, Louis Round. Harry Woodburn Chase. Chapel Hill, 

University of North Carolina Press, 1960. 55 p. $2.00. 

New Editions and Reprints 

Adams, Nicholson Barney. The heritage of Spain, an intro- 
duction to Spanish civilization. New York, Holt, 1959. 380 p. 

Allen, Martha Norburn. Asheville and land of the sky. Char- 
lotte, Heritage House, 1960. 208 p. $3.95. 

Bahnson, Agnew H. The stars are too high. New York, Ban- 
torn Books, 1960. 183 p. .35^. 

Brown, Clair Alan. Vegetation of the Outer Banks of North 
Carolina. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 

1959. 179 p. $3.00. 

Carroll, Ruth Robinson. Bounce and the bunnies. New York, 

H. Z. Walck, 1959. 48 p. $2.50. 
Cash, Wilbur Joseph. The mind of the South. New York, 

Vintage Books, 1960. 440 p. $1.45. 
Coulter, Ellis Merton. Short history of Georgia. Chapel Hill, 

University of North Carolina Press, 1960. 537 p. $6.00. 
Croxton, Frederick Emory. Practical business statistics, by 

Frederick E. Croxton and Dudley J. Cowden. Englewood Cliffs, 

N. J., Prentice-Hall, 1960. 701 p. $6.95. 
Culver, Vivian M. The practical nurse, by Kathryn Osmond 

Brownell and Vivian M. Culver. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1959. 

899 p. $6.00. 
Golden, Harry Lewis. For 2^ plain. New York, Permabooks, 

1960. 313 p. .50^. 

Only in America. New York, Permabooks, 1959. 

359 p. .50^. 
[Henderson, LeGrand] . Augustus and the mountains, by Le- 

Grand [pseud.'] New York, Grosset & Dunlap, 1960. 128 p. 

Augustus goes South, by LeGrand [pseud.'] New 

York, Grosset & Dunlap, 1960. 128 p. $1.50. 
Hickerson, Thomas Felix. Route surveys and design. New 

York, McGraw-Hill, 1959. 568 p. $8.50. 

North Carolina Bibliography 273 

Jarrell, Randall, Pictures from an institution, a comedy. 

New York, Meridian Fiction, 1960. 277 p. $1.35. 
Jenkins, William Sumner. Pro-slavery thought in the old 

South. Gloucester, Mass., Peter Smith, 1960. 381 p. $5.50. 
Johnson, Elmer Douglass. Communication, an introduction 

to the history of the alphabet, writing, printing, books and 

libraries. New York, Scarecrow Press, 1960. 251 p. $5.00. 
Lee, Maurice Wentworth. Economic fluctuations, growth and 

stability. Homewood, 111., R. D. Irwin, 1959. 659 p. $8.40. 
Morris, Donald R. Warm bodies, a novel. New York, Perma- 

books, 1959. 153 p. .35^. 
Porter, William Sidney. Short stories, by O. Henry [pseud.] 

[Japanese translation.] Tokyo, Shincho, Inc., 1959. 3 vols. 

Powell, Eunice R. Given to hospitality, a cook book. Winston- 
Salem, Church Bulletin Service, 1959. 423 p. $3.50. 
Rounds, Glen. The blind colt. New York, Holiday House, 1960. 

unpaged. $2.95. 
The whistle punk of Camp 15. New York, Holiday 

House, 1959. 116 p. $2.75. 
Slaughter, Frank Gill. The crown and the cross, the life of 

Christ. New York, Permabooks, 1960. 424 p. .50^. 
Daybreak. New York, Permabooks, 1959. 307 p. 

Sprunt, James. Tales of the Cape Fear blockade . . . edited by 

Cornelius M. D. Thomas. Wilmington, Printed by J. E. Hicks, 

1960. 134 p. $5.00. 
Wolfe, Thomas. The web and the rock. New York, Dell Pub- 
lishing Co., 1960. 736 p. .95f 


Selected Poems of James Larkin Pearson: Poet Laureate of 
North Carolina. Edited with an Introduction by Walter Black- 
stock. (Charlotte: McNally of Charlotte. [Series I, Number 1 
of Old North State Poets, Richard Walser, General Editor.] 
1960. Pp. vii, 68. $2.75.) 

In his eighty-first year, James Larkin Pearson, North Caro- 
lina's poet-laureate, has published his sixth book. Edited by 
Dr. Walter Blackstock, Professor of English at High Point 
College, the volume comprises selected poems drawn from 
preceding books and from unpublished manuscripts. 

The some fifty-seven poems chosen for inclusion range 
from serious personal expressions concerning nature, the ima- 
gination, love, and loss to light verse having the accents of 
mountain life in North Carolina. Of these two general cate- 
gories, the light verse seems to have more value as a record of 
the homely virtues of simple people. The serious poems suffer 
from trite imagery and from an over-regularity that appears 
to come from a straining for rhyme. 

Though Selected Poems, cannot be called great poetry, the 
volume does bespeak a man with sensitivity and a certain 
simple courtliness. A reader feels that he would like to know 
this man of the mountains who loves Keats and Shakespeare 
and that such acquaintance might be more rewarding, actu- 
ally, than these poems from his pen. 

Mildred E. Hartsock. 
Atlantic Christian College. 

Cherokees at the Crossroads. By John Gulick (Chapel Hill: The 
University of North Carolina Press. 1960. Pp. xv, 188. $2.00.) 

In the book, Cherokees At The Crossroads, three chapters 
are given to the early history and the present-day status of 
the Cherokee Reservation and its people with a detailed dis- 
cussion of the geographical land area, membership in the 
clan, economic conditions, and the interrelationship of the 
administrative institutions under which the Cherokee Indians 


Book Reviews 275 

are governed and govern. These chapters serve as a founda- 
tion to the deeper study of the Indians in their humble status 
in human endeavor. Several chapters are devoted to the 
"Context of Life," including the religious institutions, home 
life, marriage relationship, birth and death rates, ways of 
securing food in the past and in the present, occupations of 
the people, health conditions, language spoken by the older 
members of the tribe, formal education of the present day, 
patterns of life, supernatural beliefs, and the general type of 
culture found today. The many maps and charts found in this 
book give valuable additional information relative to the way 
of life and present status of the Cherokee Indian people. The 
author, an experienced professional anthropologist, spent 
much time with the Cherokee Indians and has a great wealth 
of information on the behavorial pattern as it is found today. 
This interpersonal relationship that the author experienced 
while collecting and editing this material is vital in writing 
a book of this type. This book was written under the sponsor- 
ship of the University of North Carolina and financed by the 
Ford Foundation for the study of the behavorial characteris- 
tics of the Cherokee Indians. 

James A. Stanley. 

Seedtime on the Cumberland. By Harriette Simpson Arnow. 
(New York: The Macmillan Company, 1960. Pp. xx, 449. Maps, 
explanation of bibliographical symbols, and index. $7.50.) 

Once in a great while a book is published that bears the 
stamp of real greatness, a volume that, in every respect, is a 
classic even before the ink has dried on its pages. Such a 
book is Seedtime on the Cumberland, a detailed and penetrat- 
ing account of those sturdy pioneers from Watauga, North 
Carolina, and Virginia who went into the "frontier beyond 
the frontier" in the region around Nashville, and there, in 
the face of the most trying difficulties, carved a civilization 
out of the wilderness. The seedtime, or pioneer period, lasted 
only until about 1803; but the harvest, which produced Jack- 
son, Polk, Houston, and Hull, is still being reaped. 

276 The North Carolina Historical Review 

This reviewer knows of no work in our historical literature 
that is as complete and well-documented a description of 
pioneer life. In the course of twenty years or more of research 
Mrs. Arnow assembled a tremendous amount of information 
on the pioneer; and this information, thoroughly digested and 
synthesized, is presented in a smooth-flowing narrative style, 
spiced with the author's personal recollections of her girlhood 
in the region of which she writes. She begins with a fine des- 
cription of the geology of the Cumberland region, and treats 
carefully the early efforts at exploration and the lessons that, 
learned from these explorations, enabled later pioneers to 
succeed where their predecessors had failed. The heart of the 
book is the story of the pioneers themselves— men like Kan- 
per Mansker, Daniel Smith, and the Bledsoes— who cleared 
the land, planted and harvested the crops, made their clothes, 
distilled their whisky, built their homes, educated their chil- 
dren (both in schools and at home), worshipped their God 
long before the first church was built in the region, and died, 
many of them, in defense of the wilderness civilization they 
were creating. 

Mrs. Arnow thoroughly discredits the superficially con- 
ceived stereotype of the pioneer, perhaps epitomized in the 
well- and self -publicized Daniel Boone, but she does this not 
through attack on the myth but rather through imparting so 
complete an understanding of the real pioneer that the stereo- 
type becomes both ludicrous and unbelievable. Like the 
fringed deerskin hunting shirts which tore easily and soaked 
up too much water to be comfortable when compared to 
homespun, the real pioneer was more practical and less ro- 
mantic than he has usually been pictured. Life for the pioneer 
was not a perpetual hunting trip interrupted occasionally for 
an expedition against the Indians, nor was it a grim and 
gloomy struggle for survival. Rather, it was the story of happi- 
ness in the midst of danger, and a lot of plain hard work. 
What constituted this happiness and danger, and how the 
pioneer went about that work, is the story that Mrs. Arnow 
tells so well. 

Reviews should not be used as a vehicle for expression of 
pet opinions of the reviewer, but in this case the observation 

Book Reviews 277 

must be made that Seedtime on the Cumberland stands as a 
monument not only to the pioneers but also to those of their 
descendents who carefully saved the letters, diaries, journals, 
and records without which this book could not have been 
written. Nor should it be overlooked that many of those care- 
fully saved letters would not have been available had it not 
been for the fine manuscript collecting programs of North 
Carolina, Tennessee, and other States. If ever a book clearly 
demonstrated the need for people to deposit papers, no matter 
how trivial they might seem, in agencies that can care for 
them and oversee their use, this is it. Without such papers 
this study could not have been begun; and without Mrs. Arn- 
ow's great ability in the use of them the real pioneer would 
still stand in the shadow of the stereotype, recognized only 
dimly and understood not at all. 

William T. Alderson. 
Tennessee Historical Commission. 

A History of South Carolina, 1865-1960. By Ernest McPherson 
Lander, Jr. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 
1960. Pp. xii, 260. $5.00.) 

Ernest M. Lander, Jr., Professor of History and Government 
at Clemson College, has given us a brief and handy survey 
of the history of the Palmetto State since 1865. This little 
book should be most welcomed by students who want a quick 
summary of what has happened in South Carolina during 
the last hundred years. 

Dr. Lander does his best job when relying on the research 
of Alfred B. Williams, Francis B. Simkins, David Duncan 
Wallace, Hampton M. Jarrell, Robert M. Burts, and others. 
Where the secondary sources are weakest, this book is weak- 
est. The role of Coleman Blease as the frustrated Don Quixote 
battling twentieth-century egalitarianism at all levels should 
have received more attention. Political, economic, religious 
and educational aspects of the story of South Carolina are 
covered in an incisive fashion, but the leader looks in vain for 
material on the press, literature, or many important cultural 

278 The North Carolina Historical Review 

changes which have taken place since 1900. Over a page is 
given to football, but the women's suffrage movement is not 

The author has produced an interesting and helpful guide 
from which the reader can begin a study of South Carolina. 
He tempts the reader and makes the reader wish that he had 
gone further and deeper. A comprehensive history of South 
Carolina since 1865 has yet to be written. 

Daniel Miles McFarland. 

Atlantic Christian College. 

The British Public Record Office: History, Description, Record 
Groups, Finding Aids, and Materials for American History 
with Special Reference to Virginia (Richmond: The Virginia 
State Library. 1960. Pp. 179. $4.00.) 

In 1957 Virginia celebrated its 350th anniversary. In prep- 
aration for this celebration a committee of Consultants on 
Archives and History was appointed to assist the U. S. James- 
town- Williamsburg- Yorktown Commission and the Virginia 
350th Anniversary Commission. This work is an outgrowth 
of the activities of these Commissions. There are four reports 
in the volume designated as Special Reports 25, 26, 27, and 28, 
of the Virginia Colonial Records Project. William J. Van 
Schreeven, State Archivist, served as Chairman and directed 
the preparation of the instructions, reports, and forms. He 
spent several weeks in England and Europe personally super- 
vising the work. Francis L. Berkeley, Jr., in 1952, 1953, and 
1955, and Edward M. Riley in 1956 likewise visited England 
and devoted time to the project. Others such as E. G. Swem 
and John M. Jennings gave advice and rendered assistance, 
and George M. Reese served as the Committee's agent in 
London and carried out the assignments. 

There are six chapters in the books as follows: "Prefatory 
Note," "Introduction," "The British Public Record Office: 
History and Description," "The British Public Office: List of 
Record Groups," "The British Public Record Office: Search 
Room, Catalogues and Other Finding Aids," and "The British 

Book Reviews 279 

Public Record Office: Survey of Materials for American 

Special Report Number 25 is an account of the Public 
Record office and its location. It gives instructions about how 
to get there, tells who is in charge, and gives some of the rules 
for using the holdings. It also presents a brief history of the 
Record Office itself, and relates the fact that through the years 
there has been improvements in the management and care of 
the records entrusted to the office. 

Special Report Number 26 gives information about the 
classification of groups of material and the manner of citation. 
Special Report Number 27 explains the report, indexes, lists, 
catalogs, calendars and other finding media used in the office. 
Report Number 28 is a survey of the materials for American 
History and was written by Neville Williams. 

In 1956 a copyright law was passed and Her Majesty 
vested the Crown Copyright in the Controller of Her Station- 
ery Office, and all acknowledgments must take a definite 

The Book is not as inclusive as C. M. Andrews' Guide to 
the Materials for American History to 1783 in the Public 
Office of Great Britian, (two volumes, 1912 and 1914) but 
it does bring up-to-date rules and regulations of the office. 

This book will be useful to research students who are in- 
terested in colonial history and particularly Virginia Colonial 
history. It will serve as a valuable aid for all who wish to 
use the material housed in the Public Record Office. 

D. L. Corbitt. 
State Department of Archives and History. 

James Monroe: Public Claimant. By Lucius Wilmerding, Jr. 
(New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. 1960. Pp. viii, 
144. Illustrations. $4.00.) 

This is a sad and ignominious tale of the efforts of a public 
man to recover some money from the government. James 
Monroe, John Quincy Adams is quoted as saying, furnished 
a remarkable example "of a man whose life has been a con- 

280 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tinued series of the most extraordinary good fortune, who has 
never met with any known disaster, . . . has received more 
pecuniary reward from the public than other man since the 
existence of the nation," and yet was dying, in his seventies, 
"in wretchedness and beggary." 

Monroe's role as a claimant, his major public role in the 
last six years of his life, has not been carefully examined by 
any of his biographers. The most thorough of them, W. P. 
Cresson, assumes that these claims were just and that the 
attitude of Congress was disgraceful. Mr. Wilmerding, an 
authority on the history of government accounting, vindi- 
cates Congress and sharply criticizes Monroe for "specious" 
explanations, "improper methods," "rigged" comparisons, "er- 
roneous relations of fact," and "evidences of deliberate de- 
ception." In reviewing Monroe's immodest claims, the author 
shares the critical views of such North Carolinians as Willie P. 
Mangum, Robert Potter, and particularly "one of the best" 
Congressmen, Lewis Williams, whom he frequently quotes. 

After a clear, thorough, and biting analysis of Monroe's 
almost limitless claims, Wilmerding concludes with a com- 
paratively kind explanation of Monroe's actions— stimulated, 
he feels, more by a prideful effort at vindication than by 
greed for money. And Monroe was brought to this pass not 
only by expensive living in the grand style, but by the debts 
of a scapegrace brother and the niggardliness of Congress. 

The only thing wanting about this excellent study is to see 
it is set in the frame of Monroe's entire life and character, 
and it is for some future biographer to perform this service. 
There are excellent illustrations, but this reviewer would 
gladly sacrifice a reproduction of Stuart's portrait if this would 
permit the inclusion of an index. 

James A. Munroe. 
University of Delaware. 

Book Reviews 281 

Edward Randolph and the American Colonies, 1676-1703. By 
Michael Garibaldi Hall. (Chapel Hill: The University of North 
Carolina Press, for the Institute of Early American History 
and Culture at Williamsburg, Virginia. 1960. Pp. xi, 241. 

The career of Edward Randolph (1632-1703) spans the 
period during which English imperial administration and 
policy assumed the form which was to continue until the 
American Revolution. Obliged by poverty to earn a living 
for his family, this Kentish gentleman worked at various jobs 
until 1676. Then he was sent as messenger and observer to 
New England in connection with the claims of his wife's rela- 
tive, Robert Mason, to New Hampshire then controlled by 
Massachusetts. The rest of his life was spent in activities 
connected with North America; he served two terms as sur- 
veyor general; he investigated conditions up and down the 
seaboard; he wrote letters and reports on what he saw; he 
took vigorous and ruthless action against malefactors when 
he was able. His scurrilous, haughty behaviour brought him 
the curses of the colonists for more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury but he throve on their antagonism. Mr. Hall has based 
a succinct but meaty study of Randolph on already printed 
collections and on a vast amount of new manuscript material 
found in American libraries and archives. This is described 
in an excellent bibliographical essay. Mr. Hall's research 
throws new light on the middle period of colonial history. 

The Acts of Trade were already the laws of the land but 
they lacked proper implementation. It was to this end that 
Randolph chiefly addressed his efforts. Economic control 
of the colonies could not, he thought, be adequately secured 
without effective political authority. To achieve this he would 
have annulled all charters and proprietory grants, obliterated 
popular assemblies, encouraged the spread of the Anglican 
church and substituted for the old chaotic variety a system 
of royal governors, courts, and agents of enforcement. The 
Quo Warranto proceedings, the establishment of the Domin- 
ion of New England and the erection of Vice Admiralty 
courts were directly in line with his considered suggestions. 
Even the Stuarts were less persistent in the pursuit of mercan- 

282 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tilist and imperial aims than the terrible tempered and de- 
termined man of Kent. Randolph was not a great statesman 
nor did he succeed in making a private fortune but his career 
in America, as Mr. Hall depicts it, affords illuminating ex- 
amples of the faults and virtues, failures and triumphs of a 
new bureaucracy. 

Caroline Robbins. 
Bryn Mawr College. 

The British Empire before the American Revolution. Volume 
III. The British Isles and the American Colonies : The North- 
ern Plantations 1748-1754. By Lawrence Henry Gipson. (New 
York: Knopf. 1960. Pp. xlviii, 294. Maps and index. $8.50.) 

Twenty-five years ago the Caxton press published the first 
three volumes of Gipson's projected history of the British 
Empire before the American Revolution. They described the 
British Isles and the New World colonies in mid-eighteenth 
century. Thereafter Knopf took over the publication and 
brought out six narrative volumes on the history of the Em- 
pire through the Seven Years War. Then, before writing the 
climactic volumes on the coming of the American Revolution, 
Gipson paused, tantalizing faithful readers. Because innumer- 
able studies relating to his subjects appeared after 1936, 
while the first three volumes went out of print, the author 
agreed to revise them. By shortening paragraphs, rewriting 
and expanding some passages, and eliminating tired usages, 
Gipson made his revised volumes more readable. By adding 
older and newer references to his footnotes, he rendered them 
more useful. He corrected a few errors and replaced some 
of the maps. The publisher made the appearance of the re- 
vised volumes uniform with that of the later six. 

Except for the changes mentioned, this third volume is not 
substantially different from the original edition. Concerned 
with the New England and Middle Colonies, Newfoundland 
and Hudson's Bay, it is essentially descriptive, and concen- 
trates upon the politics, government, and economy of each 
colony. Chapters on iron manufacturing and the Hudson 

Book Reviews 283 

Bay fur trade illustrate the working of the mercantile system. 
There is a new chapter on Delaware. The last chapter, en- 
tirely rewritten, summarizes volumes two and three, describ- 
ing clearly in twenty pages the imperial system at mid- 

This volume and its two predecessors are especially val- 
uable because better than anything else in print they describe 
the first British Empire at a moment of historical time, both 
in its parts and as a whole. They also suggest that the prob- 
lems of administration encountered by the King's ministers 
after 1763 were not altogether unprecedented; some were 
new, other more intense and widespread. 

Carl B. Cone. 
University of Kentucky. 

Parade of Alabama. By Emma Lila Fundaburk. (Luverne, Ala- 
bama: Privately Printed, 1959. Pp. 436. $7.50.) 

Many accounts of the history of Alabama have been writ- 
ten but this is the first to be written in verse. The author 
states in her preface that "this presentation of history is a 
novelty and an experiment— an epic. It is in some respects a 
poetic drama, without dialogue and without the continuous 
thread of a personal human interest story." Very few people 
move across the pages of the book. It is rather the story in 
verse form of the economic, social, and political development 
of the State with the main characters absent. In the ante- 
bellum period, political controversies concerning internal im- 
provements, the tariff, Indian removal, and slavery are em- 
phasized. The story of stagecoaches, steamboats, railroads, 
pioneer settlements, plantations, cotton, and the coming of 
the war all lend color to the epic and two-thirds of the book 
is concerned with the ante-bellum era. As Miss Fundaburk 
is the author of two former books dealing with the South- 
eastern Indians, those sections of the book dealing with 
Indians in Alabama are especially informative. 

Although probably not literature in a strict sense, the book 
is a good historical survey of the State written in a novel 

284 The North Carolina Historical Review 

and chronological form : five sections, eighteen chapters, with 
twenty pages of footnotes, and a bibliography. It is history 
gathered from creditable sources both old and new: some as 
old as the Travels of William Bartram ( 1791 ) and others as 
recent as James B. Sellers, Slavery in Alabama ( 1950). Every- 
one interested in Alabama should have this book in their 

Malcolm C. McMillan. 
Auburn University. 

Tales from the Manchaca Hills : The Unvarnished Memoirs of a 
Texas Gentlewoman, Mrs. Edna Turley Carpenter. Edited 
and Recorded by Jane and Bill Hogan. (New Orleans: The 
Hauser Press. 1960. Pp. x, 221. $4.95.) 

This small book presents the delightful reminiscences of 
a Texas pioneer woman who was encouraged to preserve 
her memories by her daughter and her son-in-law. The latter 
is the Chairman of the History Department of Tulane Uni- 
versity, and doubtless is conscious of the need to preserve 
as many such personal accounts as possible. 

The Tales, often unconnected and episodic, stretch from 
Mrs. Carpenter's girlhood in the 1870s to 1940. For the most 
part the concern is with daily life : the amusements, the trials, 
and the triumphs of a lifetime in a small country village. 
Here, as the editors proclaim, "No battles are fought. No 
political partisans foregather. . . . None of the heroes ... of 
Texas history appear" (p. ix). This is purely social history. 
Here, too, one finds preserved in context many curious, col- 
loquial, and now obsolete words. Unfortunately few such 
memoirs have the advantage of having a trained historian 
along to check the accuracy of the account with remaining 
letters and records; yet the reminiscences are not buried under 
pedestrian pedantry. Here are, charmingly set forth, the 
children's play, picnics, fish frys, camp meetings, and even 
the KKK. There is a chapter on traditional home remedies 
and nostrums, complete with the reactions of the children 
upon whom they were imposed. 

Book Reviews 285 

In short this is a well-told series of anecdotes of the decades 
before the turn of the century and just after it. A series which 
will please the casual reader and gratify the future historian. 

Carlos R. Allen, Jr. 
Colorado State University. 

The Confederacy. By Charles P. Roland. (Chicago: The Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press. 1960. Pp. xvii, 218. $3.95.) 

This short but well-written story of the Confederate States 
of America is a volume in The Chicago History of American 
Civilization, which is being published under the editorship 
of Daniel J. Boorstin. The series will contain chronological 
and topical groups of books designed to make "each aspect 
of our culture a window to our past." As a topical history in 
this series, The Confederacy is apparently designed for the 
lay reader rather than for the historical scholar, who will, 
nevertheless, be interested in the author's interpretation of 
his subject matter. 

In eleven succinct chapters, Dr. Roland, who is a Professor 
of History at Tulane University and a former student of Bell 
Irwin Wiley, treats the secession of the southern States; the 
formation of the immediately-embattled Confederacy; the 
military, political, social, and international problems of the 
Confederate States of America; and, finally, the collapse of 
the South's bid for nationhood. In assessing the causes for the 
failure of the Confederate experiment, as in other chapters 
of the book, the author synthesizes much of the vast body of 
scholarly writing dealing with his subject. Sources found 
most useful are acknowledged and critically evaluated in a 
section of suggested readings. Several maps and photographs 
are included. A total absence of footnotes probably improves 
the readability of the history, but one may nevertheless regret 
the lack of citations to exact quotations from published works. 

A southern reader will find little to quarrel with in this 
history. The total treatment of the subject is sympathetic to 
the South's struggle for independence and even to the often- 
misunderstood Jefferson Davis, who was, perhaps, too strong 

286 The North Carolina Historical Review 

and impatient a man to have lead a successful revolutionary 
movement. The author shows that the southern Republic 
developed military power and accepted military casualties 
seldom if ever equalled in modern times. National planners 
in this era of relentless Cold War struggle and potential des- 
truction would do well to study the fabric and morale of 
southern society which enabled it to endure four years of 
the most devastating warfare that the United States has ever 

Robert B. Futrell. 
Research Studies Institute 
Air University 
Maxwell Air Force Base 
Montgomery, Alabama. 

Knight of the Confederacy : Gen. Turner Ashby. By Frank Cun- 
ningham. (San Antonio: The Naylor Company. 1960. Pp. xvi, 
225. $5.00.) 

Turner Ashby, the dashing commander of the Seventh 
Virginia Cavalry until his death in June, 1862, personifies as 
well as any Confederate officer the romantic ideal of southern 
chivalry. He is exactly the kind of figure that latter-day un- 
reconstructed Rebels take to their hearts and glorify in senti- 
mental prose. Because of its very effusiveness, Knight of the 
Confederacy does less than justice to this remarkable cavalry 
leader who played an important part in Stonewall Jackson's 
famous Valley campaign. Mr. Cunningham knows his subject 
well and writes crisp, readable sentences, but his book as a 
whole is poorly organized, uncritical, and filled with so many 
long quotations, so much florid verse, that it often presents 
the appearance of a scrapbook. Not without some entertain- 
ment value, it cannot be taken very seriously as a work of 

D. E. Fehrenbacher. 
Stanford University. 

Book Reviews 287 

Well, Mary: Civil War Letters of a Wisconsin Volunteer. Edited 
by Margaret Brobst Roth. (Madison: The University of Wis- 
consin Press. 1960. Pp. ix, 165. Illustrated. $4.00.) 

Letters of Civil War soldiers vary greatly in style, read- 
ability, and historical value. The communications penned by 
Private John F. Brobst of the Twenty-fifth Wisconsin Regi- 
ment to his teen-age sweetheart, Mary Englesby, are excep- 
tionally interesting and informative. 

Brobst enlisted in September, 1862. His first service was in 
the campaign against the Sioux Indians in Minnesota. Early 
in 1863 he and his regiment headed South to join Grant in 
Mississippi. Following the fall of Vicksburg they proceeded 
to Helena, Arkansas, where they remained until February, 
1864. They then participated in Sherman's destructive ex- 
pedition to Meridian and the hard fought campaign for 
Atlanta. Ill health prevented Brobst's accompanying Sherman 
on the famous March to the Sea, but after several months 
recuperation in Dalton, Georgia, he rejoined Sherman's forces 
in North Carolina and remained with them until the end of 
the war. On his return home he married Mary Englesby, 
just before her sixteenth birthday. 

Private Brobst was not a well-educated person but his in- 
telligence, perceptiveness, humor, and exceptional talent for 
narration enabled him to write newsy and absorbing letters. 

His communications are especially valuable for the light 
which they throw on the motivation of the men in blue, health, 
food, morale, attitude toward leaders, and relations with 
Confederates. Like most Billy Yanks, Brobst's major concern 
was the restoration of the Union; he apparently had no strong 
feeling about slavery. His attitude toward southerners varied 
from extreme hatred to open friendliness. Shortly after hearing 
of the alleged massacre at Fort Pillow he reported that Iowa 
soldiers killed twenty-three captured Rebs. He added: "When 
there is no officer with us, we take no prisoners. We want 
revenge and we are bound to have it one way or the other." 
Three months later he told of the cordial reception of two 
Rebs who left their trenches before Atlanta to have lunch with 
the Yanks. "You must not think up there we fight down here 
because we are mad," he added, "for we pick blackberries 

288 The North Carolina Historical Review 

together ... we fight for fun, or rather because we can't help 
ourselves." Brobst hated Copperheads more than he did 
Rebels. His heroes were Grant, Sherman, and Lincoln. After 
the President's assassination he was strongly in favor of 
hanging Jefferson Davis. 

The editing is generally well done, though the modification 
of spelling and grammar to facilitate reading deprives the 
letters of some of their flavor and charm. It would seem de- 
sirable to leave such spellings as "opertunity" undisturbed. 
The editor errs in his footnote statement that the Fort Pillow 
garrison was "virtually destroyed." 

Publication of these fascinating letters is a valuable and 
appropriate contribution to the Civil War Centennial. It is 
to be hoped that the example of editor and publishers in 
making available these excellent sources will be widely fol- 
lowed by others. 

Bell I. Wiley. 
Emory University. 

Mill on The Dan : A History of Dan River Mills, 1882-1950. By 
Robert Sidney Smith. (Durham: Duke University Press. 1960. 
Pp. xi, 570. $12.50.) 

Mill on The Dan by Robert Sidney Smith, Professor of 
Economics at Duke University, is a reconstruction of the 
annals of the Riverside and Dan River Cotton Mills from 
1882 to 1950. Professor Smith relies extensively on the records 
of minutes, audit reports, correspondence, and files of the 
Dan River Mills. His criterion for historical evidence appears 
to be the inscription of a date on a document which forthwith 
admits the document into history. The result is a parade of 
events certified by month, day, and year— whether it is the 
building of houses, the purchase of looms, the death of a 
director, or a merger. His secondary sources are found in 
newspaper and periodical files, proceedings and hearings of 
public bodies, and in standard histories of the textile industry. 

The story of Dan River Mills begins with the early financ- 
ing and incorporation of the Riverside Cotton Mills in Dan- 
ville, Virginia, in 1882 by a group of versatile businessmen. 

Book Reviews 289 

For seventy-five years Dan River Mills remains a manage- 
ment and directorate dominated organization with long 
tenures for resourceful and eminent executives. After the 
formative years are outlined, a chronological division which 
corresponds to business cycles and wars becomes the scaf- 
fold for a meticulous rendition of price, market, cost, produc- 
tion, wage, and dividend records. Then, in one major inter- 
lude the story of the company-oriented excursion into "Indus- 
trial Democracy" is recounted. After several years of advisory 
legislation on matters of company policy, increased workloads 
and wage reductions shattered the consultative assembly of 
well-intentioned men. 

In the great strike of 1930-1931, replete with spies, militia- 
men, and union organizers, almost fifty years of piety and 
benevolence had run its course. Within a dozen years, and in 
a somewhat different time, the first union contract was signed. 
The significance of this negotiation is not in the virtue of such 
an agreement, but rather in the quite obvious fact that the 
process of institutionalization is never unilateral. The growth 
of any sustained business venture is usually enmeshed in 
counter-growth elsewhere— in government, markets, unions, 
and the whole range of community population and services. 
Whatever historians will say led to the entrenchment of Dan 
River Mills in the textile industry, in the national economy, 
and in the household parlance of generations of consumers 
might as much hinge on interpretive choices as on historical 
verification. Yet Professor Smith's study is an important source 
for any reader who wants a broad range of data on business 
history with which to appraise the role of industrial enter- 
prise in modern American society. The fact that Professor 
Smith hesitates to use the rich material he amassed does not 
foreclose the prospect of knowledgeable consideration of 
causal and other problems connected with business history. 

The design and printing of Mill on The Dan is in the finest 
taste— a book of great beauty and a credit to the distinguished 

Herbert Collins. 
North Carolina State College. 

290 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Tobacco and Americans. By Robert K. Heimann. (New York: 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1960. Pp. xii, 265. $7.50.) 

Here are big, double-column pages, profusely illustrated 
and wrapped in a tobacco-brown dust jacket which could al- 
most pass as a real cigar leaf. In a sense the book might be 
classified as promotional literature. Dr. Heimann, who holds 
the Ph.D. degree in sociology from New York University, is 
now assistant to the president of the American Tobacco Com- 
pany. He is frankly enthusiastic about his subject, and when 
the battle lines are drawn, whether the clash is over monopoly 
or lung cancer, there is no doubt where Dr. Heimann stands. 

Yet the serious student of tobacco history cannot ignore 
this handsome volume. There is much information given, 
and most of it is good. The narrative is broadly conceived. 
The eight chapters move from the first, "Certain Dried 
Leaves," reviewing the discovery of tobacco by Columbus 
and others, to the last, "The American Blend," summarizing 
the development of the modern blended cigarette. The most 
helpful part of the book is its evaluations of the contemporary 
and recent scene. Here Dr. Heimann speaks from much first- 
hand knowledge. Obviously the better-known secondary 
works have been used for the basic story, and the author has 
scurried about to obtain many dramatic illustrations. 

And now for a bit of quibbling: The sources of the illustra- 
tions, a distinctive feature of a book which must have been 
quite expensive to publish, should be better identified. The 
reader would like to know positively whether a picture comes 
from the imagination of a twentieth-century artist mooning 
in a Greenwich Village attic or whether it is lifted from an 
authentic historical document. 

As a resident Virginian this reviewer hopes that Dr. Hei- 
mann can sustain his thesis that in the early years of the 
Jamestown Colony, along about 1620, "a college was set up" 
(p. 69). (Our New England friends have had their priorities 
long enough with their Thanksgivings and their Harvards.) 
Contrary to the narrative ( p. 90) , the unhappy Mrs. Andrew 
Jackson did not get as far as the White House with her pipe, 
for she had died between the time of the election of 1828 and 

Book Reviews 291 

the subsequent inauguration. "And great men like Washington 
and Jefferson— both warriors and heads of state— played as 
prominent a role in tobacco as they did in statecraft itself' 
(p. 5). While left unconvinced by the foregoing statement, 
the present reviewer heartily underscores the implied thesis 
that the importance of tobacco in American history is too often 
ignored or given casual treatment. 

Graphs, maps, and index— those often-neglected step-chil- 
dren of typography— are here crisply executed. 

Joseph C. Robert. 
Richmond, Virginia. 

The Farmer's Age : Agriculture, 1815-1860. By Paul W. Gates. 
(New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960. Pp. xix, 420. 

The Farmers Age 1815-1860 is the third volume in a series 
dealing with the economic history of the United States. Its 
author, Paul W. Gates, a John Stamburgh Professor of His- 
tory at Cornell University, is experienced as a teacher at 
Harvard and Bucknell and as an economist with the Agricul- 
tural Adjustment Administration during the thirties. He 
deals with the period between the War of 1812 and the Civil 

There is a geographic focus in this book. The author de- 
scribes the agriculture in the South and in the North in 1815; 
he has a chapter dealing with prairie farming and one that 
deals with new land and farm problems in the far west during 
the period covered. 

There is a focus on commodities, with seven of the nine- 
teen chapters dealing with cultural practices and economic 
problems of the different crops and classes of livestock. 

Throughout the book there is a focus on public-land poli- 
cies. Prior to 1860 the development of farming was almost 
synonomous with the opening and development of public 
lands. Homesteading, land speculation, railroad land grants, 
private land claims and other aspects of public-land policy 
are treated in separate chapters but also provide the back- 
ground for the whole book. 

292 The North Carolina Historical Review 

There is a focus on institutional factors affecting fanning. 
Many agricultural journals and periodicals, which are quoted 
freely, came into existence during this period. The principal 
arm of the fedarl government concerned with farm problems 
was the Patent Office. Agricultural societies, county fairs, 
and soil survey activities came into being. The author deals 
with these and gives a clear picture of the early application 
of science to agriculture based primarily on the discoveries 
of European scientists. Early development of agricultural 
colleges in the United States is described. 

Throughout the book there is a focus on economics. Land 
values, credit and marketing problems, marginal investments 
and similar subjects are treated with such authority as to 
keep the reader conscious that the author is an economist. 

This volume makes a valuable contribution to an under- 
standing of United States agriculture prior to rapid develop- 
ment of agricultural technology in the United States. It is 
well organized and deserves commendation for its readability 
as well as its content. The excellent bibliography, which is 
organized by subjects, and the author's commentary on the 
source material add to its value as a reference. 

The Farmers Age deals with one era which came to an end 
about a hundred years ago. The year 1860, just before the 
Civil War, was a good terminal point. Slavery had influenced 
the farming patterns up to that time. It was in 1862 that the 
Morrill Act of Congress created the landgrant colleges. Their 
agricultural schools were to have great impact by bringing 
science and capital to bear upon agriculture in unprecedented 
ways. It was about 1860 when the age of steel was to usher 
in great advances in industrial development in the United 

Mr. Gates' book provides excellent background for what 
has happened in American agriculture and economic develop- 
ment in the last hundred years. 

D. W. Colvard. 
Mississippi State University. 

Department of Archives and History 

Commemorative Commissions 

Considerable activity occurred among the Charter Com- 
mission's committees during the period since last December. 
Especially active were elements of the Committee on the 
Arts, sub-committees of which gathered on the following 
dates: Dr. Joseph Sloane's sub-committee on art, Decem- 
ber 27; Mrs. L. Y. Ballentine's sub-committee on literature 
and drama, January 13; and Mrs. A. M. Fountain's music 
sub-committee, February 6. Mr. William C. Fields, a member 
of the Committee on the Arts, presented a report to the plen- 
ary meeting March 10 in the absence of Mrs. J. O. Tally, Jr., 
chairman of the committee, which covered these meetings 
in detail. The Committee on Scholarly Activities headed by 
Mr. Lambert Davis and Mr. William S. Powell finalized its 
recommendations at a meeting January 10. Mr. Davis re- 
ported to the plenary meeting on the work of his group. Or- 
ganizational activity continued to characterize the work of 
the Committee on Commemorative Events and the Com- 
mittee on Programs in Schools, Colleges, and Universities. 
Mrs. Harry McMullan and Dr. H. H. Cunningham, heads of 
the respective groups, advised the plenary session regarding 
the achievements of their committees. Gen. John D. F. 
Phillips, the Executive Secretary, participated in all but two 
of numerous conferences and sub-committee meetings con- 
ducted during the period. Visitors to the Charter Commis- 
sion's office at 121 Halifax Street in Raleigh increased steadily. 
Materials were prepared for release to public information 
outlets. Visits were made to Governor Terry Sanford, Feb- 
ruary 27, and Mr. Hargrove Bowles, Jr., Director of the 
Department of Conservation and Development, and a new 
member of the Charter Commission, March 6. Last Septem- 
ber the Chairman of the Charter Commission, Mr. Francis E. 
Winslow, testified before the Commission on Reorganization 
of State Government in behalf of the urgent requirement for 

C 293 ] 

294 The North Carolina Historical Review 

a suitable building for use of the Department of Archives 
and History. It is gratifying to be able to report that the 
Reorganization Commission in its Fifth Report to the Gover- 
nor, under date of November 10, 1960, made the following 
recommendation : 

We recommend that the General Assembly of 1961 provide for 
the establishment of a center, to be called "Heritage Square," 
wherein may be eventually erected suitable buildings for the 
State Library, the Department of Archives and History, the 
Museum of Art, and the Museum of Natural History. 

It was also a source of some satisfaction to note that the Ad- 
visory Budget Commission has recommended the inclusion 
of an item for the construction of a building for the joint use 
of the State Library and the Department of Archives and 
History. While it would be unduly optimistic to regard the 
procurement of the new building— a major objective of the 
Charter Commission— as realized, it does appear that some 
progress is being achieved. The resignation of two members 
of the Charter Commission, Mr. Gilbert T. Stephenson of 
Pendleton and Mr. D. Victor Meekins of Manteo, is reported 
with regret. The number of associate members who have 
accepted service on one or more of the committees now has 
risen to 115. In addition to this number, 28 colleges have 
designated representatives to work with the Commission and 
110 city and county school superintendents have indicated 
willingness to further the Tercentenary programs in their 
schools. As this quarter drew to a close, the Executive Secre- 
tary's chief efforts were devoted to the preparation of legis- 
lation providing the appropriations necessary to permit the 
conduct of a Tercentenary program worthy of the people of 
North Carolina. 

Mr. Norman C. Larson, Executive Secretary of the North 
Carolina Confederate Centennial Commission, spoke to the 
Currituck County Historical Society on December 14 and on 
January 4 he met with members of Nationwide Insurance 
Company to plan the Currier and Ives Exhibit. During Jan- 
urary he met with a number of committees and groups and 

Historical News 295 

appeared on the following programs: Station WUNC-TV In- 
School History program, January 12; Beta Sigma Phi Sorority, 
State College Union Building, January 17; Julian Carr Junior 
High School, Durham, January 20; Pasquotank County His- 
torical Society, Elizabeth City, January 24; with Dr. Chris- 
topher Crittenden and the Board of Directors of the North 
Carolina Railroad, January 26. Mr. Larson met on February 2 
with Governor Terry Sanford to discuss the proposed plans 
for the celebration of the Confederate Centennial in the 
State. He went to Washington, D. C, to participate in cere- 
monies noting the anniversary of the Washington Peace 
Convention of 1861 and he met at the home of Mr. Paul 
Green, Chapel Hill, with a group of North Carolina writers 
to plan dramatic productions during the centennial years. 
Mr. Larson met with the Executive Committee, United 
Daughters of the Confederacy, at the home of Mrs. D. S. Col- 
trane, Raleigh, on February 10 and on March 14. With 
others he met with Mr. D. S. Coltrane, Director of the De- 
partment of Administration, to discuss budgetary matters on 
February 14 and made the following speeches on the pro- 
gram of the Commission: the Raleigh Lions Club, Febru- 
ary 13; United Fellowship, Raleigh, February 15; Greensboro 
United Daughters of the Confederacy, February 16; Forsyth 
County Centennial Committee, February 17; and Leroy Mar- 
tin Junior High School, Raleigh, February 24. He attended 
the Centennial Premiere of "Gone With the Wind" in At- 
lanta, Georgia, on March 9-11 representing North Carolina, 
and on March 13 he appeared on WTVD TV Station to dis- 
cuss the Currier and Ives Exhibit. On March 18 Mr. Larson, 
Dr. Crittenden, and others attended all-day ceremonies in 
Louisburg commemorating the raising by Maj. Orren F. 
Smith of a Confederate flag exactly 100 years earlier, two 
months before North Carolina formally seceded from the 
Union. Mr. Larson spoke at the luncheon meeting. 

Mrs. Patsy Harris, Editorial Assistant for the Commission, 
attended the ceremony in Wilmington, February 1, of the 
return of a United States flag used one hundred years ago 
in an effort by citizens to preserve peace. 

296 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Directors Office 

On December 7 and February 8 Dr. Christopher Critten- 
den, Director of the Department of Archives and History, 
went to Washington, D. C., to attend meetings of the Board 
of Trustees of the National Trust for Historic Preservation. 
He was present on December 16 when a portrait of the late 
Governor John Christoph Blucher Ehringhaus was presented 
to the State of North Carolina. Chief Justice J. Wallace Win- 
borne presided at the ceremonies held in the Hall of the 
House, State Capitol, and the Hon. L. P. McLendon of 
Greensboro presented the portrait which was accepted by 
Governor Luther Hartwell Hodges. The Rev. James Mc- 
Dowell Dick, Rector of the Church of the Good Shepherd, 
Raleigh, gave the invocation and benediction. Mr. John C. B. 
Ehringhaus, III, unveiled the portrait and the following 
members of the Ehringhaus family were introduced: Mrs. 
Ehringhaus, Mr. J. C. B. Ehringhaus, Jr., Mrs. James Telfair 
Cordon, Mr. Haughton Ehringhaus, Mrs. William P. Duff, 
and Mrs. Joseph P. Greenleaf. Dr. Crittenden attended the 
Sanford inaugural dinner on January 4 following the opening 
of a special exhibit in the Hall of History. He and General 
John D. F. Phillips attended a meeting with Mr. Francis E. 
Winslow on January 25 at Rocky Mount to further plans for 
celebration of the Carolina Charter Tercentenary. With Dr. 
Charles F. Carroll he met in Raleigh on February 18 with 
a committee representing the North Carolina Society of 
County and Local Historians. Dean D. J. Whitener is Chair- 
man of the group which considered ways of presenting North 
Carolina state and local history more effectively in our 
schools. The same group met again on March 22 and agreed 
on a bill to be introduced to the General Assembly request- 
ing an appropriation to be made to the Department of 
Archives and History for publication of State and local his- 
tory. Present were Dr. Crittenden, Mr. Homer C. Lassiter 
(who represented Dr. Carroll), heads of the various divisions 
of the Department, the Executive Secretaries of the Carolina 
Charter and Confederate Centennial Commissions, members 

Historical News 297 

of the committee, and several members of the General 

On February 21 a hearing was held before the Advisory 
Budget Commission for biennial requests for the Depart- 
ment of Archives and History and Try on Palace. Dr. Crit- 
tenden presented the budget requests for the Department, 
requesting only what had been recommended: for the "A" 
Budget a total of $419,975 for 1961-1962, and $433,545 for 
1962-1963; for the "B" Budget a total of $32,835 for 1961- 
1962, and $30,156 for 1962-1963; for the "C" Budget (Capi- 
tal Improvements ) $2,692,000, of which $2,560,000 is for a 
new building for the Department and the State Library. It 
is recommended that the latter amount be included in a 
bond issue to be voted on by the people of the State and that 
the remainder of the request for the "C" Budget, $132,000, 
be a part of a bond issue that will not require a vote of the 
people. Dr. Crittenden in presenting the request asked for 
no increases but stressed the need of this Department for a 
new building, pointing out that the agency is now housed in 
space not suitable for its specific needs; that the space occu- 
pied is totally inadequate; and that in a new specially 
designed building the Department can render much more 
efficient service to the four and a half million citizens of 
North Carolina. He also stated that the Department's present 
quarters constitute prime office space which will be suitable 
for other State agencies presently overcrowded which need 
room for expansion. Mr. John A. Kellenberger presented the 
Tryon Palace Budget requests for the "A" Budget $109,639 
for 1961-1962 and $110,739 for 1962-1963; nothing was 
recommended for the "B" Budget but Mr. Kellenberger re- 
quested $10,000 for each fiscal year; and nothing was re- 
quested or recommended under the "C" Budget. 

Dr. Clement M. Silvestro, Director of the American Asso- 
ciation for State and Local History, with headquarters in 
Madison, Wisconsin, visited the Department on March 7 and 
other historical groups in the State for several days follow- 
ing. The Association is the organization of professionals in 
the local history field in the United States and Canada. Dr. 
Crittenden led the movement for its establishment and was 

298 The North Carolina Historical Review 

its first president. This group founded and now sponsors 
American Heritage, the popular historical book-magazine. 
Dr. Silvestro visited the State to document for the first time 
the programs and activities of these groups. Visits were made 
by him to The University of North Carolina Press and the 
North Carolina Collection, Chapel Hill; Durham-Orange 
Historical Commission and History Department, Duke Uni- 
versity, Durham; Alamance Battleground State Historic Site, 
Burlington; Mr. McDaniel Lewis, Chairman of the Executive 
Board of the Department, and Mr. and Mrs. John A. Kellen- 
berger, Treasurer and Chairman respectively of the Tryon 
Palace Commission, and others, Greensboro; officials and 
the staff, Old Salem, Winston-Salem; Mrs. Gettys Guille, 
Director of the Rowan Museum, Salisbury; Mrs. E. A. Ander- 
son, Mr. James A. Stenhouse, and others, Charlotte; and 
Mr. S. Glenn Hawfield, President of the Union County His- 
torical Society, and other members of that group, Monroe. 

Division of Archives and Manuscripts 

Mr. H. G. Jones, State Archivist, has been appointed 
Chairman of the State Records Committee of the Society of 
American Archivists for 1961. State Archivists of Colorado, 
Delaware, Maryland, Minnesota, and Ohio are members of 
the Committee which makes annual studies of the state of 
archival agencies in the United States. Mr. Jones is also a 
member of the Program Committee for the Society's 25th 
anniversary meeting in Independence, Missouri, in October. 

Mr. Jones' article, "North Carolina's Local Records Pro- 
gram," appeared in the January, 1961, issue of The American 
Archivist. Reprints of the article are available for county offi- 
cials. Mr. Jones was guest editor of the winter, 1961, issue 
of North Carolina Libraries. In addition to articles by Mr. 
Jones on the State Department of Archives and History and 
special manuscript repositories in North Carolina, the issue 
carried articles by Dr. Carolyn A. Wallace on the Southern 
Historical Collection, Dr. Mattie Russell on the Duke Univer- 
sity Manuscript Department, and Mr. W. J. Barrow on the 
Barrow laminating process. 

Historical News 299 

A new leaflet, "North Carolina's Newspaper Microfilming 
Program," is available from Mr. Jones. The leaflet lists North 
Carolina newspapers microfilmed by the Department. 

The Division of Archives and Manuscripts has begun work 
on the compilation of a new Union List of North Carolina 
Newspapers. Mr. Julius H. Avant has been assigned tempo- 
rarily to the project which is being carried on in co-operation 
with the Newspaper Committee of the North Carolina Li- 
brary Association. Citizens knowing the whereabouts of early 
North Carolina newspapers are urged to send titles and dates 
to the State Archivist for inclusion in the new list. 

Mrs. Mary Jeffries Rogers, Archivist II, was honored at a 
coffee hour on March 3 in observance of the 25th anniversary 
of her beginning work in the Archives. She worked on the 
N.Y.A. and W.P.A. records projects before going on the De- 
partment's payroll. 

During the quarter ending December 31, a total of 560 
persons registered for research in the Division, information 
was given by mail and telephone to 644 persons, and the 
following numbers of copies were furnished: 579 photostats, 
67 enlargements from microfilm, 25 typed certified copies, 
and 57 feet of microfilm for public orders. 

Rear Admiral A. M. Patterson, USN (Ret.) and Mr. Cyrus 
B. King, Assistant State Archivists, on January 6 attended a 
luncheon meeting of the Greensboro Civitan Club as guests 
of Mr. McDaniel Lewis, Chairman of the Executive Board 
of the Department, at which Admiral Patterson spoke on the 
local records program in North Carolina. 

The microfilming of the permanently valuable records of 
twelve North Carolina counties has been completed and 
work is now in progress in New Hanover and Tyrrell counties. 

Extensive collections of records from three counties have 
been received by the Division. These include 16 volumes and 

33 cubic feet of papers from Forsyth County, 190 volumes 
and 18 cubic feet of papers from New Hanover County, and 

34 volumes and 136 cubic feet of papers from Wake County. 
In addition, two volumes of Minutes of the Burke County 
Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions were received through 
the assistance of Senator Sam J. Ervin, Jr. 

300 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The Advisory Committee on Municipal Records held its 
second meeting in the Department on January 19 to con- 
tinue work on the "Municipal Records Manual," which will 
be ready for publication by early summer. 

Mr. Robert Hall was employed on January 16 as a tem- 
porary Clerk II in the local records microfilm program. Mrs. 
Mary Deane Phillips resigned on February 17. 

In the State Records Section, Mrs. Elizabeth C. Moss re- 
signed, and three temporary employees were added to the 
staff: Mr. Robert M. Shoffner, Mrs. David S. Wilson, and Mr. 
James M. Copeland. 

Inventories recently completed include those for the De- 
partment of Labor, the State Ports Authority, and the State 
Personnel Department. A revision of the inventory of the 
State Board of Health was recently finished. Two inven- 
tories—those of the Woman's College of the University of 
North Carolina and of the Board of Nurse Registration and 
Nursing Education— are still in the hands of the officials of 
those agencies. 

During the quarter ending December 31, the Records 
Center staff microfilmed 1,411,480 images on 164 reels for 
nine different agencies. The staff serviced records for eleven 
agencies a total of 546 times and representatives of eleven 
agencies used the records in the Center 118 times. A total 
of 1,600 cubic feet of records was admitted to 1,019 cubic 
feet removed, a net gain of 581 cubic feet. 

Mrs. Memory F. Blackwelder, Assistant State Archivist 
(State Records), spoke on the State records program to the 
Wake County Colonial Dames on March 9. She has spoken 
to numerous civic and church groups during the past months 
on her recent trip to Russia. 

Division of Historic Sites 

Mr. W. S. Tarlton, Historic Sites Superintendent, met with 
Mr. R. O. Everett, Chairman of the Bennett Place Memorial 
Commission, and Mr. Norman C. Larson, Executive Secre- 
tary of the Confederate Centennial Commission, in Durham 

Historical News 301 

on December 3 to discuss plans for the Centennial. He at- 
tended meetings in Washington, D. C, on December 27-28 
and spoke to the History of Sport Session of the College 
Physical Education Association. On December 29-31 he 
attended in New York meetings of the officers and directors 
of the Association of Historic Sites Administrators held jointly 
with the American Historical Association. On January 4 Mr. 
Tarlton spoke to the Wake County Schoolmasters Club meet- 
ing at Millbrook. He made trips to Bath, January 9-10, 20-21, 
31, and February 1, and to the Bennett Place, January 11, to 
check progress on work being done at these restorations. On 
January 17 he went to Alamance Battleground to perfect 
plans for the dedication of the Museum on May 16. He spoke 
on January 19 to the Colonial Dames, Raleigh, on the historic 
sites program. On January 24-26 he visited the Vance Birth- 
place to discuss plans for dedication ceremonies on May 13. 
On February 2 he attended the Raleigh meeting of the Cas- 
well Memorial Commission and on February 6 met in Raleigh 
with Dr. Joffre Coe and Mr. Bennie C. Keel, Site Specialist 
at Town Creek Indian Mound. He gave a slide-lecture to the 
members of the staff of the Department of Archives and 
History on February 16 and on February 27-28 he visited 
Town Creek Indian Mound. Plans have been made to hold 
dedication ceremonies at the restored Bennett Place, dwell- 
ing and kitchen, near Durham on April 30. 

Mr. Walter R. Wootten, Historic Site Specialist at Ala- 
mance Battleground State Historic Site, reports that the 
people of Burlington and surrounding areas have assisted 
with the furnishing and beautification of the grounds of the 
recently completed Alamance Battleground Museum. Dona- 
tions included shrubbery, draperies, half the cost of the 
exhibit case construction, seats, benches, and a desk for the 
lecture and study rooms. Local industries and firms are do- 
nating or lending materials and labor to prepare for the 
formal opening and dedication of the museum. The cere- 
monies will be held on May 16 to which the public is invited. 

Mr. Bennie C. Keel, Site Specialist at Town Creek Indian 
Mound, announces that plans for the construction of a cere- 
monial burial house are almost completed. The final excava- 

302 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tion on the perimeter of the structure is underway and once 
completed reconstruction will begin. This structure will 
house some twenty burials, three of which are apparently 
those of infants who will be interred in pottery urns. It is 
hoped that the building will be finished and open for visitors 
by June 15. Mr. Lee Kinard of Station WFMY-TV of Greens- 
boro filmed a fifteen-minute television sequence at the Town 
Creek site for use on his "Good Morning" television show. 
Mr. Keel gave a slide-lecture to the Uwharrie Community 
Club on March 17 and gave the same program to a group of 
sociology students from Pfeiffer College on March 20. Visi- 
tors to the site from July 1 to December 31, 1960, totalled 
about 13,533. Mr. Keel, who began work February 1 at Town 
Creek, was both an undergraduate and a graduate student at 
the Florida State University. While there he worked in the 
archeological field research programs, at the Tallahassee 
Junior Museum, and at the University Museum, both as a 
docent and as an exhibits designer. 

Mr. Robert O. Conway, Site Specialist at the Zebulon B. 
Vance Birthplace State Historic Site, reports that final ar- 
rangements have been made for the dedication of the re- 
stored Vance Birthplace on May 13. The Department of 
Archives and History and the Western North Carolina His- 
torical Association will sponsor the event in co-operation with 
a number of organizations in the area. Persons participating 
will be Dr. Glenn L. Bushey, President of the Asheville- 
Biltmore College; Mrs. Frank Bryant of Arden, Regent of the 
Edward Buncombe Chapter, Daughters of the American 
Revolution; and Miss Monimia MacRae of Biltmore Forest, 
the Western North Carolina Historical Association. Restora- 
tion of the Vance House was completed December 23, 1960, 
approximately seven months after work began. Erection of 
three farm outbuildings— smokehouse, springhouse, and corn 
crib— was started on the site in early March. Later, another 
log house will be erected on the grounds as slave quarters 
which are known to have existed there. Scheduled for spring 
in Asheville and surrounding area is a drive to raise $3,000 
to help furnish the Vance dwelling and outbuildings. Mr. 
Conway was recently elected President of the Wilshire Park 

Historical News 303 

Community Club of Asheville and Secretary of the West 
Asheville Kiwanis Club. 

Mr. A. L. Honeycutt, Jr., Historic Site Specialist in charge 
of Fort Fisher State Historic Site, reports that Governor-elect 
Terry Sanford visited the Fort Fisher site on December 12, 
1960, at which time plans were discussed concerning pro- 
posed development of the area as one of North Carolina's 
outstanding Civil War sites. Accompanying the Governor to 
Fort Fisher were Mr. Glenn Tucker of Carolina Beach, Mr. 
W. S. Tarlton, Historic Sites Superintendent, Mr. Honeycutt, 
Mr. Norman C. Larson, Executive Secretary of the North 
Carolina Confederate Centennial Commission, and others. 
Later Mr. Tarlton, Mr. Larson, and Mr. Honeycutt attended 
a dinner sponsored by the Carolina Beach Lion's Club on 
the "River Boat" given in honor of Governor-elect Terry 
Sanford and the teachers of New Hanover County. On De- 
cember 28 Mr. Honeycutt and other members of the staff 
attended the groundbreaking for the Legislative Building at 
which Governor Hodges, Governor-elect Terry Sanford, and 
Senator Tom White spoke and turned the first shovel of dirt. 
Mr. Larson and Mr. Honeycutt met with the New Hanover 
County Confederate Centennial Committee on January 12 in 
the New Hanover County Courthouse and on February 9 in 
the Carolina Savings and Loan Building. The county commit- 
tee has appointed a Fort Fisher Committee to raise $50,000 
to match State appropriations. The Committee Fund will be 
used to acquire private land and to help construct a visitor 
center-museum. On January 15 Mr. Honeycutt had an article 
in The News and Observer (Raleigh), "Fort Fisher Anni- 
versary Finds Restoration Moving on Schedule." On Jan- 
uary 18 Mr. Honeycutt supervised the erection at Fort Fisher 
of ten historical markers with a gray background and blue 
lettering. The markers, each with an explanatory inscription, 
were placed at the north side of the Battle Acre, at the foot 
of the recently cleared mounds, at the barracks site, and at 
Fort Buchanan. Mr. Honeycutt spoke to the following groups 
on the historical importance of Fort Fisher and the plans for 
developing the site: Sorosis Club in Wilmington, January 19; 
Exchange Club in Wilmington, January 20; Burgaw High 

304 The North Carolina Historical Review 

School Chapel Program, February 15; and the Pender County 
Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy, February 15. 
Mr. Honeycutt, Mrs. Patsy Harris, Editorial Assistant for 
the North Carolina Confederate Centennial Commission, and 
Mr. Stanley South attended the Centennial Flag Presenta- 
tion on February 1, in Thalian Hall, Wilmington. The flag, 
returned to Wilmington by Mr. William King Covelly, III, 
of Newport, Rhode Island, grandson of the original owner, 
was used at a meeting, to attempt to preserve the Union, 
held in Wilmington on February 1, 1861. After the program 
a luncheon for the guests of the City of Wilmington was held 
at the Cape Fear Club. Mr. Honeycutt also attended the 
fifteenth annual banquet that the Southeastern North Caro- 
lina Beach Association held at the Cape Fear Country Club, 
Wilmington, on February 17. From February 2 to Febru- 
ary 7 Mr. Honeycutt was at the College of William and Mary 
in Williamsburg, Virginia, doing research in the Colonel 
William Lamb Manuscript Collection. Colonel Lamb was in 
command at Fort Fisher from July 4, 1862, until the fall of 
the fort on January 15, 1865. On February 25 Mr. Honey- 
cutt attended the Centennial Committee Workshop held in 
the Education Building, and participated in the combined 
panel discussion for Local Commemorations, Sites and Mark- 
ers, Re-enactments and Documents, Manuscripts, and Mu- 
seum Items. On February 27 Mr. Honeycutt represented the 
Department at the memorial service on the one hundred 
and eighty-fifth anniversary of the Battle of Moores Creek 
Bridge at the visitor-center, Moores Creek National Military 
Park. Mr. Honeycutt spoke to the group concerning the par- 
ticipation of the Regulators in the Moores Creek Bridge 
Campaign and the similarities in the preservation of battle- 
grounds such as Moores Creek National Military Park, Ala- 
mance Battleground, and Fort Fisher State Historic Sites. 

Mr. Stanley A. South, Archeologist at Brunswick Town 
State Historic Site, reports that Mr. R. V. Asbury, Jr., Sunday 
guide at the site, is now dressed in eighteenth-century cloth- 
ing, wearing buttons and buckles on his vest and shoes which 
were excavated from sites at Brunswick. Approximately 250 
to 350 persons visit the site weekly. All of the area around 

Historical News 305 

the house successively known as "Russellborough, Castle 
Dobbs, Castle Tryon, and Bellfont" has been cleared of un- 
dergrowth, and excavation of this historic ruin will begin 

Recently the Fremont Garden Club and interested per- 
sons contributed seven boxwoods, numerous forsythia and 
quince bushes, and hundreds of bulbs to beautify the grounds 
of the restored Charles B. Ay cock Birthplace. Mr. Richard W. 
Sawyer, Jr., Historic Site Specialist, Dr. David J. Rose, Mrs. 
Jesse B. Ay cock, Mrs. Frank Ay cock, Mrs. Will Durden, 
Mrs. Reuben Hooks, and Mrs. Boyette were among the 
donors. On March 20 Governor Terry Sanford and a group 
of State officials inspected the Aycock Birthplace. More than 
150 guests toured the site with members of the Aycock Me- 
morial Commission of which Dr. Rose is chairman. Speakers 
other than Governor Sanford were Lieutenant Governor 
Cloyd Philpott and Speaker of the House of Representatives 
Joe Hunt. Later in the evening the Governor spoke at Golds- 
boro High School on his "quality education" program. 

Division of Museums 

On January 4 the opening of a special exhibit was held in 
the Hall of History in connection with the inaugural cere- 
monies of Governor Terry Sanford. The exhibit features 13 
inaugural gowns worn by the wives of several North Caro- 
lina governors beginning with Mrs. Richard Caswell ( 1776 ) , 
and ending with Mrs. William B. Umstead (1953). Items 
belonging to former governors are also displayed along with 
a program of and an invitation to the Sanford inauguration. 
A number of the wives of former governors, Governor-elect 
Terry Sanford, numerous State officials, and members-elect 
of the General Assembly were present for the ceremonies at 
which Dr. Crittenden spoke briefly. On February 9 Mrs. 
Joye E. Jordan, Museum Administrator, went to Bath to meet 
with members of the Historic Bath Commission to discuss 
lighting problems of the restored historic houses. She spoke 
on February 21 to the Roundtable Book Club of Raleigh on 
early silver and on February 26 she spoke at a luncheon in 

306 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Asheville sponsored by the Vestust Antique Study Club. Her 
topic was "Historic Houses of North Carolina" with emphasis 
on the Vance Birthplace. While at the Vance site she advised 
persons in charge of furnishing the Civil War governor's 
birthplace with the necessity of keeping items used authentic 
and consistent with the family which occupied the house. 
Also present at the luncheon was the Liaison Committee of 
the Western North Carolina Patriotic Societies, an organiza- 
tion composed of 13 groups in that part of the State. On 
March 14 she spoke to the Delta Delta Delta Alumni group 
in Raleigh on the Tryon Palace Restoration. On March 15 
a reception for members of the General Assembly and special 
guests was held in the Hall of History as a part of the opening 
of the Currier and Ives Exhibit. This exhibit, sponsored by 
the Nationwide Insurance Company, the Fine Arts Depart- 
ment of the Woman's Club of Raleigh, and the Department 
of Archives and History, was opened to the public from 
March 19 through April 1. Simultaneously the newly-com- 
pleted Confederate Room of the Hall of History was opened 
with exhibits relating to North Carolina. Designed primarily 
by Mr. Carlos Naumer, Exhibits Designer, the displays are 
entitled Secession, Recruiting, Equipping, Supplying, Home- 
front, Medical Equipment, Uniforms and Gowns, The Three- 
Way Picture ( Davis, Jackson, and Lee ) , Sentimental Side of 
the War, Blockade-Running, Ram "Albemarle," and Sur- 
render. Mr. Naumer was assisted by Messrs. Samuel Town- 
send and John Ellington of the staff of the Hall of History. 
The displays are located between the Raleigh Room and 
the Arms and Armor Room. On March 16 the three sponsors 
of the exhibit entertained at a luncheon honoring Governor 
Terry Sanford at which time the Nationwide Insurance Com- 
pany presented him with one of the original prints displayed, 
depicting the "Bombardment and Capture of the Forts at 
Hatteras Inlet, N. C." Present at the luncheon were Dr. Crit- 
tenden, who presided, Mr. Larson, Mrs. Jordan, and a num- 
ber of members of the staff of the Department and of the 
Confederate Commission, and other State officials. On March 
20 Mrs. Madlin Futrell, photographer for the Department, 
photographed the inaugural gown of Mrs. Terry Sanford for 

Historical News 307 

the dress to be copied for a doll collection depicting inaug- 
ural gowns of the wives of North Carolina governors. The 
Department entertained the Sir Walter Cabinet on March 21 
with a movie, a talk by Mr. Norman C. Larson, and Civil 
War songs by Misses Julia Ribet, Carolyn Myers, and Nan- 
cetta Hudson. Following the program the members enjoyed 
a coffee hour and viewed the Currier and Ives prints. 

Beginning Februaiy 1, 1960, children under 12 years of 
age will not be permitted to visit the Hall of History without 
a chaperon. 

Division of Publications 

Mr. D. L. Corbitt, Head of the Division of Publications, 
was the principal speaker and presided over a February 15 
meeting of a group of Cumberland County citizens interested 
in organizing a local historical society. Mr. Crawford B. Mac- 
Kethan, head of the Fayetteville Historical Commission, was 
elected temporary President; Mrs. H. M. MacKethan, tem- 
porary Secretary; Mr. Frank McMillan, Vice-President; Mr. 
Jack Crane, Treasurer; Mrs. Heman Clark and Mrs. J. W. 
Johnson, advisers. Approximately 70 persons attended the 
meeting. On March 15 the group met for a second time to 
perfect formal organization and to set a regular meeting date. 
The movement to organize in Cumberland County was initi- 
ated by Mr. MacKethan with the support of Fayetteville 
Mayor George B. Herndon. 

Mr. Corbitt and Judge Daniel L. Bell of Pittsboro were 
speakers at the unveiling of a 40" x 50" portrait of William 
Pitt, the first Earl of Chatham, on February 22 at the court- 
house in Pittsboro. The artist, Mrs. Ann Taylor Nash, Chat- 
ham County native, copied the painting from an original by 
William Hoare which is in the State Museum of Art, Raleigh. 
Mr. Harry Horton of Pittsboro introduced the speakers and 
Mrs. J. B. Earle, President of the Chatham County Historical 
Society, unveiled the portrait. The society sponsored the pro- 
ject and bought the frame and the cost of the portrait was 
underwritten by the Board of County Commissioners. 

The Papers of William Alexander Graham, Volume III, 
1845-1850, edited by Dr. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton (Ra- 

308 The North Carolina Historical Review 

leigh: State Department of Archives and History, 1960. Pp. 
xvi, 541 ) is ready for distribution. W. A. Graham was born 
in Lincoln County and moved to Hillsboro in 1826. He served 
as Governor (1845-1849), Secretary of the Navy (1850- 
1854 ) , and was a Senator in the Confederate States Congress 
(1864-1865). This volume, as well as Volumes I and II, may 
be purchased for $3.00, each, by writing Mr. D. L. Corbitt, 
Box 1881, Raleigh. 

Colleges and Universities 

On July 1 Dean Cecil Johnson, after twenty-four years in 
the General College as Adviser, Acting Dean, and Associate 
Dean, will give up his administrative duties and return to 
full-time teaching in the Department of History at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Dr. John K. Nelson, recipient of 
a grant from a fund for the advancement of education, will 
spend the academic year utilizing the library and archive 
resources of London for his study of the educational activi- 
ties in the American Colonies of the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel during the eighteenth century. Dr. Loren 
C. MacKinney, following his research on medieval medical 
miniatures in Europe during the past several years, has pub- 
lished a series of articles in historical and medical journals 
dealing with medieval medical practices. He will repeat at 
the 1961 meeting of the American Medical Association for 
the History of Medicine a lecture on Hippocrates given 
before the International Congress of the History of Medicine 
which met in Athens in 1960. 

Dr. J. Leon Helguera of the North Carolina State College 
Department of History and Political Science attended the 
annual meeting of the Southern Historical Association at 
Tulsa, Oklahoma, November 10-12, 1960, and served as 
chairman and discussant of a program devoted to the work 
of the John Boulton Foundation of Caracas, Venzuela. The 
Foundation is undertaking publication of all sources on the 
life and works of Simon Bolivar. Mr. Charles F. Kolb is the 
author of "The Last Hope before the Shooting Began,'' in 

Historical News 309 

the December 18, 1960, issue of The News and Observer 
( Raleigh ) which called attention to the one hundredth anni- 
versary of the efforts of Senator John J. Crittenden of Ken- 
tucky to compromise sectional differences on the eve of the 
Civil War. Dr. Marvin L. Brown, Jr., is teaching the classes 
of Dr. Joel Colton in European history at Duke University 
during the spring semester while Dr. Colton is on leave. 

Dr. Lillian Parker Wallace, Chairman of the Department 
of History at Meredith College, attended the meetings of the 
American Historical Association in New York in December, 
1960. Dr. Sarah M. Lemmon recently spoke to the Daughters 
of the Revolution in Raleigh on "Social Life in Raleigh in 
1890." Mrs. Mattie Edwards Parker has been added to the 
history faculty in the field of Amercian history and govern- 

Dr. Henry S. Stroupe, Chairman of the Department of 
History at Wake Forest College, was appointed Director of 
Graduate Studies at Wake Forest, effective February 13. In 
January the Trustees of the College established the Division 
of Graduate Studies and authorized the beginning in Sep- 
tember, 1961, of graduate work leading to the Master of Arts 
degree in six departments— biology, chemistry, English, his- 
tory, mathematics, and physics. Dr. Stroupe will continue 
to serve as Chairman of the Department of History. Mr. Keith 
A. Hitchins, Instructor in History, is on leave for the academic 
year to utilize a fellowship granted by the Rumanian Govern- 
ment for study and research at the University of Bucharest. 
This grant covers all expenses, and the United States Gov- 
ernment under Public Law 402, Eightieth Congress, is paying 
travel expenses. Mr. Hitchins, now in Bucharest, will return 
to Wake Forest College in September. Mr. James Edwin 
Hendricks, now a June Ph.D. candidate at the University of 
Virginia, has accepted a position as Assistant Professor of 
History, Wake Forest College, beginning September 1, 1961. 
Mr. Hendricks for the past three years has held a College 
Teaching Career Fellowship from the Southern Fellowships 
Fund. Graduate appointments for the academic year, 1961- 

310 The North Carolina Historical Review 

1962, for study leading to the master of arts degree are 
announced: 10 scholarships at $700; 12 scholarships at $1,700; 
12 assistantships at $2,420. Inquiries should be made imme- 
diately to the Director of Graduate Studies, Box 7323 Rey- 
nolda Station, Winston-Salem. 

Dr. John R. Alden, Professor of History at Duke University, 
served as Commonwealth Fund Lecturer for 1961 at Univer- 
sity College, University of London, delivering eight lectures 
between January 19 and February 13 on various phases of 
the American Revolution. Dr. Leonard M. Thompson of the 
University of Cape Town is Visiting Professor for the Com- 
monwealth Studies Center for the spring semester, 1961, and 
will be assisted by four history students in his seminar on 
Nigeria, one of them a James B. Duke Fellow from New 
Zealand. Dr. Joel Colton will be Visiting Professor at the 
University of Wisconsin for the spring semester, 1961, and 
will take the remainder of the year to do research under a 
grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Dr. LB. Holley, Jr., 
and Dr. Alfred Tischendorf, both recipients of grants from 
the Social Science Research Council, are on sabbatical leave 
for a full year to do research. Dr. John S. Curtiss, Director of 
Graduate Studies, attended the Eleventh International Con- 
gress of the Historical Sciences at Stockholm in August, 1960, 
and then made a two-week trip to Soviet Russia. The follow- 
ing members of the Department attended the December, 
1960, meeting of the American Historical Association in New 
York: Dr. Frances Acomb, Dr. Alden, Dr. Winfred Bernhard, 
Dr. Colton, Dr. Theodore Crane, Dr. Curtiss, Dr. Arthur B. 
Ferguson, Dr. Holley, Dr. Frederic B. M. Holly day, Dr. 
Ernest Nelson, Dr. Theodore Ropp, Dr. Russell Parkinson, 
Dr. William Scott, Dr. G. Gaddis Smith, and Dr. Richard L. 
Watson, Jr. Dr. Ropp presided at the joint session with the 
American Military Institute on the subject, "The Truth about 
the Battlefield and the Official Historian." Among the recent 
publications of the faculty members are Dr. Crane, "Francis 
Wayland and the Residential College," Rhode Island History 
(July and October, 1960); Dr. Curtiss had essays, "Church 
and State," in Cyril E. Black (ed.), The Transformation of 

Historical News 311 

Russian Society (1960); "History," in Harold H. Fisher (ed), 
The Growth of Russian Studies ( 1960 ) ; and an article, "Re- 
ligion as a Soviet Social Problem," Social Problems (spring, 
1960); Dr. W. T. Laprade had an article, "Edmund Burke: 
An Adventure in Reputation," in Journal of Modern History 
(December, 1960); Dr. Tischendrof had an article, "The 
Assassination of Chief Executives in Latin America," South 
Atlantic Quarterly (winter, 1960), and co-authored with 
Dr. J. Fred Rippy "The San Jose Conference of American 
Foreign Ministers," Inter-American Economic Affairs (win- 
ter, 1960); and Dr. Smith had a chapter, "Canadian External 
Affairs During World War I," and the select bibliography 
for The Growth of Canadian Policies in External Affairs, 
published by the Duke University Commonwealth Studies 

Dr. H. H. Cunningham has been named the William S. 
Long Professor of History and Chairman of the Department 
of Social Studies at Elon College. Dr. Cunningham will re- 
turn to full-time teaching and research and will be relieved 
of his duties as Dean according to his request of March, 1960. 
A resolution of appreciation was voted Dr. Cunningham by 
the Board. Dr. Fletcher Moore has been elected Dean of the 
College and Dr. Clarence Carson has been promoted to Pro- 
fessor of History. The North Carolina Alpha Chapter of Pi 
Gamma Mu, National Social Science Honor Society, and Elon 
College held the second annual lecture on March 23 with 
Dr. Wallace McClure, Consulting Director, World Rule of 
Law Center, Duke University, speaking on "World Rule of 
Law: United Nations Use of Force." 

Dr. Marvin L. Skaggs, Head of the Department of History 
at Greensboro College, made the following speeches during 
the quarter: Rotary Club, Greensboro, "South of Florida," 
January 9; Kiwanis Club, Greensboro, "Cuba Today," Jan- 
uary 24; Schoolmasters' Club of the North Central District, 
"Cuba and the United States," February 15; and to the 
World Affairs Forum, Greensboro, "The Place of Japan in 
the Cold War," February 28, 

312 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Dr. Marchall K. Powers, who joined the staff of the De- 
partment of Social Studies of Appalachian State Teachers 
College in September, 1960, has introduced courses in the 
history of Latin America. He will offer "Latin America during 
the Colonial Period" in the first summer session, June 8- 
July 14, 1961. 

State, County, and Local Groups 

The Gaston County Historical Society held its annual 
picnic meeting on August 5 in the Pisgah ARP Church. 
Mrs. D. Latham Friday of Dallas was in charge of the pro- 
gram which featured papers on the Pisgah Church and Lin- 
wood College, formerly situated nearby. Mrs. Mack Quinn, 
Jr., presented the church history and a number of church- 
owned items were displayed including a pewter communion 
service. On October 5 the society met in the Minnie Stowe 
Puett Memorial Library in Belmont. Mr. and Mrs. William N. 
Craig of the Union section presented a slide-lecture program 
on the old landmarks of Gaston County. At the December 2 
meeting the following officers were elected: Mrs. J. B. Hall 
of Belmont, President; Mr. John Moore Gaston of Cramerton, 
Vice-President; Mrs. D. Latham Friday of Dallas, Recording 
Secretary; Miss Pearl Lineberger of Belmont, Corresponding 
Secretary. Continuing officers are Mr. J. Milton Craig, Treas- 
urer, and Mr. Dalton Stowe of Dallas, Historian. Mrs. De- 
Witt Beatty made a talk on the history of Mt. Holly. Members 
paid tribute to the late Mrs. Maude Rankin Wales, former 
president. The December, 1960, issue of The Gaston County 
Historical Bulletin carried items on the George Pasour and 
the Dickson families, the Pisgah Church, the Jesse Holland 
land grant, and reports of various society activities. 

At a meeting of the Wilkes County Historical Society on 
January 16 members voted to sponsor again a high school 
student essay contest and to award cash prizes for the three 
papers adjudged the best. Papers were read at the meeting 
by three Wilkes Central High School students on the history 
of Wilkes County. Mrs. Delia Blevins Graham of Charlotte 

Historical News 313 

presented the society a copy of a family history. A third tour 
embracing the Traphill area is planned for the spring. 

On January 21 Mr. Van Potter presented a paper written 
by Mrs. A. A. Privette of Beaufort to the Carteret County 
Historical Society which met in Morehead City. Mr. Tucker 
Littleton also spoke briefly and Mr. and Mrs. Elmer Geriese 
of Richlands exhibited a number of paintings depicting scenes 
of Civil War days. A project to convert a portion of the old 
county jail is being investigated by Mr. Grayden M. Paul. 
Mr. F. C. Salisbury presided at the meeting which was fol- 
lowed by a social hour. 

The Burke County Historical Society met on January 24 
at which time the following officers were elected: Mr. Wil- 
liam A. Leslie, President; Mr. W. Stanley Moore, First Vice- 
President; Dr. Robert Pascal, Second Vice-President, and 
Mrs. Walter N. White, Third Vice-President. Outgoing Presi- 
dent C. K. Avery appointed a committee to work on life 
memberships and a committee to investigate the ownership 
of the McDowell graveyard which dates back to 1799. Super- 
intendent of Burke County Schools R. L. Patton spoke on 
the history of schools in the county. Mr. Patton will soon 
publish a book on this subject. 

The Onslow County Historical Society met on January 25 
with Miss Hathaway Price, President, presiding. An open 
forum discussion of Mr. J. Parson Brown's History of Onslow 
County was held and a film showing the Ed Smith collection 
of historical relics was presented. Members were urged to 
lend old items for photographing and old documents to be 
photostated. The society's new project will be the preserva- 
tion of county history through photographs. 

Mr. Thomas H. Woodard resigned as President of the Wil- 
son County Historical Society at the January 25 meeting held 
in the courthouse. He is serving in the North Carolina Gen- 
eral Assembly during the 1961 session. Mr. Silas Lucas, 
Chancellor, was appointed acting president. Mr. Hugh B. 

314 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Johnston, Jr., spoke on histories of Edgecombe and Wilson 
counties. Dr. C. C. Ware reported on the activities of the 
committee to preserve documents and other written materials 
relating to Wilson County. 

The December, 1960, issue of Ferqirimans County Histori- 
cal Society has articles on "Cove Grove," the Joshua J. Skinner 
home built in 1827; archeological findings at Durant's Neck; 
the notice of plans for the January meeting of the society; 
and a list of new members. The Perquimans County Histori- 
cal Society met on January 23 with Mr. Steve Perry, Presi- 
dent, presiding. Artifacts from the time of settlement through 
the Civil War years were exhibited and Mrs. Corbin Dozier 
read from the diary of her grandfather who marched with 
Sherman through Georgia. Thirty-nine new members joined 
the group in the past year. Special historical bulletins were 
printed and distributed to the junior and senior high school 
students during the past year as part of the society's program. 

Mr. Charles H. McSwain, President of the Stanly County 
Historical Society, announces the appointment of a 17-mem- 
ber committee from Albemarle and Stanly County to "ap- 
prove, place, and collect" furnishings for the restored Kron 
plantation house in Morrow Mountain State Park. This group 
will work with park authorities in completing the project of 

Mrs. Charles R. Hassell was elected Chairman of the Board 
of Directors of the Beaufort Historical Association at the Jan- 
uary 24 meeting at the Beaufort Courthouse. Mrs. G. W. 
Duncan was re-elected Secretary and Mrs. Vance Fulford, 
Jr., was named Treasurer. This historical group consists of 
persons who contributed to the Beaufort historical celebra- 
tion last year. The purpose is to continue to develop the 
area's historic sites for summer visitors. Plans are being per- 
fected to use the former county jail as a permanent county 
historical museum. Mr. Gray den Paul signed a contract to 
continue operation of the "Alphonse," museum of the sea. 
New members are invited to join for a $1.00 fee. 

Historical News 315 

Dr. Charles L. Price of East Carolina College was in 
charge of the program of the Pitt County Historical Society 
which met on January 26. 

President Lemuel L. Blades, III, of the Pasquotank County 
Historical Society announced at the January 24 meeting that 
a gift of property from the JOUAM Chapter was being 
offered the society. Meeting jointly with the group were 
members of the Isaac Gregory Antiquities Society who are 
interested in furthering plans for restoration of the Gregory 
home in Camden County. Miss Minnie Nash of Nixonton 
has offered flooring, mantels, and paneling from the colonial 
Nash home soon to be dismantled. Mr. Norman C. Larson, 
Executive Secretary of the North Carolina Confederate Cen- 
tennial Commission, gave a slide-lecture program on the 
Burnside Campaign in eastern North Carolina. Accomplish- 
ments of the society during the past year include sponsoring 
of the first Albemarle Exhibit ( Camden, Currituck, Pasquo- 
tank, and Perquimans counties); erection, near the court- 
house entrance, of a tablet depicting historic events in Pas- 
quotank County; the formation of genealogical and junior 
historian branches of the society; planning for a historical 
museum and an eighth-grade essay contest; and the placing 
of a marker to Federal Judge George W. Brooks. New officers 
installed were Mr. Blades, President; Mrs. J. B. Alderman, 
Vice-President; Mrs. W. J. Overman, Secretary; and Mrs. 
Joe T. Spence, Treasurer. 

The Western North Carolina Historical Association met on 
January 28 and accepted a plan offered by Dr. W. E. Bird to 
permit students under 18 years of age to join the organiza- 
tion as junior members. Mr. Frank M. Parker spoke on efforts 
to obtain furnishings for the restored Zebulon B. Vance 
Birthplace State Historic Site. Papers were read by Dr. 
Thomas H. Spence, Director of the Montreat Historical 
Foundation, and Mr. George M. Stephens of Asheville. Mr. 
S. E. Sanders of the Asheville Chamber of Commerce also 

316 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Plans for immediate landscaping and preliminary develop- 
ment of the Richard Caswell Memorial Park were approved 
on February 2 at a meeting in Raleigh presided over by 
Mr. John G. Dawson of Kinston, Chairman of the Governor 
Richard Caswell Memorial Commission. The 22-acre park is 
located near Kinston and a six-point long-range program was 
prepared by Dr. Christopher Crittenden, Director of the 
Department of Archives and History, and Mr. W. S. Tarlton, 
Superintendent of Historic Sites. Two of the ideas in the pro- 
gram are the construction of an access road and of a museum- 
visitor center, the latter to contain displays relating to Caswell 
and his service to North Carolina. The Commission voted to 
request an appropriation from the 1961 General Assembly to 
proceed with the development and discussed the possibility 
of completing the park to coincide with the celebration of 
the 200th anniversary of the chartering of Kinston in 1982. 

The Mecklenburg County Historical Society is working 
with a committee appointed by Mayor James E. Smith of 
Charlotte to try to preserve the 200-year-old Thomas Polk 
House. The house is situated directly in the path of a planned 
extension of Providence Road. The Polk House and the Mint 
Museum are the only ante-bellum buildings remaining in the 
City of Charlotte. Plans at present call for the dwelling, if it 
can be saved, to become a historical museum. 

A new State Historical Highway Marker was unveiled Feb- 
ruary 12 on Sand Hill Road, Asheville, in honor of William 
Moore, said to have been the first white settler west of the 
French Broad River and a commander under General Griffith 
Rutherford in expeditions against the Cherokee during the 
Revolutionary War. Col. Paul A. Rockwell, President of the 
Western North Carolina Historical Association, was principal 
speaker and several members of the Edward Buncombe 
Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, which spon- 
sored the unveiling, participated in the ceremonies. Ten other 
patriotic groups brought greetings from their societies at the 
service held in the old part of the Oak Forest Presbyterian 
Church. Mr. Robert O. Conway, Historic Site Specialist at 

Historical News 317 

the Zebulon B. Vance Birthplace, represented the State De- 
partment of Archives and History. A number of descendants 
of William Moore attended the unveiling. 

The Wayne County Historical Society met on February 8 
in the courthouse. Miss Gertrude S. Carraway, Director of 
Tryon Palace Restoration, presented a slide-lecture to the 
group. Memorials for 18 members were conducted by Dr. 
C. Irving Lewis, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church and 
chaplain of the society. 

The Sampson County Historical Society and the county 
Confederate Centennial Committee met February 19 in the 
new Clinton City Hall auditorium. Members of the Johnston 
County Historical Society and descendants of participants in 
the War Between the States were special guests at the joint 
meeting. Mr. Nicholas B. Bragg, Historic Site Specialist at 
Bentonville Battleground, spoke at the meeting. The erection 
of a marker for Lt. Gen. Theophilus Hunter Holmes, Sampson 
native, a proposed yacht trip down historic Cape Fear River 
by society members in May, and legislation regarding the 
Bentonville Battleground were discussed. 

The Moore County Historical Association met in the James 
Boyd Library in Southern Pines on February 28. Miss Mary 
Logan presented a film program of historic houses in the 
State including the House in the Horseshoe, a Moore County 
restoration. Mr. George Ross of Eagle Springs is President of 
the group. 

The seventeenth annual Fine Arts Festival of Rockingham 
County will be held May 5-7, 1961, at the Franklin Street 
School in Reidsville. The Pilot Club International is spon- 
soring the festival and awards will be made in the fields of 
ceramics, painting, sculpture, writing, music, and photog- 
raphy. Sixty awards will be presented with the Lillian Smith 
Pitcher Award Festival Cup being given for the most out- 
standing entry in any category. This award, gift of the late 
E. D. Pitcher of Leaks ville, is kept for one year by the winner 

318 The North Carolina Historical Review 

and then surrendered to the next year's winner. Mr. J. Banner 
Shelton of Madison is President of the Fine Arts Festival 
Association of Rockingham County. 

The Lower Cape Fear Historical Society, Inc. Bulletin for 
February, 1961, had articles on the return of a 34-star Union 
flag to the City of Wilmington one hundred years after it 
was used on the speaker's stand at a secession meeting; "Cape 
Fear Music of the 1850's" by Henry J. MacMillan; news of 
the Bath restoration and the opening of "Fairntosh," eight 
miles north of Durham on the Old Oxford Road; the names 
of new members of the society; and a message from the Pres- 
ident, Mr. Leslie N. Boney, Jr. At the February 17 meeting 
Mrs. Eric Norden gave a program on "Cape Fear Music of 
the 1850's." All of the music for the program was taken from 
the albums of Mrs. Norden's grandmother, Mrs. Andrew J. 
Howell, Sr. (nee Laura Harriss). 

The Moravian Music Foundation announces the appoint- 
ment of Mrs. Marilyn Purnell Gambosi to the newly-created 
position of Assistant Director and Chief of Research, effective 
July 1. Dr. Donald M. McCorkle, Director, stated that a 
second professional musical scholar on the staff will enable 
the Research Division to meet the increasing demands of the 
staff of the Foundation. Mrs. Gambosi received her educa- 
tion at MacMurray, Mills, and Radcliffe colleges and the 
University of Illinois, and is presently a candidate for the 
Ph. D. degree in musicology at Harvard University. She will 
assume responsibility for cataloging the huge collections of 
early American Moravian music in the Moravian Archives in 
Winston-Salem and Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Friends of the 
Moravian Music Foundation invite the public to join their 
groups as subscribing members (up to $25), contributing 
members ($25-$99), donors ($100-$499), or patrons ($500 
or more). Mrs. Gordon Hanes of Winston-Salem and Mr. 
R. S. Taylor, Jr., of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, are Chairmen 
of the membership campaign and may be reached at Box 26 
Salem Station, Winston-Salem. 

Historical News 319 

Chapters Twelve and Thirteen of "The Roanoke-Chowan 
Story" have been received by the Department. This story is 
being carried serially in The Daily Roanoke-Chowan News 
( Murf reesboro ) . The twelfth chapter is a biography of 
James Henry Gatling, "the tinkering inventor." Brother of 
Dr. Richard Jordan Gatling, inventor of the Gatling Gun, 
James Henry experimented with "flying machines" and built 
one which was called locally (Hertford County) "the old 
turkey buzzard." Chapter Thirteen deals with the career of 
Charles Henry Foster, Union sympathizer who married a 
Murf reesboro native. 

This Was My Valley (Charlotte: Heritage Printers, 1960, 
$3.50) by Fred M. Burnett tells the story of the North Fork 
Valley of the Swannanoa River. It is a saga not only of the 
people who settled the Valley in the early days of western 
North Carolina history, but also of the hunting dogs and 
great hunts of the pioneers of this area of the State. There 
are Civil War stories and stories of Locke Craig and Zebulon 
B. Vance, as well as the genealogy of the Burnet (original 
spelling) family. It is a rare book of adventure and Caro- 


The Reprint Company, 154 W. Cleveland Park Drive, 
Station B, Spartanburg, South Carolina, announces the avail- 
ability of Heads of Families: First Census of the United 
States, 1790, State of North Carolina at $12.50. This company 
recently republished the Heads of Families: . . . South Caro- 
lina and it may still be purchased for $10.50. Information 
about other reprints, a specialty of the company, may be 
obtained from the above address. 

Dr. Leo P. Kibby, Chairman of the Area of Social Science 
and Professor of History at San Jose State College, has com- 
piled a Book Review Reference for a Decade of Civil War 
Books, 1950-1960, in anticipation of the centennial com- 
memorating the Civil War which officially opened on Jan- 
uary 8, 1961. This 64-page book (fflf X 11") is prepared so 

320 The North Carolina Historical Review 

that the reader may find books dealing with the War and 
Reconstruction which have been reviewed in historical jour- 
nals in the last decade. All books are on an adult level, all 
were reviewed in one or more of the journals, and all are 
listed alphabetically by author or editor. The columnar style 
shows author, title, publisher, date of publication, reviewer, 
journal in which the review appeared, date of the review, and 
the number of the first page of the review. This compilation 
will benefit students, Civil War "buffs," librarians, editors of 
newspapers and journals, and patriotic groups. Plans are to 
issue supplements on an accumulative basis shortly after the 
first of each new year. The price is $3.85 postpaid and the 
book may be ordered from the Spartan Book Store, San Jose 
State College, San Jose 14, California. 

The American University School of Government and Pub- 
lic Administration announces two institutes, Records Man- 
agement, May 15-26, 1961, and Archives Administration, 
June 5-30, 1961, offered in co-operation with the Library 
of Congress, the Maryland Hall of Records, and the National 
Archives and Records Service. Application for admission 
should be made before May 1, 1961, and registration will be 
on May 15. For details write Dr. Ernst Posner, Head, Records 
and Archives Administration Program, The American Uni- 
versity, 1901 F Street, N.W., Washington 6, D. C. 

Dr. Elting E. Morison, Professor of History at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, has been awarded the 
Francis Parkman Prize for 1960 by The Society of Amercian 
Historians for his book, Turmoil and Tradition: A Study of 
the Life and Times of Henry L. Stimson. The society, which 
exists in order to stimulate the writing of history as litera- 
ture, will present the award, $500 and a scroll, to Dr. Morison 
at its annual meeting in April. This is the fifth year the 
award has been made. 

The American Association for State and Local History has 
established an annual award of $1,000 for the most distin- 
guished unpublished manuscript in American or Canadian 

Historical News 321 

local history. The first award will be made in 1961 and will 
convey to the Association first publication rights to the manu- 
script. Chairman of the Research and Publication Committee 
is Dr. Clifford L. Lord, Dean of the School of General Studies 
at Columbia University. The Association has also begun a 
grant-in-aid program for research in local history and grants 
will be made upon recommendation of the Research and 
Publication Committee. For further information, write Dr. 
Clement M. Silvestro, Director, American Association for 
State and Local History, 816 State St., Madison 6, Wisconsin. 

The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVIII July, 1961 Number 3 


TION 323 

Dorothy Gilbert Thorne 


Ina W. Van Noppen 

IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1919-1923 362 



Part III 380 

Edited by John Bowen Hamilton 


Orr's Charles Brantley Aycock — By Robert F. Burden ; Gate- 
wood's Eugene Clyde Brooks: Educator and Public Servant 
— By D. J. Whitener; Walser's Thomas Wolfe: An Introduc- 
tion and Interpretation — By Geroge W. McCoy; Patton's 
Messages, Addresses, and Public Papers of Luther Hartwell 
Hodges, Governor of North Carolina, 195U-1961, Volume I, 
1954-1956— By Willard B. Gatewood, Jr.; Walker's New 
Hanover County Court Minutes, Part 3, 1786-1793 — By 
A. M. Patterson; Pierson's Whipt 'em Every time: The 
Diary of Bartlett Yancey Malone — By T. Harry Gatton; 
Campbell's Birth of a National Park in the Great Smoky 
Mountains — By Willard B. Gatewood, Jr. ; Hormel's With 
Sherman to the Sea. A Drummer's Story of the Civil War 
as Related by Corydon Edward Foote — By John G. Barrett ; 
Hemphill's and Wates's The State Records of South Caro- 
lina: Extracts from the Journals of the Provincial Con- 
gresses of South Carolina, 1775-1776 — By Lawrence F. 

Entered as second class matter September 29, 1928, at the Post Office at 
Raleigh, North Carolina, under the act of March 3, 1879. 


Brewster; Eby's "Porte Crayon" : The Life of David Hunter 
Str other — By Richard Walser; Wellman's Harpers Ferry: 
Prize of War — By Ava L. Honeycutt, Jr. ; Donald's Why the 
North Won the Civil War — By Jay Luvaas ; Jordan's Herbs, 
Hoecakes and Husbandry: The Daybook of a Planter of the 
Old South — By Elizabeth W. Wilborn; Miles's Jacksonian 
Democracy in Mississippi — By William S. Hoffmann; Tal- 
palar's The Sociology of Colonial Virginia — By William 
M. E. Rachal ; Davis's More Traditional Ballads of Virginia 
— By Artus Monroe Moser; Ferguson's The Power of the 
Purse: A History of American Public Finance — By Richard 
C. Todd; Simms's Emotion at High Tide: Abolition as a 
Controversial Factor, 1830-184-5 — By Lawrence F. Brewster ; 
Williamson's American Suffrage from Property to Democ- 
racy, 1760-1860— By Edward W. Phifer ; Carter's The Terri- 
torial Papers of the United States, Volume XXV, The Terri- 
tory of Florida, 183^-1839 — By Rembert W. Patrick; and 
Lefler's A History of the United States from the Age of 
Exploration to 1865 — By E. Bruce Thompson. 



The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVIII July, 1961 Number 3 


By Dorothy Gilbert Thorne* 

When North Carolina Yearly Meeting convened in Tenth 
month, 1775, it seemed "Good and Necessary at this time of 
General Distress and Unatural Commotions" to remind 
Friends of "their antient and Honourable Testimony and 
Principle of Friends in Respect to the King and Government." 
This they did in an epistle prepared and accepted and direc- 
ted to all meetings belonging to the Yearly Meeting. 1 

We Sincerely declare that it hath been our Judgement and 
Principle from the first to this day, that the Setting up and 
Putting down Kings and Government is God's Peculiar Preroga- 
tive for Causes best Known to him self and that it is not our work 
and Business to have any hand or Contrivance therein nor to be 
Bussie Bodies in Matters above our Station much less to Contrive 
the Ruin or Overturn of any of them ; but to Pray for the King 
and for the safety of our Nation, and good of all men that we 
may live a Peacable and Quiet Life in all Godliness and Honesty 
under the Government which God is Pleased to set over us and 
to yield a Chearfull and active obedience to all Good and whole- 
some Laws, and a Passive and Peacable Submission to all such 
laws as do Interfere with our Consciences by Suffering under 

* Mrs. Dorothy Gilbert Thorne was formerly Professor of English at Guil- 
ford College and now resides in Wilmington, Ohio. 

1 At this time North Carolina Yearly Meeting consisted of two Quarterly 
Meetings, Eastern and Western, eight Monthly Meetings in North Carolina, 
two in South Carolina, and one in Georgia. Unless otherwise indicated this 
article is based on the following volumes of manuscript minutes of the 
Yearly Meeting, Volume I, 1704-1793; Western Quarterly Meeting, Volume 
I, 1760-1900; Minutes of the Standing Committee of Eastern Quarter, Vol- 
ume I, 1754-1823; and on records of the six North Carolina Monthly Meet- 
ings, minutes of two meetings not being extant. Volumes used are in the 
vault at Guilford College and consist of the following: Perquimans, Volume 
III, 1776-1794; Pasquotank, Volume I, 1699-1785, Core Sound, Volume I, 
1733-1791 (belonging to the Eastern Quarter) ; Cane Creek, Volume I, 
1751-1796; New Garden, Volume II, 1775-1782; and Deep River, Volume I, 
1778-1807 (belonging to the Western Quarter). References to minutes are 
identified by dates in the text. 

[323 ] 

324 The North Carolina Historical Review 

them without Resistance or anything more than to Petition or 
Remonstrate against them. 

The epistle expressed the opinion that many engaged in 
present disputes with England were "Honest and Upright" 
but it also spoke of all "Plottings, Conspiracies, and Insurrec- 
tions as works of Darkness" and reminded Friends that Lon- 
don Yearly Meeting had advised all Friends not "to interfere, 
meddle, or concern in those party affairs." 2 

North Carolina Friends had inherited a strong testimony 
against warfare. They did not expect to fight and they did not 
expect to meddle in party affairs. In the seventeenth century 
Quakers, under suspicion anyhow for their nonconformity, 
were often accused of complicity in plots; therefore their 
early leaders had charged them with much earnestness to keep 
clear of all "commotions and intrigues." In the century that 
had passed, there had grown up in the Quaker consciousness 
a belief that obedience to the existing government when 
such obedience did not run counter to conscience was a fun- 
damental duty. 3 God, for reasons known to himself, would 
set up and put down kings and governments and there was 
no need for them to be "Bussie bodies" concerning them- 
selves with matters above their station. As far as possible 
Friends would ignore the struggle and proceed with business 
as usual. But this position had its difficulties. Even a passive 
obedience to ruling powers in America in 1775 and onward 
led the populace to believe that Quakers were Loyalist sym- 

Many problems arose as Friends endeavored to keep clear 
of present commotions and live according to their ancient 
testimonies. It was clear that they could not bear arms, pay 
muster fees or "draughting" fees, that they could not hire 
substitutes; and while a power (or government) was con- 
tending with arms their only connection with it came as they 

2 The London Epistle of 1775 had been quite explicit entreating "Mem- 
bership with us to enter as little into Conversation respecting present Heats 
and Commotions as possible and to seek for and abide under the influence 
of that Heavenly Principle which leads to follow Peace with all men." The 
London Epistle of 1775, 2. 

3 Rufus M. Jones, Quakers in the American Colonies (London: Mac- 
Millan, 1911), 562-563. 

North Carolina Friends and the Revolution 325 

exercised their right of petition and remonstrance, for they 
could not take an oath or affirmation of allegiance to it, 
pay tax which might support the military, or hold office. 

Living a life wholly consistent with the "Peaceable Pro- 
fession" was difficult; the clear cut issues began to take on 
shades of meaning not easily forseen. For example, could 
Friends use paper money issued by the contending govern- 
ment? The Standing Committee of Eastern Quarter finally 
decided ( 1-13-1776) that since Friends were on a "Level with 
their Neighbors and Fellow Subjects in Transacting Common 
Affairs of Business in this life" they were to be left free "to 
take or decline these bills according to the clear Freedom 
of their own minds." 

Monthly Meeting minutes record many degrees of partici- 
pation in the struggle in addition to the outright "bearing 
arms in a warlike manner"— as a survey of the minutes of the 
six monthly meetings existing during war years will show. 

Perquimans, the first meeting set up in North Carolina, had 
troubles with Friends who enlisted or hired substitutes, and 
complaints against several men are recorded: Joseph Griffin 
for "listing as a soldier" 5-6-1776; William Townsend 9-3-1777 
for "being a partner in hireing a Man to Serve in a Military 
Capacity to save himself from the Penalty of the Law in that 
case"; Frederick Nixon 1-6-1779 for "Gameing and hireing a 
substitute"; Demsey Elliott 1-6-1779 for "listing himself in 
Military Service"; John Charles 7-7-1779 for "agreeing to re- 
pay a person for paying a draughted fine"; Nathan Pierce 
5-5-1779 for "attending a Muster and Voteing for Men to Act 
in the Military Service"; and Ephriam Griffin 6-6-1781 for 
"bearing arms in a warlike manner." The meeting also had 
trouble with members involved with privateering vessels. 
It was reported 12-6-1780 that Lemuel Murdaugh had "en- 
tered himself on Board an armed Vessell in order to retake 
Some Vessells that was Taken out of Poart by English priva- 
teers"; on 3rd month 5, 1783, Exum Elliott and Nathan Perry 
were complained of "for Entering on Board a Privateer"; and 
on 4th month 2, 1783, Solomon Elliott "who justified himself 
in consenting to his Sons Entering on Board a Privateer was 

326 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Pasquotank Meeting and Core Sound ( also near the coast ) 
were concerned about members on armed vessels. On 11-20- 
1782 Micajah Clark, who had requested a certificate to go to 
the West Indies, was refused by Pasquotank on the grounds 
that "the Vessell he Intended to enter on board of is to carry 
guns in order to make some defense." Core Sound Meeting in 
Carteret County on 11-14-1781 disowned John Harris who 
"contrary to Advice and Counsel of his Friends made a cruise 
on board a privateer Vessel of War, a practice so inconsistent 
with our principle and holy peaceable Christian proffession 
that we can do no less than publicly testifie against Such 
Anti-Christian practices." 

Pasquotank Meeting disowned two men for enlisting: Ben- 
jamin Wood, 7-17-1776, and William Boswell, 7-16-1777; 
Thomas Newby and Caleb Hall, 7-19-1780, for hiring them- 
selves in the Military Service (not as soldiers but as work- 
ers); James Newby, 8-21-1782, for consenting to hire a sub- 
stitute. James Newby repented and regained membership 
as did Josiah Winslow, who on 9-16-1778 was complained of 
for "Informing the Sheriff of the County How to come at 
his Money, which being Demanded to pay Soldier Hired in 
Liew of frds." 

The meeting which suffered most during the Revolution 
was Cane Creek, and Cane Creek had not yet recovered 
from the troubles brought on by the Regulators. Herman 
Husbands had been a member until 1766, when he was dis- 
owned, and he had been a center of controversy before and 
after that time; in 1771 eighteen men had been disowned, 
sixteen of them two weeks after the Battle of Alamance; 4 
Tryon had requisitioned six wagon loads of "flower" from 
the Quakers in Cane Creek, 5 the Regulators intercepted it; 
thereupon Tryon's men recaptured it and took three addi- 

* At the Monthly Meeting held June 1, 1771, Benjamin Underwood, James 
Underwood, Joshua Dixon, Isaac Cox, Samuel Cox and his sons Herman 
and Samuel, James Matthews, John Hinshaw, Benjamin Hinshaw, William 
Graves, Nathan Farmer, Jesse Pugh, William Tanzy, John and William 
Williams were disowned. On September 7, 1771, Thomas Pugh and Hum- 
phrey Williams were disowned, the first for joining a company of armed 
men, the second for "aiding a company who were some of them contending 
the arms." No explanation is given for disowning the sixteen. 

8 William Saunders (ed.), The Colonial Records of North Carolina 
(Raleigh: The State of North Carolina, 10 volumes, 1886-1890) » VIII, 610, 
hereinafter cited as Saunders, Colonial Records. 

North Carolina Friends and the Revolution 327 

tional loads from Dixon's mill, the "owner having favored and 
assisted the rebels." 6 In 1773 the assembly disallowed their 
petition for payment. 7 Simon Dixon, the owner of the mill, 
was the first settler in the neighborhood and a very influential 
man; he was also Herman Husband's brother-in-law and an 
acknowledged Regulator. In 1769 the meeting tried to disown 
him; he appealed to the Quarterly Meeting and was reinstat- 
ed, no explanation of charge or decision being recorded. 8 Two 
members of the meeting, Jeremiah and William Piggott, had 
been accused of informing Colonel Fanning that Dixon and 
Husbands were leaders of the mob and had requested aid 
from Fanning in establishing their innocence. 9 All in all, Cane 
Creek knew what the present commotions meant in the way 
of disunity, loss of members, and financial loss. 

Then on 4-6-1776 John Hinshaw, the last of the Regulators 
to repent, condemned his action in "going in company with 
the Regulators so called," and on 10-5-1776 the first of the 
Revolutionary soldiers was disowned. The record of disown- 
ment shows details of the process and the spirit in which it 
took place: 

The preparative Enters a complaint against Nathan Freeman 
for being guilty of going to places of diversion and dancing, and 
notwithstanding he was labored with by the overseers with de- 
sires for his Return, but to little or no purpose and since has 
went from us and listed himself a Soldier, all which being con- 
trary to our Principles, this meeting therefore agrees to Shew 
their disunity with him and his disorderly conduct, and thereby 
minutes him no member of our Society untill he Reforms and 
Suitably condemns the Same, and that he may is our desire 
and that the Clerk upon his application is to give him a copy 
of this minute. 

Disowning a member for bearing arms was the direct testi- 
mony against war which every meeting was expected to 
exercise. William Dunn on 11-1-1777, Joshua and Simon Had- 

6 Walter Clark (ed.), The State Records of North Carolina (Winston, 
Goldsboro, and Raleigh: The State of North Carolina, 20 volumes [16 
volumes and 4 volumes of index compiled by Stephen B. Weeks], 1895-1914), 
XIX, 847, hereinafter cited as Clark, State Records. 

7 Saunders, Colonial Records, IX, 496-497. 

8 Minutes of Western Quarterly Meeting, 5-5-1769, and 8-12-1769. 

9 Saunders, Colonial Records, VII, 745. 

328 The North Carolina Historical Review 

ley sons of Thomas on 6-5-1779, and in 1781 siz more, John 
Freeman on 2-3, William and John Lacky on 3-3, Jacob Doan 
and William Vestal on 6-2, and John Vestal on 11-3 were dis- 
owned by Cane Creek before the war ended. Thus in a single 
decade Cane Creek disowned twenty-eight members ( includ- 
ing its Regulators ) who so far departed from their Quakerism 
as to fight with carnal weapons. 

New Garden disowned two men who "assisted those called 
Regulators with a gun," Jesse Lane on 7-27-1771 and Edward 
Thornbrough on 8-31-1771, but Thornbrough condemned 
his action and was reinstated; in 1776 three members were 
disowned for "appearing in a warlike manner"; David Clark, 
4-27-1776, and Jacob Brown and Micajah Wright on 11-30- 
1776. Jonathan Clark was disowned 9-25-1779 "for attending 
musters and hiring a man to go to the wars"; John Rudduck 
also "hired a man to go to war and assisted to drive away 
his neighbor's cattle for the use of the army" and was dis- 
owned 11-25-1780; and finally 8-31-1782 John Wright was 
disowned for "taking up arms in a warlike manner." 

Deep River, which became a monthly meeting in 1778, 
disowned three men, the Harrold brothers, who bore arms in 
a warlike manner 12-4-1780. An additional member, Joseph 
Wilson, was prevailed upon 7-1-1782 to condemn his action 
"in going out with a company of men in a hostile manner to 
disarm some of his neighbors." These six meetings then had 
disowned a total of thirty-nine men, of whom twenty-one 
were involved in the Regulator movement; only a few ever 
resumed membership. 

There was, however, some gain in membership during these 
years, and it is interesting to note that among those who came 
under the care of Friends there were some who very shortly 
requested a few lines which they could present to military 
authorities and claim exemption. 10 Some of these new mem- 
bers remained in the Society, but not all, for meetings held 

10 The law on granting exemption varied from time to time. In 1777 the 
law specified that Quakers who produced a proper authenticated certificate 
from Yearly Meeting or Quarterly Meeting were subject to a fine of £25 
to be levied on their property or on that of the Society. Clark, State Records, 
XXIV, 117. In 1778 Quakers were granted exemption from militia and from 
drafting, no fine being mentioned. Clark, State Records, XXIV, 190 and 193. 

North Carolina Friends and the Revolution 329 

high standards for their members and disowned freely; 11 it 
is impossible to know now how many of the new members 
had exemption as one of their reasons for joining, for the 
clerks very often wrote no more than this from minutes of 
Pasquotank 8-21-1782: 'Job Brothers requests to be taken 
under frd s . care it having come properly through the Prepara- 
tive Meet", at Newbegun Creek frd s . grant his request." 

Occasionally someone under Friends* care was disowned for 
inconsistencies in conduct, and the entry throws some light 
on his motives and on the thinking of Friends. This minute 
from Pasquotank Meeting 7-17-1782 is a case in point: "It 
appears that William Price hath Joined himself in Marriage 
with a Woman not of our Society, he being under frd 3 . care 
this Meeting agrees that his request be return'd to him & as 
he hath lately obtained a Certificate from this Meet s . in order 
to Clear him from Military services, frd 8 . think it Necessary to 
order a paper of denial against him." 

When the certificate was requested after a person was 
drafted, that circumstance was apt to be mentioned in the 
minutes: Caleb Goodwin, under care of Perquimans Meeting, 
requested on 12-6-1780 to be admitted into Unity with 
Friends. ". . . as the said Caleb Goodwin has been sometime 
draughted as a Souldier, this Meeting thinks proper to give 
him a few lines setting forth that he is in unity." Three years 
later (10-1-1783) he was disowned for wearing a ring on his 
hand and other disorderly practices. 

Core Sound Meeting rose up against a certain William 
Borden who "for a Small Season Sheltered himself under our 
holy profession, but could not Stand in it and beare his Testi- 
mony of the Truth when Suffering appeared near at hand." 
His offense was not active participation in war but "double 
dealing." He had been very desirous of being "Skreen'd from 
Mustering under our denomination a few years past" but 
"was willingly concerned as commisary in Supplying Troops 
with Provision" and had "deny'd Friends acting we have 
reason to believe from motives of coveteousness and the love 

11 Of the 11 men who came under the care of Pasquotank Meeting during 
the last six months of 1782, two were disowned within a year, four more 
were members six to eight years before they were disowned, five remained 
members. All of them bore family names well-represented in the meeting's 

330 The North Carolina Historical Review 

of Money ( as it was a time he and other Friends were liable 
to have fines levyed on their estates to hire a Soldier)." He 
was disowned 12-8-1778. There are a few other references 
in monthly meeting minutes concerning exemption of Friends 
from military service, but monthly meeting clerks did not 
record details on fines levied— they reported only the totals 
of these "sufferings." 

Friends knew what they had to do with members who par- 
ticipated in war or showed inconsistencies in their peace 
testimony; if the member could not be brought to see and 
acknowledge his error, there was no course open but to dis- 
own him in a minute that pointed out his offense and often 
covered other misdemeanors and flaws in judgment as well. 
Matters connected with the relation of the Society of Friends 
to the State, the whole problem of neutrality or peaceful 
coexistence caused even greater difficulties than those 
brought on by individuals who "bore arms in a warlike man- 
ner" and indulged in "other disorderly practices." 

A full view of these problems is given in the minutes of 
Cane Creek Monthly Meeting 4-4-1778, for on that day 
three advices "or extracts handed down for the fulfilling the 
intention thereof" were read and considered. 12 The one from 
the Yearly Meeting session stated that Friends could not 
"consistantly with their principles Comply with the act of 
the assembly requiring an affirmation of allegiance to the 
State of North Carolina." A special form of the oath had been 
framed for Quakers, Moravians, Mennonites, and Dunkards 
which did not require them to defend the government, but 
Friends did not feel they could take an oath to a contending 
power. Failure to do so carried heavy penalties. The second 
advice of this sort came from the Quarterly Meeting and con- 
cerned the "payment of the present tax now Demanded." "In 
a Desire of our being preserved out of those things that may 
wound the Cause of truth, we do agree to Report as our Sense 
and Judgment that friends Cannot Consistant with our holy 
Profession Comply therewith." 

The third came from the Quarterly Meeting Standing Com- 
mittee appointed to Consider the State of the Society, and it 

13 These documents are also recorded in minutes of New Garden and 
Deep River and the Yearly Meeting advices referred to in minutes of Per- 
quimans and Pasquotank Meetings. 

North Carolina Friends and the Revolution 331 

instructed the monthly meetings that "Early Care be taken 
to advise their members against accepting any places of office 
or trust under the present Commotion and Confusion that 
now abound, and where any have accepted of the offices 
above Hinted that Such Should be labored with in a Spirit 
of Brotherly kindness and Charity in order to Convince them 
of the Inconsistency of Such a Conduct." Thus in one session, 
Friends at Cane Creek were faced with the major complexi- 
ties of their position. 

Later in the year (9th month, 1778) the Standing Com- 
mittee of Western Quarter advised monthly meetings to 
"labor in a Spirit of Love and meekness with any of their 
members who had so far deviated as to act contrary to the 
wholesome rules and advices hitherto given by taking the 
present affirmation of Fidelity which hath brought pain and 
sorrow on many minds and we apprehend tends to lay waste 
our Christian testimony." 

The oath or affirmation of allegiance had been altered by 
the Assembly in 1778 in order "to quiet the consciences and 
indulge the religious Scruples of the Sects called the Unitas 
Fratrum or Moravians, Quakers, Menonists, and Dunkards," 
the principal changes being the addition of the word "Fidel- 
ity" and the provision for "either an active or passive obedi- 
ence to the Powers and Authorities of the government." 13 
In Tanuarv 1779 the Standing Committee of Eastern Quarter 
addressed a petition to the Assembly thanking members for 
leniency but explaining that their "peaceable Principles to 
live as much as in us Lies a Quiet Honest and Inoffensive 
Life and to keep clear from joining with any party Engaged 
in disputes that are to be Determined by Military Forces" 
stood in the way of their taking the affirmation. 

The Petition continued by stating that they had not the 
"Least Intention or design of taking any steps against the 
state," that they knew their scruples could bring "great Suf- 
ferings upon them and terminate in the Ruin of many Honest 
Families" but that they earnestly desired not to be considered 
as enemies to their country because they scrupled taking the 
Aforesaid Test. 

M Clark, State Records, XXIV, 219. 

332 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The delegation consisting of Thomas Knox, Thomas New- 
by, John Lawrence, and Caleb White was well received, and 
alterations were made to the affirmation but it was still not 
acceptable. 14 

All through the year 1779 and in the early months of 1780 
the monthly meetings in accord with the advice received 
labored with members who had taken the oath. There is no 
record of a disownment— those whose only offense had been 
the taking of the affirmation condemned their action and re- 
mained members. 

The first to act were Caleb Trueblood and Joseph Henly, 
members of Pasquotank Meeting, who on 12-6-1778 "fully 
and openly condemned their taking of the affirmation." Other 
members of that meeting who also condemned their taking 
the affirmation were Daniel Trueblood 3-17-1779, James New- 
by, Fisher Trueblood, and Joseph Trueblood on 4-21-1779, 
and Thomas Pritchard who on 7-21 repented of that as well 
as his misconduct in hiring a Negro and "gaming." 

At Cane Creek 10-2-1779 Simon Hadley appeared and 
made an offering condemning his taking an affirmation, also 
his drinking to excess, and on 2-5-1780 Solomon Cox was dis- 
owned for taking the affirmation— but he had also been buy- 
ing and selling Negroes. 

New Garden Meeting dealt with all of its offenders at 
one session, that of 12-25-1779. The minute reads: "It being 
the united sense of our Yearly Meeting, ( that in these times 
of outward wars, and commotions which prevail in our Land, 
and still to be determined by Military force ) , that we cannot 
consistently take our Solemn Affirmation of Fidelity to the 
present powers; but several amongst us through unwatchful- 
ness have given way there unto; which hath been cause of 
deep sorrow to many minds; but through the favours of 
Divine goodness, those appear'd at our Monthly Meeting, 
and bore their Testimony against it, to the satisfaction of 
Friends: John Williams, Paul Macy, William Coffin, Reuben 
Bunker, Nathaniel Macy, Nathaniel Swain, Isaac Gardner, 
Joseph Swain, John Macy, Barzilla Gardner, Stephen Gard- 

14 Minutes of Standing Committee of Eastern Quarter, 1-9-1779, and 

North Carolina Friends and the Revolution 333 

Action at Deep River was identical: five Friends, Daniel 
Bills, Seth Coffin, Richard and Sylvanus Gardner, and Wil- 
liam Stanton, appeared at the session 2-7-1780 and three 
others, Latham Folger, John Macy Jr., and John Sweet, on 
1-1-1781 and condemned their taking the affirmation. Only 
one was disowned for the offense, but he had just married 
out of unity and would have been disowned anyhow. 

In 1780 (3-25 and 5-28) the Standing Committee petition- 
ed the Assembly again laying stress on the fact that since 
they did not feel that they could take the affirmation "en- 
tries were being laid on their lands by different Persons, 
which may very likely terminate in the Ruin of many peace- 
able Families" and asking that as they had "conformed to 
the Laws either by active or passive Obedience," they might 
now be afforded relief. William Albertson and Mark Newby 
presented the petition to the assembly, it was favorably re- 
ceived and an act passed which provided that entries made 
upon the lands of persons "in unity with the people of their 
respective denominations" should be null and void. 15 Quakers, 
however, continued to bear testimony against the affirmation 
of fidelity, often calling it "a Test to either party while con- 
tending" until the contending was ended and the war was 
over— then their opposition no longer had any point. At the 
Yearly Meeting of 1783 the following form was proposed 
and with some small additions accepted by the next Assem- 
bly: 16 "I A. B. do Solemnly & Sincerely Declare & affirm that 
I will Truely & faithfully Demean myself as a Peacable Sub- 
ject of the Independent State of North Carolina, & will be 
Subject to the powers and authorities that are or may be Es- 
tablished for the good Government thereof not Inconsistant 
with the Constitution, Either by yielding an active or passive 
obedience thereto & that I will not abet or join the Enemies of 
this State by any means, in any Conspiracy whatsoever 
against the said state or the United States of America." 

Neither New Garden nor Deep River found it necessary to 
disown a member for holding office in the unsettled state of 
affairs but Cane Creek had a prominent member who was 

w Clark, State Records, XXIV, 329. 

M Minutes North Carolina Yearly Meeting, 10-27-1783 and 10-25-1784. 

334 The North Carolina Historical Review 

engaging in several doubtful activities when they finally de- 
cided they must disown him : "Thomas Chapman Complained 
of in the first month last for taking a Justices Commission 
under the present unsettled state of public affairs Contrary to 
the advice of friends, and continuing to act therein after the 
time he informed friends his commission would be Run out 
and that he would not accept of another or act any thing of 
moment without acquainting friends therewith or to this im- 
port, but to the reverse of this has as himself acknowledges 
administered the oath, wrote tickets Relating to drafting as 
it is Called, Signed or granted a warrent or press to take guns 
for a millitary purpose. This meeting therefore disowns him 
(3-6-1779) after Repeated labor Extended." The echo of 
many serious conversations on Thomas Chapman's activities 
may be heard in that minute. "Repeated labor extended" is 
not an idle phrase. In 1783 Thomas Chapman condemned his 
misconduct and was restored to membership. Five months 
later (12-6-1783) he requested a certificate to New Garden 
Meeting, which had oversight of meetings farther west, and 
went on to Tennessee, where by 1785 he was clerk of the 
lower house of the State of Franklin. 17 

There were several reasons why "the payment of the pres- 
ent tax now demanded" mentioned in advices of 1778 had 
not seemed consistent with the profession of Friends— the 
law of 1778 required that those listing tax swear that their 
returns were correct, much of the tax was used for military 
purposes, and moreover Quakers who were refusing to take 
oath of allegiance were required to pay a three-fold tax. 18 
They gave a passive not an active obedience to the tax law 
and that means that they did not resist the collector who came 
and seized property to satisfy requirements. In 1780 the 
Quarterly Meeting Committee had some advice on their be- 
havior. The Committee entreated Friends "to be exceeding 
careful in the course of their conduct when such persons may 
come to their houses as are appointed to collect the present 
tax that they baulk not the Testimony we profess to hold 

17 Thomas W. Marshall, "Family of William and Rebecca Marshall, Cane 
Creek Monthly Meeting, Orange County, N. C" (Washington, D. C: Un- 
printed genealogy, 1945). 

13 Clark, State Records, XXIV, 294. 

North Carolina Friends and the Revolution 335 

forth by a fractory conduct . . . but that we demean ourselves 
in all things as becomes the followers of Christ." 19 

The committee raised another question as it referred to 
"Some Differences in the Sentiments of Some friends in 
Respect of giving in their Ratiables to be taxed" and asked 
Friends "to consider in meekness and wisdom whether that 
is consistent with our peaceable principles." In other words, 
could a Friend so far co-operate with the Government as to 
list his taxable property? 

It is difficult to know how much tax was taken from 
Friends, for they usually included it in the total of their suf- 
ferings without specifying its amount. However, in 1779 Deep 
River Meeting reported £202: 6:0 for taxes, in 1780 £203:7:0 
in 1781 £230:8:0. The total sufferings (which included tax, 
fines and military requisitions ) recorded in the Yearly Meet- 
ing minutes was £1200 in 1778, £2250 in 1779, £845 in 1780, 
£4134 in 1781, £741 in 1782, and £718 in 1783; thus in six 
years Friends reported sufferings amounting to £9888 "good 
money silver dollars at 8 shillings" as was specified in 1780 
and 1781. Totals were also given in the epistles sent to London 
Yearly Meeting, but there is no evidence that English Friends 
relieved the sufferings of North Carolina Yearly Meeting. 

The greater part of the £4134 reported in 1781 was for 
military requisitions, and three-fourths of it came from West- 
ern Quarter; that is, Cane Creek, New Garden, and Deep 

Taxes and one fine £ 345:18 

Distress by American army £2148: 8 
Distress by British army £ 675 :18 20 

War came into Western Quarter in 1781. The British Army 
camped on the 13th of March "at the Quakers Meeting be- 
tween the forks of Deep River" to use Cornwallis' phrase. On 
the 14th Cornwallis received intelligence that General Greene 
and General Butler were marching to attack the British troops 
and at daybreak on the 15th he marched to meet the enemy. 21 

M Cane Creek Minutes. 1-5-1780. This advice was also read at other 

20 Minutes of Western Quarterly Meeting, 8-11-1781. 

"General Earl Cornwallis to Lord George Germain, Clark, State Records, 
XVII, 1,002. 

336 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The minutes of Deep River Meeting contain no direct refer- 
ence to this visitation, but on 7-2-1781 six members of the 
meeting were appointed to join two others appointed by the 
Standing Committee "to examine into the necessitous circum- 
stances of Friends that are, or may be reduced to a state of 
Indigence, by the Calamities of war now prevailing, in order 
that they may be relieved where needful" and to "inspect 
into the Sufferings of Friends." 

What Cornwallis had to say about conditions has some 
bearing upon this minute: "This part of the Country is so 
totally destitute of subsistence that forage is not nearer than 
nine miles, and the Soldiers have been two days without 
bread," he wrote after the Battle of Guilford Courthouse. 22 

The British Army passed New Garden Meeting House and 
went on along the old Salisbury Road, the advance guard 
under Lieutenant Colonel Tarleton fell in with a corps of the 
enemy consisting of Lee's Legion and other troops which he 
attacked and defeated 23 and there along the road were buried 
the soldiers who fell in the combat. 24 About noon the two 
armies met at the place soon to be known as Guilford Court- 
house. What New Garden Friends did during the day re- 
mains somewhat of a mystery. According to Carruthers, one 
Thomas White "a very clever and respectable Quaker" find- 
ing that "his house would come within the sweep of the con- 
tending armies" retired into his potato hole under the floor 
where "amid the roar of cannon the clash of arms and the 
fierce conflict of human passion" he could meditate on the 
horrors of war. 25 There are legends of much more activity 

■ Cornwallis to Germain, Clark, State Records. XVII, 1,006-1,007. 

- 3 Cornwallis to Germain, Clark, State Records, XVII, 1,002. 

21 This is supported by local tradition related in Levi Coffin, Reminiscences 
(Cincinnati, Ohio: Robert Clark and Company, 1880), 10, hereinafter cited 
as Coffin, Reminiscences; and by Elmina Foster Wilson, "Reminiscences of 
Childhood" (Manuscript), 9, hereinafter cited as Wilson, "Reminiscences." 
She adds a story of early students from New Garden Boarding School who, 
doubting the story, investigated and were shocked to discover that there 
were bones and buttons from a uniform in one of the low mounds along 
the road. 

23 Interesting Revolutionary Incidents and Sketches of Character Chiefly 
in the Old North State (Philadelphia, Pa: Hayes and Zell, second series, 
1858), 162-163. New Garden Monthly Meeting Records, I, 159, contains the 
family record of Thomas White ( died, May 10, 1832) and his wife Elizabeth 
(died, January 22, 1840, aged 79 years and 2 months) and the Minutes for 
October 26, 1771, mention White as having been received on certificate 
from the Monthly Meeting in "Cartrite" County together with his uncle, 
Isaac White, and his family. This could be the man referred to by Car- 

North Carolina Friends and the Revolution 337 

during the day, but if Quakers became "hunters" there is 
nothing to substantiate the suspicion— New Garden Meeting 
did not disown anyone for bearing arms at that time. Four 
months later (7-28-1781) William Edwards "appeared at 
the meeting and offered a paper condemning his conduct in 
appearing in a war-like manner"; he is the only person men- 
tioned for so doing in the year 1781. 

After the battle, however, Friends were fully occupied in 
the care of the wounded and the burial of the dead. General 
Cornwallis wrote to Colonel Baker that he left about eighty 
of the wounded Americans who fell into his hands at Guil- 
ford Courthouse and transported his own wounded in 
wagons and litters as far as New Garden Meeting House. 
Seventy of the most severely wounded were left there when 
he moved on as quickly as he could. 26 Cornwallis estimated 
the loss of the American forces at two hundred to three 
hundred left dead upon the field and said that the houses in 
a circle of six or eight miles around the battleground were 
filled with the wounded. 27 

General Greene, a Quaker himself until the monthly meet- 
ing at East Greenwich "put him from under the care of the 
meeting" for attending a military parade 28 addressed a letter 
to the New Garden Quakers. "I know of no order of men 
more remarkable for the exercise of humanity and benevol- 
ence; and perhaps no instance ever had a higher claim upon 
you than the unfortunate wounded now in your neighbor- 
hood," he said. He also referred to the general belief that 
Friends were considered to be enemies of the independence, 
adding, "I entertain other sentiments both of your principles 
and wishes. I respect you as a people, and shall always be 
ready to protect you from every violence and oppression 
which the confusion of the times afford." Then he warned 
them that the British were deceiving them both "by flatter- 
ing you with conquest and exciting your apprehension re- 
specting religious liberty" and said: "There is but one way 

29 Clark, State Records, XVII, 1,006-1,007. 

87 Clark, State Records, XVII, 1,005. 

88 George Washington Greene, The Life of Nathanael Greene (New York: 
George Putnam and Son, 1867), 69-70. 

338 The North Carolina Historical Review 

to put a speedy end to the extremities of war, which is, for the 
people to be united." 

To this Friends replied: 

Friend Greene: We received thine, being dated third month, 
26th day, 1781. Agreeable to thy request we shall do all that lies 
in our power, although this may inform that from our present 
situation we are ill able to assist as much as we would be glad 
to do, as the American have lain much upon us, and of late the 
British have plundered and entirely broken up many among us, 
which renders it hard, and there is at our meeting house in New 
Garden upward of one hundred now living, that have no means 
of provisions except what hospitality the neighborhood affords 
them, which we look upon as a hardship on us, if not an imposi- 
tion; but notwithstanding all this we are determined, by the 
assistance of Providence, while we have anything among us, 
that the distressed both at the Courthouse and here shall have 
part of it with us. As we have as yet made no distinction as to 
party and their cause — as we have none to commit our cause to 
but God alone, but hold it the duty of true Christians, at all 
times to assist the distressed. 

Guilford Courthouse, North Carolina, Third Month, 30, 1781. 29 

Friends buried the dead under the great oak in their grave- 
yard, cared for the injured in their homes and in their meet- 
ing house. When in 1791 they built a new and larger meeting 
house suitable for the use of the Yearly Meeting, they used 
the blood stained boards from which the rude beds for the 
soldiers had been made, and in the years that followed these 
bloodstains taught a lesson on war. Elmina Foster Wilson 
(1827-1917) recalled them when she wrote her reminis- 
cences 30 and a visiting Friend present in 1869 spoke of "hav- 
ing a good opportunity of examining the bloodstained boards 
of the ceiling, the finger marks distinctly showing then and 

29 Both letters were printed in The American Friend, II (1895), 307, and 
The Friends Intelligencer, LII, (1895), 4, with an introductory note by 
William H. Snowden of Fairfax, Virginia, saying that he had read them 
during his research and felt they would interest Friends. Benson J. Lossing, 
Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution (New York: Harper and Brothers, 
2 volumes, 1855), 406, mentions Greene's letter but not the reply. There is 
no reference to either in Minutes of New Garden Meeting. 

30 Wilson, "Reminiscences," 8. 

North Carolina Friends and the Revolution 339 

there where wounded soldiers during the Revolution made 
the sad signature of war." 31 

New Garden Monthly Meeting met as usual on the 31st 
of 3rd month 1781. There were undoubtedly wounded 
soldiers in the meeting house and in many homes in the 
neighborhood, but there is no reference direct or indirect to 
the calamities of war in the minutes. Meeting convened as 
usual, prepared two certificates of removal, disowned a mem- 
ber for marrying out of unity, complained of another for 
taking too much strong drink, quarreling and using bad 
language, accepted a paper from a member condemning his 
evil conduct, appointed two committees and a treasurer, and 
adjourned. Richard Williams, one of the first settlers in the 
community, died 5-6-1781 of smallpox contracted from a 
wounded British officer he was caring for in his home 32 but 
the cause of his death was not recorded in the minutes. 

After the battle at Guilford Courthouse terminated in a 
disastrous victory Cornwallis moved south. He camped with 
his army about thirty miles away at Dixon's Mill close to Cane 
Creek Meeting House and made Simon Dixon's stone house 
his headquarters. 83 Simon Dixon himself, whose reputation 
as a Regulator was well known, "deemed it prudent to leave 
home while the British Army was in possession of his house 
and his premises/' The soldiers burned his fences for fire- 
wood, and rounded up cattle and sheep to kill for food— 
seventy-five cattle and two hundred and fifty sheep, says 
Thomas Dixon. 34 There is a strong local tradition perpetuated 
by many retellings that the meat was cut up in the meeting 
house itself and that the old benches used for many years 
afterward showed the marks of cutting knives and axes and 

"John Collins, "Among the Friends in North Carolina, 1870" (manu- 
script), 91-92. 

32 Coffin, Reminiscences, 10. Richard Williams was Levi Coffin's grand- 
father. The home of Coffin's other grandfather, William Coffin, which was 
on the adjoining farm, was used as a hospital for American soldiers, he 

33 Colonel David Fanning in his "Narrative" speaks of visiting Cornwallis 
at Dixon's Mill a few days after the battle at Guilford Courthouse, Clark, 
State Records, XXII, 192; and Thomas C. Dixon, Genealogy of the Dixon 
Family (Guilford College: Pearson Printing Company, n.d.), 6-7, says that 
Cornwallis and the officers made Simon Dixon's rock dwelling their head- 
quarters. This reference will hereinafter be cited as Dixon, Genealogy of 
the Dixon Family. 

84 Dixon, Genealogy of the Dixon Family, 7. 

340 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the stains of blood, but again the minutes of the meeting 
indicate nothing of the trials of the times. 

British soldiers who died in camp were buried in the 
Friends' graveyard and in 1941— a hundred and sixty years 
later— a monument was erected in memory of the fallen "Brit- 
ish troops." 

In September of the same year, 1781, a Tory army consist- 
ing of Loyalists under Fanning and Scotchmen under Mc- 
Neil and McDougal was surprised at Lindley's Mill on Cane 
Creek. Fanning's account of casualties lists twenty-seven 
loyalists, twenty-four rebels; killed sixty loyalists and ninety 
rebels seriously wounded; says Fanning, "the inhabitants of 
Cane Creek buried the rebels. 35 With the large Quaker popu- 
lation in the Cane Creek area, there could easily have been 
Quaker assistance after the battle, but no details survive. 

A brief survey of the official advices in the "present commo- 
tions," the loss of members who felt that "they must bear 
arms in a warlike manner," the difficulties with the affirma- 
tion of fidelity, taxes and other financial sufferings, the care 
of the wounded and burial of the dead after the battle— all 
these details that were recorded are but a small part of the 
history of Friends as they struggled to live according to their 
testimony in troubled times. 

35 Clark, State Records, XXII, 207-208. 


By Ina W. Van Noppen* 

Part III 

A guide book to Northwestern North Carolina published 
in 1878 pictured Salisbury as a "venerable mother sitting with 
her children comfortably settled around her." Located at a 
crossroads of westward and southward travel, it had en- 
joyed over a century of progress; as the county seat of Rowan 
County which had once contained all of Western North Caro- 
lina except that part occupied by the Cherokee Indians, it 
had been the mecca of lawyers and judges in that area. Judge 
Richard Henderson, Daniel Boone, and Andrew Jackson, 
each of whom played a vital part in speeding the growth of 
our nation, had spent their formative years there. Fine sub- 
stantial homes, set back on lawns comprising as much as a 
city block in some cases, with beautifully planned gardens, 
faced upon streets colonnaded by splendid spreading elm 
trees. These homes bespoke a culture that had been genera- 
tions building. As for industry, there were two newspapers, 
a bank, two iron foundries, a gas works, and several cotton 
mills. 142 

Salisbury was still a crossroads city; the north-south rail- 
road passed from Greensboro through Salisbury to Charlotte, 
and at Salisbury a line ran west to Statesville and had been 
completed to a point six miles from Morganton. Salisbury 
being a railroad junction, its people saw many soldiers pass- 
ing through, and felt a responsibility for their welfare. Dur- 
ing one month in the winter of 1864, more than 1,700 soldiers 

* Dr. Ina W. Van Noppen is a Professor of History, Appalachian State 
Teachers College, Boone. 

142 Fernando G. Curtland, Southern Heroes (Poughkeepsie, New York: 
Privately printed, 1897), 166, hereinafter cited as Curtland, Southern 


342 The North Carolina Historical Review 

passed through the town, many of whom were disabled, others 
on furlough. 143 

Salisbury was full of hospitals for the sick and wounded 
soldiers that were brought there by rail; Murphy's Hall, 
Barker's Factory, and Wayside Hospitals supplemented the 
post and general hospitals. As the need grew, fifteen build- 
ings for hospital purposes were built in 1864, and in 1865 the 
churches were being taken over for use in caring for the ill 
and wounded. 144 

To transfer disabled soldiers from trains to hospitals an 
ambulance corps was organized; members, consisting of older 
men and those not in active armed service, were organized 
in three shifts; and when the bell in the Presbyterian Church 
sounded a certain signal, the members of the shift on call 
were to hasten to the railway station with their conveyances 
to await an approaching troop train, the advance notice hav- 
ing been given to the station master by telegraph. 145 

A Soldiers' Aid Society was organized in almost every com- 
munity in Piedmont North Carolina. These organizations 
collected bandages and supplies of all kinds to be used in 
hospitals and to be distributed to soldiers at the front. The 
Rowan Society in Salisbury served as a clearing house for the 
work of women in the counties: Burke, Cabarrus, Caldwell, 
Catawba, Davidson, and Davie. 

The Reverend A. W. Mangum wrote: "Salisbury, where 
I resided during much of the war, affords a specimen of 
every kind of war history, from a knitting society to a bat- 
tle." 146 

As late as April 10, 1865, the Soldiers' Aid Society and Am- 
bulance Corps of Salisbury appealed to the people to send 
supplies in: 

143 Carolina Watchman (Salisbury), February 8, 1864, hereinafter cited 
as Carolina Watchman. This reference is to the weekly issue; a daily issue 
was also published, the Daily Carolina Watchman. 

144 Carolina Watchman, February 8, 1864, through April 12, 1865. The 
hospitals were referred to in almost every issue during the war years. 
Copies of a number of the newspapers were examined through the courtesy 
of Miss Mary Henderson, Chapel Hill. 

146 The Carolina Watchman contained numerous references to these ac- 

146 A. W. Mangum to David L. Swain, July 11, 1866, David L. Swain 

Stoneman's Last Raid 343 

Let the ministers and members of the neighboring churches 
form assistant Societies, to collect and forward refreshments 
and bandages! 

Let physicians lend their intelligence and zeal! 

Let each and all do what they can and do it without delay. . . . 

Send meal, flour, potatoes, butter, lard, eggs, chickens, hams, 
dried fruits, salads, milk, onions, pickles, sour krout . . . any- 
thing that will nourish and strengthen and relieve. Any kind 
of wine, whisky or brandy, will be very acceptable. Bandages 
and soap, in large quantities, must be had. . . , 147 

Every person who made a donation for the Army had the 
satisfaction of having his name and the amount of his con- 
tribution printed in the Daily Carolina Watchman (Salis- 
bury ) . 

In March, 1863, the Confederate Government decided to 
establish an ordnance work at Salisbury, and Major Addison 
Gorgas Brenizer was placed in command. It was designated 
as an arsenal of construction. At the close of the war 240 
men were employed in the plant; they were also organized as 
a guard and could be called into active service if needed. 
Major Brenizer had difficulty in obtaining materials for 
the manufacture of arms. Advertisements appeared in news- 
papers of the region asking for scrap iron, old brass, copper, 
lead, and zinc. Old rope, bagging, waste cordage, and any 
kind of old hemp were in demand, to be mixed with raw 
cotton for the manufacture of cartridge paper. Poplar and 
black walnut lumber were purchased, the latter for gunstocks. 
All of the above were paid for in money or by jobbing work. 148 

To supplement the work of the men at the arsenal, sixty 
women and girls were employed for making smaller car- 
tridges; also, advertisements appeared regularly asking per- 
sons who had Negroes to hire as laborers at the Arsenal to 
contact Major Brenizer. 149 

Salisbury was headquarters for the Commissary of Sub- 
sistence of the Fifth District of North Carolina, of which 
Major Abraham Myers was Chief Commissary. It was his 
duty to procure subsistence for troops, and he constantly 

147 Carolina Watchman, April 10, 1865. 

148 Carolina Watchman, March 4, June 29, October 6, 1863. 

149 Carolina Watchman, October 6, 1863. 

344 The North Carolina Historical Review 

urged the civilian population to send flour, meal, bacon, salt 
pork, and molasses, for which he agreed to pay market rates. 150 
Persons possessing a surplus of these commodities were for- 
bidden to sell them for speculative purposes, under a penalty 
of one hundred dollars, and for neglecting to pay the penalty 
ten days in the calaboose. 151 A schedule of prices had been 
fixed by the Commissioners of Appraisement for the State of 
North Carolina, to cover every conceivable commodity, as 
well as for labor, teams, and wagons. These prices were paid 
by the Chief Commissary and by impressment agents. 

It was the duty of J. S. McCubbins, Commissioner of Sup- 
plies for Soldiers' Families, to procure such supplies and dis- 
tribute them. McCubbins offered to exchange cotton yarn 
and sheeting, grain and grass scythes, or specie, for corn, 
wheat, and flour. 152 He had a regular schedule of days on 
which he met the soldiers' families in the different communi- 
ties of his district once each month, to give them their allot- 
ments. 153 

It was a matter of great regret to the people of Salisbury 
that the Confederate Government decided to locate a military 
prison in the town. The prison was described by a Federal 
Army Surgeon imprisoned there for three months in the 
summer of 1862. 

It is quite a little village ... on the site of an obsolete cotton 
factory which some deluded capitalist once tried to establish 
here. A high palisade fence encloses 15 or 20 acres, the large 
factory building, overseer's former residence, 3 little log houses, 
3 small brick ditto, & a two story temporary wooden structure 
used as an hospital of which there is much need. Within, & about 
the centre of the large enclosure is a second containing an acre 
or two perhaps, 'a tumble down shanty or two: in which pen 
are confined citizens under various accusations affecting their 
loyalty. They are never allowed in the larger park & we cannot 
see them. Who they are, or how many we do not know ; but their 
numbers are constantly being added to, & the officers we find 
here, tell us that dead ones are brought out almost daily. Poor 

150 Carolina Watchman, March 13, 1865. 

151 Carolina Watchman, October 13, 1864. 
™ Carolina Watchman, April 12, 1865. 

158 Carolina Watchman, January 28, 1865. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 345 

fellows ; no hope of exchange to keep them alive. . . . Ridiculous 
guard lines, of course. 154 

In the month of March, 1862, there were 1,427 prisoners, 
of whom 251 had been under medical treatment, and during 
that month only one had died. During that quarter of the 
year there had been 509 cases of sickness and three deaths. 

When the cartel for the exchange of prisoners was agreed 
upon by commissioners of the two governments, all prisoners 
were exchanged after remaining at the prison only a short 
while, leaving Confederate convicts, political prisoners, and 
army deserters as permanent inmates. 

Until the fall of 1864 the prison does not seem to have 
been a chamber of horrors. Citizens of Salisbury remembered 
hearing the singing of the prisoners, and sometimes they went 
out to the prison park to watch baseball games. 155 

Dr. Grey complained of a scarcity of food, but he enjoyed 
a great deal of freedom, playing poker, "poker without money 
is much like watered milk," and a little drinking, "it is a 
mystery to me where the grog comes from," and "stories a 
little 'lushy.' '"' He enjoyed reading, when he could find books, 
but he remarked, "The 'Old North' [State] has never been 
noted for its literary tastes and it is said that several of the 
Commissioned officers of our Guards are unable to read or 
write," hence they had few books. 156 

A Mrs. Johnston came to the gate frequently with some- 
thing for the prisoners to eat. As she had a son in the Confed- 
erate service she was above suspicion. 157 

As for the strength of the fence, Dr. Grey described it as 
flimsy and said: 

We could easily carry this place so great is our number — with- 
out arms & without the loss of many lives; but to what end? 

154 Charles Carroll Gray Diary, Southern Historical Collection, University 
of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill, hereinafter cited as Charles Carroll 
Gray Diary. 

155 A. W. Mangum, "A History of the Salisbury, North Carolina, Confed- 
erate Prison," Mangum Papers, Southern Historical Collection, hereinafter 
cited as Mangum, "Prison." This is a typescript copied from an article in 
the Daily Charlotte Observer, May 28, June 4, 1893, which was published 
also in the Publications of the Southern History Association, III (Washing- 
ton, D. C, 1899), 307-336. 

^Charles Carroll Gray Diary. 
157 Charles Carroll Gray Diary. 

346 The North Carolina Historical Review 

We are so far from our lines & in a strange country; that we 
could not get away, & it would be a sacrifice, barren of result. 158 

On July 4, 1862, the prisoners observed Independence Day. 
They marched in a parade to the grove "about a stone's 
throw, but what is 4th July without a procession?", listened to 
the reading of the Declaration of Independence by one pris- 
oner, a prayer and Washington's Farewell Address by others, 
two original poems, and singing. The grove was one in which 
Comwallis' army had camped when he was unable to pursue 
General Greene because of the swollen Yadkin. "Time brings 
about queer changes." 

In the afternoon there were various sports such as sack 
and foot races, a wheelbarrow race, and a potential "pig 
race" which did not materialize because the "Cochin" bor- 
rowed for the occasion from the Confederates "would not run 
for Yankees." 

The customary baseball match was played, a fine one on 
this occasion. 159 The Salisbury Prison is said to be the place 
where baseball was first played in North Carolina. 160 Dr. 
Grey said that a lot of money ( theoretically ) was staked on 
this particular match, and that he lost a set of Kingsley's 
novels. "The cheers given in the grove were of a sort never 
before heard in Salisbury, I opine." m 

About the last of September in 1864 the Federal Govern- 
ment refused to observe the cartel for the exchange of pris- 
oners. Part of the strategy being used was to reduce the num- 
ber of soldiers available to the Confederacy, the Union having 
plenty of replacements for its captured ones. The number of 
prisoners at Salisbury increased to 5,000 and then to 10,000. 
It was necessary to increase the guard, and senior and junior 
reserves were utilized. There was a scarcity of tents, as only 
200 were available. There were no tools, teams, lumber, nor 
guards to be employed in constructing cabins. It was dif- 
ficult for Captain James M. Goodman, quartermaster of the 

158 Charles Carroll Gray Diary. 

159 Charles Carroll Gray Diary. 

100 Archibald Henderson, "Salisbury Prison Scene of Cruelty During War," 
Salisbury Evening Post, April 24, 1937, hereinafter cited as Henderson, 
"Salisbury Prison." 

1<n Charles Carroll Gray Diary. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 347 

prison, to obtain food for this great number of men. Fuel was 
needed to warm the prisoners, as winter was coming on. 
Goodman advertised: "Wood! Wood; I wish to purchase a 
large amount of wood." 162 A train ran regularly on the West- 
ern North Carolina Railroad, and a detail of prisoners was 
sent to load and unload the fuel. 

Thirteen thousand daily rations were needed. Mills for 
miles around were used for grinding meal, and supplies were 
impressed from the passing trains. 163 

Robert L. Drummond, imprisoned at Salisbury in 1864, 
described conditions at that time: 

When brought to the prison, each one hundred men were 
given a certain number of tents, which, by the closest crowding, 
would not accommodate more than half that number, the re- 
mainder had their choice: to remain out of doors or dig holes 
in the ground in which to stay. In company with four others of 
my regiment, ... we went into the ground. . . . We built the 
tenement with a piece of broken case knife and the hands that 
nature had given us. . . . 

We five boys would sit in the darkness and gloom through the 
long evenings and talk of every thing but home (a forbidden 
subject) . 

Being weak, they could not sit up long, and at a certain time 
I would put them to bed by causing the strongest of the four to 
lie next to the wall of our subterranean chamber, then pack the 
others on their sides in close order, then place our single piece 
of blanket over them. I constantly kicked my feet against the 
ground to keep them from freezing. 164 

An especially bitter denunciation of the prison is found in 
the following description. 

The guard was composed of boys from twelve to sixteen years 
of age, with a few men too old for field service. The prisoners 
complained mostly of these boys, who seemed very careless of 
human life, and often shot prisoners ten or fifteen feet from the 
dead-line ! 

. . . Reduced as they [the prisoners] were by starvation and 
exposure, they were sometimes overcome by the cold nights, and, 
in the morning, because motionless and helpless, were taken for 

1<s Daily Carolina Watchman, October 13, 1864. 

163 Mangum, "Prison." 

184 Quoted in Henderson, "Salisbury Prison." 

348 The North Carolina Historical Review 

dead. Their clothing was taken off, though sometimes the under- 
garments were left, any valuables about them were appropriated, 
and the body was put in the deadhouse, to be taken away when 
the dead-wagon should come for its load of corpses, which was 
every morning. . . . The custom of handling the bodies was rude 
in the extreme, and is another illustration of the demoralizing 
and brutalizing effects of the war system. As the dead-wagon 
was driven into the yard each morning, the driver called loudly : 
"Bring out your dead." Two men grasped each a hand and a foot 
of the supposed corpse, often swinging it to obtain united force, 
and then threw it, as we have seen dressed hogs thrown into 
a wagon . . . ; with a hook . . . the driver . . . would hook the body 
under the jaw and drag it into place in the wagon. The load 
was taken to a trench a quarter of a mile away on the hillside. 
Here a ditch had been dug, six to seven feet wide, and the 
emaciated bodies, with no tender hands, no casket, no winding 
sheet, were placed crosswise in the ditch side by side. Others 
were placed on top of these, and thus tier upon tier was formed 
until the ditch was nearly filled, and then they were rudely 
covered from the sight of men. 

. . . The food . . . was usually Indian cornbread and soup. 
The meal was made of maize, ground with the cob and unsifted. 
The soup sometimes contained vegetables, and the beef, if any 
was issued, was of the poorest possible kind. On some occasions 
the prisoners were not given a particle of food for three or four 
days together. At other times one pint of this meal and two 
ounces of bacon (if there was any) per man were dispensed 
daily. The men had no means for cooking it. . . . 165 

Men living under these conditions were willing to do al- 
most anything to escape; among the prisoners were a number 
of foreign born, to whom deliverance was offered in the form 
of service in the Confederate Army. These recruits were com- 
monly called "Galvanized Yankees." 

Jefferson Davis later said that persistent and liberal efforts 
were made to secure the relief of the captives in Confederate 
prisons, even to sending General Robert E. Lee with a flag 
of truce to interview General Grant on the subject of the 
suffering and death of Federal prisoners held by the Con- 
federacy, and to urge in the name of humanity the observ- 
ance of the cartel. The appeal was turned down. Davis con- 


Curtland, Southern Heroes, 166-174. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 349 

It appears from the reports of the United States War Depart- 
ment that though we had sixty thousand more Federal prisoners 
than they had of Confederates, six thousand more of Confed- 
erates died in northern prisons than died of Federals in southern 
prison. 166 

Governor Zebulon B. Vance wrote in November, 1865, that 
he had been concerned about conditions at the Salisbury pris- 
on, and after getting the legislature to approve the sending of 
clothing to the prisoners, he had written to the Richmond au- 
thorities ( to Judge Ould or the Secretary of War ) and asked 
them to apply to the Washington Government to know 
whether the arrangements contemplated could be effected. 
He also wrote to General Bradley Johnson, in command of 
the prison at Salisbury, and offered him the clothing. General 
Johnson replied by sending the Governor an exhibit of the 
amount of clothing and provisions he was then receiving from 
the North for the prisoners and said that he believed he would 
need nothing but tents, which the State did not have to send. 
Almost immediately thereafter the prisoners were exchanged, 
which was the reason why no clothing was sent. 167 

It seems not to have been generally known that in Febru- 
ary, 1865, the prisoners, except those too weak or lame for 
transfer, were evacuated from the Salisbury prison. A letter 
written by Elbert Sherrill of Salisbury, February 22, 1865, de- 
scribed the removal, 

. . . All the prisoners, white and black, left here to-day. All that 
were able had to march on foot. There was a string of Yankee 
prisoners and negroes about 2% or 3 miles long. They were very 
cheerful and glad to leave and I think about five hundred [Con- 
federates] went with them. ... I feel ... if old Sherman ever 
gets to Salisbury I would not wonder at his destroying every- 
thing in the place because of wickedness, for I do think it is a 
very wicked place indeed. I see so much of it daily, both men 
and women are very corrupt indeed. I mean, generally speaking, 
there are some . . . nice people here, but they are few in number. 168 

™ Landmark (Statesville), February 15, 1876. 

187 Zebulon B. Vance to Cornelia Phillips Spencer, November 1, 1865, Cor- 
nelia Phillips Spencer Papers, Southern Historical Collection, hereinafter 
cited as Spencer Papers. 

168 Quoted from Lewis A. Brown, "Prisoners Evacuated from Salisbury 
Just Before Stoneman Terror Came," Salisbury Evening Post, May 23, 1948. 

350 The North Carolina Historical Review 

About 500 prisoners, later confined in the prison, were mov- 
ed to Charlotte just before Stoneman reached Salisbury. One 
objective of Stoneman was not realized: he did not liberate 
the prisoners at Salisbury. 

In the Salisbury National Cemetery which is on the site 
where many of those who died in the prison were buried, one 
may read on metal plaques the following testimony that the 
hardship, suffering, bitterness, and acrimony of the war are 
buried with the dead: 

On fame's eternal camping ground, 

Their silent tents are spread; 

And guards with solemn round, 

The bivouac of the dead. 

No more shall war cry sever, 

Or the winding river be red ; 

They banish our anger forever 

When they laurel the graves of our dead. 

Under the sod and the dew, 

Awaiting the judgment day; 

Under the violets the Blue, 

Under the lilacs the Gray. 

Salisbury was in a state of near-panic in late February of 
1865. Sherman was expected to move from Columbia to Char- 
lotte and Salisbury. Refugees from Columbia had scattered, 
many finding havens in Charlotte, others in Lincolnton and 
Salisbury, filling to capacity the unoccupied rooms in the 
homes until, "I have my house full of company," was a fre- 
quent complaint. One lady said: "I have nearly exhausted all 
I have to eat— my eggs but few left— and very little flour— I 
feel worn out. . . . My house is a perfect hotel . . . having but 
one room now as a parlor. . . ." 169 

When orders came to move all government property from 
Charlotte and Salisbury, many of the visitors moved on. Citi- 
zens began burying things that they wished to save. 170 One 
joke was enjoyed at the expense of a Mrs. Meroney. By bury- 
ing her sugar and salt she lost it all— the rains reached it. 

169 Mrs. T. G. Haughton to Mrs. A. Henderson, April (?), 1865, letter in 
possession of Miss Mary Henderson. 

170 A. W. Mangum to Lucy Mangum, February 24, 1865, Mangum Papers, 
Southern Historical Collection, hereinafter cited as Mangum Papers. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 351 

Mrs. John Summerell had a slave make a deep trench, in 
which to plant grape vine cuttings which she had rooted. Re- 
turning to the house, she came back with an apron full of de- 
crepit old shoes, which, she told the Negro, would make the 
cuttings grow better. She put the shoes at the bottom of the 
trench, then placed the cuttings, and had the slave fill in the 
trench. Hidden in the shoes was the family silver. Her hus- 
band, Dr. Summerell, gave his watch to old Mrs. Kress at the 
County Poorhouse, to keep for him. She was told to attach it 
to the inside of the waistband of her full dress-skirt. No one 
ever dreamed that Mrs. Kress had anything of value. 171 

General P. G. T. Beauregard, commander of the Confed- 
erate forces in North and South Carolina, had been replaced 
by General Joseph E. Johnston on February 22, 1865. Beaure- 
gard was to serve under Johnston to assist in concentrating 
all available forces and driving Sherman back. On Feb- 
ruary 23, in Charlotte, Beauregard issued an appeal to the 
citizens to come to the defense of their region. 

To delay the advance of the enemy, until our troops can be 
massed in strength sufficient to crush them, I appeal to all good 
and patriotic citizens in the region of country threatened by the 
enemy to turn out in full force all available labor, with axes, 
spades, and mattocks, to destroy and obstruct roads leading to- 
ward Charlotte from the south, commencing first along the roads 
leading to Landsford, and other crossings between that point 
and the railroad bridge. ... As far as possible the negroes will 
be employed at points not distant from their homes. They will 
be protected by guards, and assisted by the Home Guards of the 
otaxe. . . . 

This appeal was endorsed by Governor Vance, who urged 
North Carolinians to comply. Three days passed, and still 
General Sherman's intentions were not clear. General Beau- 
regard knew that the Union forces were at Rocky Mount and 
Peay's Ferry on the Catawba, and it could not be determined 
whether they would advance upon Fayetteville or on Char- 

171 Hope Summerell Chamberlain, This Was Home (Chapel Hill, The 
University of North Carolina Press, 1938), 116. 

1Ta Alfred Roman, The Military Operations of General Beauregard (New 
York. Harper and Brothers, 2 volumes, 1884), II, 646, hereinafter cited 
as Roman, General Beauregard. 

352 The North Carolina Historical Review 

lotte. He directed General William J. Hardee at Cheraw to 
have his engineers repair the roads and bridges on the route 
from Fayetteville to Salisbury, including, especially, a new 
bridge across Rocky River, so that supplies might be sent in 
either direction to prevent their falling into the hands of the 
enemy. He directed General Bradley Johnson at Salisbury to 
be prepared to move everything valuable at a moment's no- 
tice. 173 Movement of supplies by rail at this time required 
much loading and unloading, since there was no standard 
gauge for the rails. 

Sherman entered Fayetteville on March 11; his advance 
was contested by General Johnston. Salisbury breathed 
a sigh of relief. It was to be spared. Johnston's chief engage- 
ment with Sherman was a costly battle at Bentonville on 
March 20; after this Johnston camped at Raleigh and Sher- 
man at Goldsboro. 

Governor Vance began transferring the State records and 
military stores which he had accumulated in Raleigh, send- 
ing them to Graham, Greensboro, and Salisbury. The stockade 
of the prison was then used as a storehouse for Confederate 

Meanwhile the Piedmont was suffering from very heavy 
rains. The Reverend A. W. Mangum, in Salisbury, wrote to 
his sister on March 20: 

The mud here has been enormous. It together with the clouds 
and rains is enough to make anyone sigh for a quiet country 
home where he can get out of view of this sea of mud and water. 
Besides our excitement has been almost perpetual. The news 
comes in constantly — rumor after rumor — from various direc- 
tions. 174 

The troops that had made up John B. Hood's army in Ten- 
nessee had, after their defeat at Nashville, been assigned to 
Lieutenant General Richard Taylor, and then at the end of 
January they were directed to South Carolina to obstruct 
Sherman's march through that State, but they did not arrive 
in time. In March they were making their way into North 

173 Roman, General Beauregard, 658. 

171 A. W. Mangum to Lucy Mangum, February 24, 1865, Mangum Papers. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 353 

Carolina to combine with Johnston's troops. Cheatham's 
Corps passed through Salisbury in March, and Featherstone, 
of S. D. Lee's command, arrived there on April 1. 

On March 30 Beauregard received a wire from General 
Joseph E. Johnston, saying that General Robert E. Lee ex- 
pected movements from Thomas in Tennessee, and asking 
Beauregard to assume command of Western Virginia and 
Tennessee. Beauregard declined to leave his post as second 
in command to Johnston. A few days later General R. E. Lee 
directed Beauregard to assume command of all troops from 
Western Virginia and Western North Carolina within his 
reach, and he assumed this responsibility. 175 In an effort to 
utilize his troops to the best advantage, Beauregard did a 
great deal of traveling by rail. He was in Salisbury on April 1 
when Featherstone arrived. Two days earlier a man named 
Macrae had arrived from Lenoir reporting a raid by a party 
of about 4,000 men, he supposed to be Stoneman's com- 
mand. 176 Featherstone had two brigades in Salisbury and ex- 
pected a cavalry brigade the following day. Beauregard di- 
rected him to fortify the bridge across the Yadkin about eight 
miles from Salisbury, and to hold it. 177 

New reports began to pour in to General Beauregard that 
Stoneman was moving on Greensboro or Danville, and he 
ordered Featherstone's troops to the former town, planning 
to send others to Danville if they appeared to be needed. 

A young lady in Salisbury on April 3 wrote: 

. . . there is very little to tell you except that the people are 
looking for Stoneman to come here; his object seems to be to 
burn the bridge as the latest news was that he was going in that 
direction, they are now fortifying it. ... I have just heard that 
the Yankees were only thirteen miles from Mr. Harston's yester- 
day. [The Hairston plantation is in Davie County.] I suppose 
there is some truth in it for they have taken all the troops from 
here over the river — I don't know what they mean leaving Salis- 
bury so unprotected but I suppose Generals know best. General 
Beauregard was here yesterday so I guess it was his orders. . . . 178 

175 Roman, General Beauregard, 382, 385. 

178 Roman, General Beauregard, 658. 

1Tr Roman, General Beauregard, 659. 

178 Mollie Cochran to John S. Henderson, April 3, 1865, Miss Cochran was 
a house guest of Mrs. Archibald Henderson, II, and wrote the letter to her 
cousin John who was in the Confederate Army. 

354 The North Carolina Historical Review 

By the time Stoneman's work in Virginia was finished, at- 
tention had been completely diverted from Salisbury. On 
April 9, Jefferson Davis, then in Danville, asked General 
Beauregard to "make the greatest possible despatch" in com- 
ing to Danville, as he was certain that Thomas's army was 
coming against that place at a very early period. Beauregard 
was on the point of going when he learned that General Lee 
had surrendered and that President Davis was on his way to 

The Daily Carolina Watchman, dated April 12 but obvious- 
ly published a day earlier, reviewed the various rumors that 
had come to the towns: 

Rumors were very abundant and extravagant yesterday morn- 
ing on our streets. They produced a rather feverish state of the 
public mind throughout the day. We were gratified to learn from 
what seemed to be a reliable source, that there were no raiders 
in the mountains in sufficient force to justify much alarm from 
that direction. It is now said that the force seen at the Blue Ridge 
consists of deserters and tories about 400 in number [Kirk's 
Regiment], not negroes, two regiments strong. That they are 
fortifying the Ridge, and evidently mean to assume a permanent 
position, from whence they may send out marauding parties into 
the country below. 

There was also a rumor that Stoneman and his men were at 
Salem, or near there, on Monday, and not on the Yadkin in the 
more western counties. Indeed, we hear of Stoneman at several 
different points, making him rather ubiquitous for an ordinary 
being. Doubtless, he is hovering some where not very distant 
North of the Railroad between this point and Danville, seeking 
an opportunity to cut it. 

But the most extravagant of all the many rumors was that 
Gen. Lee and his staff had been captured. 

P. S. Since the above was put in type, a train from the head 
of the Western road arrived and brought a news report of the 
approach of raiders. We wish those about the head of the road 
would send us authentic news. 

Also, we have a report that Stoneman has cut the N. C. Rail- 
road at High Point. The telegraph is working no farther than 
Lexington, and the mail train due here at 2 o'clock has not yet 
arrived. Gen. Ferguson's Brigade of Cavalry passed through this 
place Monday morning, and must have camped near Lexington, 
Monday night. It is very likely that they will encounter Stone- 
man's party. . . . 

Stoneman's Last Raid 355 

At 4% o'clock P.M., yesterday, a courier arrived here from 
Huntsville, in Yadkin County, to bring news of a small force of 
Yankees entering that place yesterday morning at 6 o'clock. 179 

At noon on April 12 news reached General Beauregard's 
headquarters in Greensboro, that the "mail-rider" was cap- 
tured by the enemy at or near Shallow Ford, and then re- 
leased. He reported that Stoneman's main body had camped 
near Shallow Ford that night, on the west bank of the Yadkin. 
General Bradley Johnson, who had been sent with the troops 
from Salisbury to defend Greensboro against the anticipated 
attack, was ordered to return to the former place immediate- 
ly, but his progress was delayed by the breaks in the railroad. 
Hence, when Stoneman reached Salisbury, it was practically 

General Stoneman's official report briefly described the en- 
counter two and half miles from Salisbury behind Grant's 
Creek on April 12. He said he ordered a general charge along 
the entire line, the result being the capture of fourteen pieces 
of artillery, and 1,364 prisoners, including 53 officers; the re- 
mainder of the force, being scattered, managed to escape to 
the woods. 180 

General Alvan Gillem's account is much more detailed. 
With Colonel John K. Miller's Bridgade in advance, the 
command came to the South Yadkin, a deep and rapid stream 
with but few fords. A few Confederates guarded on the north 
side of the stream but they offered no resistance to the invad- 
ing horde. One fourth mile south of the stream the road fork- 
ed, an old road and a new one both leading to Salisbury. The 
main column stuck to the western or new road, while one bat- 
talion of Kentucky cavalry was sent to create a diversion at 
Grant's Creek, which both roads crossed, two miles from 
Salisbury. The advance guard reached the creek just at day- 
break. Artillery and infantry on the Salisbury side of the 
bridge fired upon the invaders as they approached. The guard 
had removed the flooring from two spans of the bridge and 
piled the boards on the south side. The Union troops could 


Daily Carolina Watchman, April 12, 1865. 
Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 324. 

356 The North Carolina Historical Review 

hear trains leaving Salisbury on both the road to Charlotte 
and the one to Morganton. 

General Stoneman divided his forces, sending 100 men of 
the Eleventh Kentucky to ford Grant's Creek two miles and 
a half above the bridge, cut the railroad, and capture a train 
if possible, after which they were to get in the rear of Salis- 
bury to annoy the enemy. The Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry 
was to furnish 100 men to cross the stream still lower, and 
Lieutenant Colonel Smith with a party of dismounted men 
crossed even further down. Detachments of the Eighth and 
Thirteenth Cavalry relaid the floor of the bridge, and Colonel 
Miller charged across, followed by Brigadier General Sim- 
eon B. Brown. The forces on the Confederate side retreated; 
as the Union forces pursued, the Confederates scattered, and 
many concealed themselves in the forest. Miller's Brigade was 
sent to destroy the railroad eastward, and Major Hambright, 
provost-marshal, and Major Barnes of Gillem's staff, secured 
the prisoners and made a careful check of the location and 
quantity of stores in the town. 181 

A resident wrote: "His [Stoneman's] men, seven thousand 
strong, were riding into Salisbury by every dirt road that 
stemmed from the Blue Ridge Mountains, to attack General 
Beauregard's troops quartered in the town." 182 This state- 
ment illustrates the complete bewilderment of residents of 
Salisbury; they thought the troops were coming from the 
Blue Ridge. Civilians in other areas were equally mystified 
when the raiders appeared among them. 

Another resident wrote the following account of the bat- 
tle which started at Grant's Creek: 

As to the fight two miles and a half from Salisbury — 'tis all 
A myth. The highest estimate of our troops is eight hundred — 
some reckon the number 200 fewer — ! Twas a motley crowd — 
a hundred or more Virginians who happened to be here en route 
for some other point — several companies of foreigners or gal- 
vanized Yankees — who had sworn out of prison — a few compa- 
nies of Lenoir reserves — some Home Guards — citizens etc — 

131 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 333-334. 

182 Harriet Ellis Bradshaw, "General Stoneman's Raid on Salisbury, North 
Carolina: A Reminiscence of April 12, 1865," Southern Historical Collec- 
tion, hereinafter cited as Bradshaw, "Stoneman's Raid." 

Stoneman's Last Raid 357 

Batteries were posted on various roads — and these troops scat- 
tered about so as to man these batteries — no where more than a 
hundred and fifty at a point. But little resistance was made — 
for it was so clearly of no avail — the town was "captured" by 
the Yankees riding into the public square with drawn swords 
in their hands and oaths in their mouths. Every one here falls 
into a giggle over the battle with the three thousand and the 
hosts of prisoners — a good many were taken — artisans in the 
government shops — some few prominent citizens — negroes etc — 
most of these came straggling back in a few days — some few 
were taken to Knoxville — or as far as Camp Chase only rule 
seemingly the humor of the officers who happened to have com- 
mand of the various squads. 183 

The "galvanized Irish" troops were of small help to the 
Confederate defenders of Salisbury. Wrote Weand: "One of 
the rebel batteries was manned by 'galvanized Yanks'. . . . 
As they were charged by our men their cannon was fired over 
the heads of the charging party, who, as they came nearer, 
were greeted with cheers for the old flag." 184 

Dr. Beall pointed out that a few of the "galvanized troops" 
fought well but that when the majority of them went over to 
the Federals at the beginning of the battle the artillery was 
left without support and the weakness of the Confederacy 
was revealed. 185 

Major Avery, whose battalion had been guarding the 
mountain passes, had come to Salisbury to have men join 
him in a night attack against Kirk at Blowing Rock. At Salis- 
bury he learned that most of the troops had been sent to de- 
fend Greensboro, and that General Gardner was preparing 
to defend Salisbury against an attack by Stoneman, who ar- 
rived while Avery was there. The result was that Major Avery 
was among those captured in Salisbury and taken as a prison- 
er to Tennessee. 

The command remained in Salisbury until 3:00 p.m. on 
April 13. These two days must have seemed an eternity to 
residents of Salisbury, although Stoneman's moderation in 

383 E. H. M. Summerell to Cornelia Phillips Spencer, September 4, 1866, 
David L. Swain Papers. Mrs. Summerell was a daughter of Elisha Mitchell, 
wife of Dr. John Summerell, and mother of Hope Summerell Chamberlain 
(see note 171 above). 

134 Weand, "Our Last Campaign," 504, 

585 Beall, "Narrative/' 

358 The North Carolina Historical Review 

treatment of civilians evoked surprise and respect from south- 
erners who had expected worse treatment, basing their fears 
on depredations of bushwhackers who called themselves 
soldiers and on newspaper accounts of Sherman's march 
through Georgia. Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer said that 
this was an example of gentlemanly conduct of a raid. 186 A 
resident of Salisbury wrote in September, 1865: "Salisbury 
people will always hold Stoneman in grateful remembrance 
for the strict control exercised over his troops. —Again and 
again he stated that no private property should be plundered 
—and his officers seconded him— whether willingly or not. 187 

Before public stores were destroyed General Stoneman in- 
spected them. Yet great anguish was experienced by the peo- 
ple when Salisbury was occupied by Federal troops, so differ- 
ent was their experience from that of Salem when occupied by 
Colonel Palmer. Troops camped in fields and on large lawns 
in and near the town. Archibald Henderson, II, an influential 
planter and statesman, was ill, and Mrs. Henderson succeed- 
ed in preventing the entrance of the first soldiers who threat- 
ened her home. Walking out on the piazza with a pistol in 
her hand, she threatened, "If you put one foot forward I will 
shoot you." The men retreated. A large number camped near 
the house, and Mrs. Henderson knew that eventually some 
would force their way into the house. With the help of her 
small son, Richard, she took all of the family silver to the gar- 
ret, where in one place there was a space between the outside 
and inside walls. The mother and son ripped off enough 
boards from the inner wall for the child to slide through, and 
as she handed him the treasures the child deposited them on 
the rafters. Then the boards were replaced and the silver 
was not discovered, although the house was eventually ran- 
sacked. 188 

Stoneman granted guards to many local families to protect 
them from the ravages of camp followers and privates who 

186 Cornelia Phillips Spencer, The Last Ninety Days of the War in North 
Carolina, (New York: Watchman Publishing Company, 1866), 202, herein- 
after cited as Spencer, Last Ninety Days. 

187 E. H. M. Summerell to Cornelia Phillips Spencer, September (?), 1865. 

188 Mrs. Lyman Cotten, Miss Mary Henderson, and Dr. Archibald Hender- 
son all of Chapel Hill, children of Archibald Henderson, II, played in that 
attic as children and still have in their homes much of the silver that was 
saved from Stoneman's raiders. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 359 

as individuals or in small groups, preyed upon the citizenry. 
As most of the able-bodied men hid in the woods to escape 
capture, it was necessary for the women to walk to General 
Stoneman's headquarters to ask for guards. One example is 
the niece of the late Governor John W. Ellis, Mrs. Bradshaw. 
In her home the troops found a keg of corn whiskey and the 
thirsty men filled their canteens, one lieutenant filling his two 
times. As the men abandoned the home after emptying the 
keg, Mrs. Bradshaw sat down on the piazza on a pile of flour- 
filled sacks, which, with bags of commeal, barrels of turnips 
and of sweet potatoes and sides of home-cured bacon, had 
been hauled up the night before from the family plantation. 
These provisions were probably intended for use by the Com- 
missary Department. 

The Bradshaws had twin slaves, Victoria and Albert, aged 
twelve years. After the troops had ridden away Victoria came 
into the house crying. Albert had forsaken Victoria to ride 
away on the lead mule of the Bradshaw team which the raid- 
ers had "pressed" from the family. She never saw her twin 
again. 189 

The train that was captured by the Eleventh Kentucky was 
burned on the edge of town, after the passengers had been 
removed. Mrs. Leonidas Polk, widow of the late Confederate 
general, and his daughters, were on board the train. The sol- 
diers burned all of the contents of their trunks until they 
found General Polk's sword, which they kept possession of, 
after which the few remaining articles were saved. 190 

One of the Irish prisoners fighting in the Confederate Army 
was shot in the lung but continued to reload and fire while 
he retreated, till he fell on Mrs. M. E. Ramsey's piazza. She 
hastened to him in spite of the balls that were whistling 
around her, and managed to get him into the house. All day 
Mrs. Ramsey nursed and stimulated the Irishman and at 
night she was able to have him removed to a hospital. His 
wound was believed to be mortal, but he returned to thank 
her for her kindness. 191 

^Bradshaw, "Stoneman's Raid." 

190 Mrs. Ellen Summerell (the same person as E. H. M. Summerell) to Cor- 
nelia Phillips Spencer, April 19, 1866, typed copy in the Spencer Papers, 
from the original in the State Department of Archives and History. 

™ Beall, "Narrative/' 

360 The North Carolina Historical Review 

All of the government's shops, the foundry, steam distillery, 
arsenal, ordnance stores, and the prison were burned. 192 All 
the railroad buildings of the Central and Western roads were 
destroyed. They comprised a large office building, an expen- 
sive passenger shed, a car shed, two freight depots, and a 
large machine shop. An extensive private tannery caught fire 
from the burning buildings and was consumed. 193 To specta- 
tors for miles around it seemed as though a terrible battle 
was being fought, as the exploding shells and magazines rent 
the air. All night on April 12 the sky was illuminated by the 
fires, and by 2:00 p.m. the next afternoon the destruction of 
rebel supplies was declared to be complete. General Gillem's 
report listed the destruction of the following stores: 10,000 
stand of arms; 1,000,000 rounds of small ammunition; 10,000 
pounds of artillery ammunition; 6,000 pounds of powder; 3 
magazines; 6 depots; 10,000 bushels of com; 75,000 suits of 
uniform clothing; 250,000 blankets (English manufacture); 
20,000 pounds of leather; 6,000 pounds of bacon; 100,000 
pounds of salt; 20,000 pounds of sugar; 27,000 pounds of rice; 
10,000 pounds of salt peter; 50,000 bushels of wheat; 80 bar- 
rels of turpentine; $15,000,000 Confederate money; a lot of 
medical stores, which the medical director said was worth 
$100,000 in gold. 194 

Colonel William J. Palmer wrote: 

We burned down the infamous Salisbury prison as we came 
along that way. It is only necessary to see one of these prison 
lots to know that the suffering inflicted has been intentional. 
Why leave thousands of men without a plank to shelter them 
from the sun or storm, compelling them to burrow in the ground 
and live like muskrats, when there is a primeval forest adjoin- 
ing Salisbury, from which a small daily detail of these prisoners 
could fit up substantial shelter in a week? You can see murder 
on the face of it. 195 

A detachment was sent to destroy the railroad bridge over 
the Yadkin which General Beauregard had ordered fortified 

192 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 334. 

193 Beall, "Narrative." 

194 Official Records, Series I, XLIX, Part I, 334. 

195 Palmer to Jackson, Kirk, Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 

Stoneman's Last Raid 361 

on April 1. Estimates of the number of men that guarded the 
bridge on April 12 vary, but they had entrenched the David- 
son County side on high bluffs overlooking the trestle, and 
when the raiders approached, the Confederates cut loose their 
guns, and these plus rifle fire prevented the capture of the 
bridge. 196 The skirmishing kept up from two o'clock until 
nightfall. 197 A gentleman who went to ask an officer for a 
guard for his home heard another officer who dashed up say 
that they must have reinforcements at the bridge. Cannon 
captured in Salisbury were brought out to be used against 
the Confederate batteries, and heavy cannonading took place 
until the raiders gave up and returned to Salisbury. A me- 
moir recounts: 

Stoneman's pursuing cavalry was coming back to Salisbury af- 
ter a battle lost. But no wild cheers, no war whoops of victory 
marked their return to town. General Beauregard's defenders 
had saved the Yadkin bridge. 198 

Theories as to why the Union cavalry did not fight it out at 
the bridge are several: two are that Stoneman's orders were 
to avoid battles, and that they heard that Confederate troops 
were on the way from Greensboro. 

A small party of Confederate soldiers who were on parole 
awaiting exchange happened to be in Salisbury just after the 
burning of the stores. One of them wrote: 

Approaching Salisbury we meet many country people bearing 
off the remnants of half ruined articles, such as machinery, half 
burnt cotton, wool, etc. Stoneman appears to have destroyed im- 
mensely in the town, and the ruins are still smoking. And people 
in crowds are around the destroyed works, trying to save things 
from the smouldering wreck. The streets are very quiet and 
there are a few straggling soldiers to be seen here and there. Of- 
ficers, too, there are, who appear not to know where to go or 
what to do. 199 

>"Bradshaw, "Stoneman's Raid." 

197 Beall, "Narrative." 

198 Bradshaw, "Stoneman's Raid." 

199 Joseph T. Durkin (ed.), John Dooley, Confederate Soldier, His War 
Journal (Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 1945), 192. 

[To be concluded] 


By Willard B. Gatewood, Jr* 

On January 1, 1919, Eugene Clyde Brooks succeeded his 
old friend, James Y. Joyner, as State Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction of North Carolina. During the previous twenty 
years, Brooks had occupied almost every rung in the educa- 
tional ladder. He had been a teacher, principal, city superin- 
tendent, clerk in the State Department of Public Instruction 
a director of Governor Charles B. Ay cock's educational cam- 
paign, and editor of North Carolina Education. At the time of 
his elevation to the State Superintendency, he was Professor 
of Education at Trinity College, where his teacher-training 
program and pioneer extension courses for teachers in service 
had attracted widespread attention throughout the State and 
the South. 1 

During his tenure as State Superintendent between 1919 
and 1923, Brooks implemented a full-scale reorganization of 
the public schools. Basic to most of the changes was his suc- 
cess in gaining greater financial support for education. His 
central aim as head of the North Carolina schools was "to 
build a state system of public education with the county as 
the unit of administration." Therefore, under his direction the 
State assumed more direct control of the public schools. 
Brooks was never hesitant in utilizing his power over the dis- 
tribution of educational funds in order to force local schools 
into line with legal requirements. Through the use of the fi- 
nancial lever, he wrought a veritable resolution in the quali- 
fication of teachers and in the character of local school ad- 
ministration. He established a comprehensive certification 
program and State salary schedule; implemented the 1918 
constitutional amendment for a six months school term; 

* Dr. Willard B. Gatewood, Jr., is Chairman of the Division of Social 
Sciences at North Carolina Wesleyan College, Rocky Mount. 

1 Eugene Clyde Brooks, "Eugene Clyde Brooks: An Autobiographical 
Sketch" (typewritten), D. H. Hill Library, North Carolina State College, 
Raleigh, hereinafter cited as Brooks, "Autobiographical Sketch." 


Negro Education in North Carolina 363 

launched a $10,000,000 school building program; stream- 
lined the organization of the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion; encouraged the consolidation of small, local school dis- 
tricts into larger units; and re-codified the State school laws. 
That Brooks accomplished so much in four and a half years 
testified to his "educational statesmanship," his ability to 
work with the legislature, and his diverse talents in human 
relations. 2 

The education of North Carolina Negroes was one of the 
most complex tasks that confronted State Superintendent 
Brooks in 1919. His previous attitudes and actions indicated 
what approach he, a State official, would take. Born and reared 
in the Black Belt of eastern North Carolina, he had come 
into close association with Negroes during his early life. His 
training at home and his classes at Trinity College under such 
instructors as Edwin Mims, John Spencer Bassett, and Ste- 
phen B. Weeks had instilled in him a healthy respect for the 
fundamental rights of all human beings. These early influ- 
ences seem to have affected, rather significantly, his later 
attitudes toward the negro race. 3 

As superintendent of the city schools in Monroe and Golds- 
boro, Brooks attempted, as much as possible under the cir- 
cumstances, to equalize the educational opportunities of 
white and negro children. 4 Then, after joining the Trinity 
College faculty in 1907, he expressed through various chan- 
nels his interest in the Negro. He headed a committee of the 
Trinity College Historical Society "to study the Negro in 
Durham." The purpose of this inquiry was to discover the 
causes for the "remarkable success" of Negroes in that south- 

2 Brooks, "Autobiograpical Sketch"; State School Facts (July, 1949), 1. 

8 Brooks, "The Education Of a North Carolinian," Eugene Clyde Brooks 
Papers in the possession of Mr. B. L. Smith, Greensboro, hereinafter cited 
as Brooks Papers, Greensboro. See also Brooks, "Stephen B. Weeks," North 
Carolina Education, XII (June, 1918), 12; Grade Book, 1893-1906, Central 
Records Office, Duke University, Durham; Edwin Mims to Willard B. 
Gatewood, Jr., April 26, 1956. 

* See Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of 
North Carolina to Governor Robert B. Glenn for the Scholastic Years 1904- 
1905 and 1905-1906 (Raleigh, 1907), and the Biennial Report for 1906- 
1907 and 1907-1908. These reports are variously entitled for the years cited, 
however they will hereinafter be cited as Biennial Report followed by the 
year of reference. 

364 The North Carolina Historical Review 

ern town. 5 In 1909, Brooks stoutly defended Superintendent 
Charles L. Coon of Wilson, when Coon's public denial that 
negro education was a burden to white taxpayers aroused 
the ire of the press. Brooks complimented the Wilson school 
board for "rising above the hysterics of the crowd" by sup- 
porting its superintendent. 6 In 1918 Brooks delivered a series 
of lectures to the Trinity College Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation on the "Negro problem in the South." He emphasiz- 
ed the need for a change in the white man's attitude toward 
the Negro— a change from "contempt to an attitude of interest 
and service." According to his view, better housing facilities 
and educational advantages were the most pressing needs of 
the Negro. The time was at hand, he concluded, when the 
Negro would no longer be willing to "serve as an ox," and 
education of the race was now imperative. 7 Further evidence 
of Brooks's sympathetic interest in the Negro was his activity 
in the Southern Sociological Congress which undertook to 
solve "the race question in a spirit of helpfulness to the negro 
and of equal justice to both races." 8 

Although Brooks showed concern for the negro's welfare, 
he was by no means prepared at this time to remove segrega- 
tion barriers. While he adhered to the doctrine of "separate 
but equal" schools, he was probably as much concerned with 
the "equal" as with the "separate" aspects. He understood 
thoroughly the various ramifications of the "problem" of ne- 
gro education in North Carolina and realized that as State 
Superintendent he must move cautiously in order to accom- 
plish his aims. 9 In seeking legislative support for the schools, 
he insisted that native North Carolinians, fully acquainted 
with the racial situation, should supervise and direct negro ed- 

5 Trinity Chronicle (Trinity College newspaper), March 23, (1911,) here- 
inafter cited as Trinity Chronicle; Minutes of the Trinity College Historical 
Society, 1911, Duke University Library. 

a Willard B. Gatewood, Jr., "Eugene Clyde Brooks: Educational Journal- 
ist in North Carolina, 1906-1923," The North Carolina, Historical Review, 
XXXVI (July, 1959), 319. 

7 Trinity Chronicle, March 13, April 10, 17, 1918. 

8 The Call of the New South: Addresses Delivered at the Southern Soci- 
ological Congress (Nashville, Tennessee: 1912), 7-9; W. W. Kitchin to 
Brooks, April 8, 1912; Locke Craig to Brooks, April 5, 1913; T. W. Bickett 
to Brooks, July 19, 1917, Eugene Clyde Brooks Papers, Duke University 
Library, hereinafter cited as Brooks Papers, Duke. 

"Interview with Mrs. E. C Brooks, May 9, 1956. 

Negro Education in North Carolina 365 

ucation in the State. This, he argued, could be accomplished 
only through greater State support of negro schools; other- 
wise Negroes would continue to look for direction from "for- 
eign" agents of philanthropic boards who did not always 
understand local conditions. Brooks publicly declared that the 
tendency had been for "negroes to look to forces outside the 
state for guidance rather than to the state itself. The effect 
of this could not be wholesome. ... If any group of people 
depend upon foreign agencies for guidance, it will lose its 
allegiance to the state itself." Nevertheless, Brooks continued 
to seek financial aid from the philanthropic boards; indeed, 
his program for Negro education could hardly have succeed- 
ed without it. But he always attempted to gain for the De- 
partment of Public Instruction a greater voice in the use of 
such funds. 10 

In 1919 Brooks was fully aware that the improvement of 
negro schools would require the full utilization of all resources 
at his command. The progress of such schools had been ex- 
ceedingly slow between 1902 and 1919. However, his prede- 
cessor had labored under peculiarly unfavorable political 
circumstances. At the end of Joyner's administration, accord- 
ing to one writer, "the Negroes had school houses not much 
improved over those in 1902; their rural school terms were 
usually no longer than the minimum requirement; and their 
school equipment remained crude, meager, and inadequate." 
Nor was there a single standard negro high school or farm- 
life school in the State in 1919. A major source of encourage- 
ment for negro education continued to come from such 
agencies as the Slater Fund, the General Education Board, 
the Jeanes Foundation, and the Rosenwald Fund. 11 

In addition to the backwardness of negro education, cir- 
cumstances produced by the First World War further com- 
plicated Brooks's task. He entered office shortly after the 

30 Biennial Report, 1920-1922, 34. 

n Albert Tripp, "James Y. Joyner's Contribution to Education in North 
Carolina as State Superintendent of Public Instruction," (M.A. thesis, 
University of North Carolina, 1939), 168. See also Louis R. Harlan, Sep- 
arate and Unequal', Public School Campaigns and Racism in the Southern 
Seaboard States, 1901-1915 (Chapel Hill, 1958), 103-134, hereinafter cited 
as Harlan, Separate and Unequal; Ullin W. Leavell, Philanthrophy in Ne- 
gro Education (Nashville, Tennessee: 1930), 119-149. 

366 The North Carolina Historical Review 

signing of the Armistice; Negroes soon began to return home 
from military service, where they had tasted equality and 
associated with members of their own race who had had 
superior educational advantages. Obviously, such Negroes 
upon their return were not complacent about their inferior 
educational facilities in North Carolina. Moreover, the post- 
war scene was clouded by such extremist movements as the Ku 
Klux Klan and Garveyism. Racial tension ran high; riots and 
other forms of violence exploded in various parts of the coun- 
try. 12 Brooks believed that if such developments occurred in 
North Carolina, the implementation of a progressive program 
of negro education would be delayed and possibly perman- 
ently impaired. Therefore, he made every attempt to allay 
racial friction in the State. Of course, he was by no means 
alone in his efforts. To Nathan C. Newbold, who had been 
State Agent for Rural Negro Schools since 1913, belonged a 
large share of the credit for establishing a more comprehen- 
sive school program for Negroes. 13 President William Louis 
Poteat of Wake Forest College, Chairman of the State Inter- 
racial Committee, and Professor Howard W. Odum and his 
associates at the University of North Carolina also labored 
tirelessly in behalf of better race relations. 14 

Brooks, fully cognizant of the pressing need for better ne- 
gro schools, was convinced that the matter could not be left 
to local officials. They had already demonstrated their inabili- 
ty or unwillingness to grapple with it. Some other agency, 
preferably the State, must furnish the stimulus necessary for 

12 Rayf ord W. Logan, The Negro in the United States : A Brief History 
(Princeton, New Jersey: 1957), 69-77; W. J. Cash, Mind of the South 
(New York, 1954), 312-315, hereinafter cited as Cash, Mind of the South', 
Monroe N. Work (ed.), The Negro Year Book, 1921-1922 (Tuskegee, Ala- 
bama: 1922), 73-84. 

13 See Samuel L. Smith, Builders of Goodwill: The Story of the State 
Agents of Negro Education in the South, 1910-1950 (Nashville, Tennessee: 
1950), 12-13, 53-62. 

" See Paul Benjamin, "The North Carolina Plan," The Survey, XLVIII 
(September 15, 1922), 705-707; Cash, Mind of the South, 326-327; C. Chil- 
ton Pearson, "Race Relations in North Carolina: A Field Study of Mod- 
erate Opinion," South Atlantic Quarterly, XXIII (January, 1924), 1-9; 
William H. Richardson, "No More Lynchings: How North Carolina Has 
Solved the Problem," American Review of Reviews, LXIX (April, 1924), 
401-404; The North Carolina Club Yearbook, 1919-1920 (Chapel Hill, 1921), 
83-95. See also Howard W. Odum (ed.), Journal of Social Forces which 
was first published in 1922. Brooks was a contributing editor for several 

Negro Education in North Carolina 367 

building a reputable system of public schools for Negroes. 
Brooks's broad and tactful approach to the task was largely 
responsible for providing that initial stimulus. In discussing 
the matter with Julius Rosenwald, the philanthropist, Brooks 
insisted that as long as the Negro "was expected to be help- 
less, he will be helpless." Only through co-operation and as- 
sistance from the white man would Negroes in the South be 
stimulated to assume the responsibility for "re-making their 
own race." 15 Brooks recognized too that changes in the atti- 
tudes of whites and Negroes toward each other were basic to 
the achievement of this goal. He believed that the starting 
point should be in bi-racial efforts to foster negro education. 
The time had come, he concluded, for white men "to talk to 
negroes and not about them." 16 

Within a month after becoming State Superintendent, 
Brooks gave practical application to this principle by arrang- 
ing meetings between staff members of his Department and 
negro leaders. He discussed his plans for negro education at 
a gathering of Negroes in Winston-Salem in February, 1919. 
In April, he again explained his program at a meeting with 
the Jeanes industrial teachers. These conferences apparently 
assured the Negroes of his sincere desire to improve their 
educational advantages. Moreover, his words were followed 
by immediate action. The Legislature of 1919 passed his 
amendments to the school laws which made "possible the 
establishment of county high schools for negroes." 17 These 
schools were essential, in Brooks's opinion, in order to qualify 
Negroes for college and especially for positions as elementary 
teachers. Writing in the South Atlantic Quarterly in 1919, 
Brooks insisted that county high schools were necessary to 
provide "teachers and leaders of the colored race; otherwise 
they will be trained elsewhere and by other people, who may 

15 Brooks to Julius Rosenwald, December 30, 1921, Correspondence of the 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction, State Department of Archives 
and History, hereinafter cited as Public Instruction Correspondence. 

ia Brooks to C. C. Spaulding, September 11, 1920, Public Instruction Cor- 

lf Brooks to Wallace Buttrick, March 5, 1919; Brooks to S. G. Atkins, 
February 18, 1919, Public Instruction Correspondence; North Carolina .Ed- 
ucation, XVIII (May, 1919), 5. 

368 The North Carolina Historical Review 

not understand what is essential to the harmony and well- 
being of the two races." 18 

The meetings that Brooks held with Negroes early in 1919 
convinced him of the value of such exchanges of opinion. At 
this time negro leaders in North Carolina were also anxious 
to present their "case" to responsible white citizens. C. C. 
Spaulding, a Negro businessman of Durham, insisted: "We 
feel that our white friends do not understand us and if they 
knew more about the real conditions and along what lines we 
are thinking, we are sure we would receive better treatment 
at their hands." 19 Brooks fulfilled his need, at least in part, 
by calling a State- wide conference of prominent Negroes. 
Newbold and Dr. James E. Shepard, President of the National 
Training School in Durham and a leader in the Negro State 
Teachers' Association, assisted in the organization of this 
meeting. Brooks wrote Shepard: 

... it is my judgment that we should discuss ways and means 
by which we may eliminate much of the distrust that seems to be 
in evidence ... in our state. I think that it would be wise for 
you and your committee to be considering some platform that 
both white and colored people might stand on that would be of 
mutual interest to all concerned. 20 

Brooks, then, initiated what he believed to be a fundamental 
step toward more adequate state-supported negro schools, 
that is, a clarification of the attitudes and desires of the Ne- 
groes themselves. 

On September 26, 1919, members of the Department of 
Public Instruction and Negro leaders from throughout the 
State met in Raleigh. Brooks opened the proceedings with 
an outline of his plans for Negro education which focused 
upon teacher- training facilities, salaries, and schoolhouses. 
He made a plea for racial co-operation in putting these plans 
into effect. Then the thirty-eight Negroes discussed the aims 
of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored 

u Brooks, "North Carolina's New Educational System," South Atlantic 
Quarterly, XVIII (October, 1919), 285-286. 

19 C. C. Spaulding to Charles N. Hunter, May 21, 1921, Charles N. Hunter 
Papers, Duke University Library, hereinafter cited as Hunter Papers. 

20 Brooks to J. E. Shepard, September 15, 1919, Public Instruction Cor- 

Negro Education in North Carolina 369 

People and proposed meetings of whites and Negroes when- 
ever feasible to improve race relations. They also adopted a 
Declaration of Principles as a guide in creating "an unprece- 
dented era of good feeling" between the races in North Caro- 
lina. Brooks considered it a "common ground of safety upon 
which the leaders of both races can stand" in the develop- 
ment of negro schools. The Declaration condemned lynching, 
riots, legal injustices to Negroes, and "intermingling of the 
races on terms of social equality." It endorsed Brooks's lead- 
ership and declared that "there never was a time in North 
Carolina when the State was so ready to give educational 
opportunities to Negroes." Therefore, colored men were ad- 
vised to "quit harping on the injustices done previously by 
the white man and realize that he is ready to help." 21 

At Brooks's request the Executive Committee of the North 
Carolina Teachers' Assembly heartily endorsed the Declara- 
tion of Principles and improved the legislature to provide 
more funds for negro schools. It also urged white citizens to 
assist Negroes "in their attempts to raise the intellectual and 
moral level" of their race. 22 Both Brooks and the negro leaders 
believed that the Raleigh conference was influential in dis- 
sipating prejudice and promoting tolerance and confidence 
between the races. So effective did Brooks consider it that he 
called similar conferences annually throughout his adminis- 
tration. 23 

The scope and attendance of such meetings increased sig- 
nificantly in following years. In 1921 a large group of white 
and negro leaders met for two days at Shaw University to 
discuss the State's programs in education, health, and welfare 
for Negroes. Brooks and Newbold presided; Dr. James H. 
Dillard of the Jeanes and Slater Funds was the special guest. 
Dillard praised North Carolina for its "progressive" attitude 
toward Negroes and declared that the State was achieving 

81 A Declaration of Principles by Representative Negroes of North Caro- 
lina, September 26, 1919 (Raleigh, n.d.) ; Outline of the Conference, Sep- 
tember 26, 1919, Public Instruction Correspondence. 

32 North CoA-olina Education, XIV (February, 1920), 3. 

83 E. E. Smith to Brooks, October 15, 1919; C. C. Spaulding to Brooks, 
October 13, 1919; Brooks to W. P. Few, November 1, 1922; Public Instruc- 
tion Correspondence; Charles N. Hunter to Brooks, October (?), 1919; 
Brooks to Charles N. Hunter, October 28, 1919, Hunter Papers. 

370 The North Carolina Historical Review 

racial harmony by "knocking away the underpinnings of 
ignorance." Brooks then told the mixed gathering: 

I am proud of North Carolina, whose white and negro groups 
are working for better trained teachers. . . . We shall go forward 
unless too much selfishness creeps in. Mistakes made either by 
white or by colored people will be corrected. All of us must adopt 
a policy of sanity toward defects, sanity toward progress, and 
sanity toward social relations. . . . We are ushering in an era 
of good feeling in North Carolina. We are now spending for 
Negro education almost as much as we were spending fifteen 
years ago for white and negro education. Let us remember that 
ignorance is a cure for nothing. Let us pledge ourselves to carry 
out the Preamble to the United States Constitution — "to promote 
the general welfare and to insure the blessings of liberty to our- 
selves and our posterity." 24 

In 1922 the fourth annual inter-racial conference, sponsored 
by the Department of Public Instruction, was attended by 
almost three hundred persons. Brooks and Newbold this time 
focused the attention of the group upon ways of gaining 
"grass roots'' support among whites for negro schools and 
eradicating local hostility to projects for negro advancement. 25 
In the meantime, Brooks figured prominently in various 
other activities designed to improve race relations in the 
State. He worked closely with a commission, appointed by 
Governor Thomas W. Bickett in 1920, to investigate and rec- 
ommend to the legislature "what the State ought to do to 
better the physical, moral, and mental status of the negroes." 
Its efforts undoubtedly influenced the General Assembly in 
the following year to establish a reformatory for Negro boys 
and to increase State funds for Negro schools. Brooks also 
participated in a conference in 1921 called by Governor Cam- 
eron Morrison to discuss means of improving race relations 

24 "North Carolina's Negro Program," The American Schoolmaster, XV 
(May 15, 1922), 192-193. See also "Negro Education in North Carolina," 
The Southern Workman, L (October, 1921), 440. 

25 N. C. Newbold, "Conference for Negro Education in Raieigh," Journal 
of Social Forces, I (January, 1923), 145-147; Newbold to Brooks, October 
26, 1922; Newbold to John Park, October 30, 1922, Division of Negro Edu- 
cation Papers, State Department of Archives and History; Newbold, "A 
Statement Read at the Conference on Negro Education in North Carolina, 
November 3-4, 1922," Hunter Papers. For biographical sketches of five 
prominent Negro educators, see Newbold, Five North Carolina Negro Edu- 
cators (Chapel Hill, 1939). 

Negro Education in North Carolina 371 

and "increasing . . . the contentment of our negro popula- 
tion. " 26 In the same year Dr. Robert R. Moton, principal of 
Tuskegee Institute, went on a speaking tour in North Caro- 
lina that was sponsored by the Department of Public In- 
struction. His treatment of the race question, according to 
Newbold, contributed significantly to the improvement of 
"feelings" between whites and Negroes in the State. 27 

The dealings between Brooks and negro representatives 
were always characterized by frankness and a spirit of mutual 
trust and confidence. For example, Charles N. Hunter, a 
North Carolina educator born of slave parents, felt free to 
explain to Brooks the aims of Negroes. 

If there be any white people [Hunter declared] who are labor- 
ing under the delusion that negroes are seeking social equality, 
I would disabuse them to the impression by the most emphatic 
disavowal. . . Negroes contemplate nothing of the kind. . . . 
They desire nothing so much as they do the friendship of the 
white people. They do want justice. They do want the protec- 
tion of the law . . . better educational advantages . . . [and] bet- 
ter living conditions. They simply want a "square deal." These 
the great and powerful white race can generously afford to guar- 
antee. 28 

Brooks appreciated such statements and in turn frankly pre- 
sented his own ideas to Negroes. He realized, however, the 
framework of prejudice within which he must operate; there- 
fore, he attempted to keep his program for Negro education 
within the realm of the possible. To try to move too rapidly 
might prove his undoing. Certainly, Brooks never gave Ne- 
groes the impression that he was complacent about the plight 
of their schools. In 1921 he wrote a negro college professor: 
"I know there are many defects and I know there are many 
injustices . . . [but] it is necessary for us to cooperate in cor- 
recting these defects in both races. In my judgment, the best 

29 R. B. House (ed.), Public Letters and Papers of Thomas Walter Bickett, 
Governor of North Carolina, 1917-1921 (Raleigh: Council of State, 1923), 
75, 318; Brooks to Wallace Buttrick, December 8, 1920; Cameron Morrison 
to Brooks, June 6, 1921, Public Instruction Correspondence. 

27 N. C. Newbold, "Dr. Moton in North Carolina," The Southern Work- 
man, L (June, 1921), 253-256. 

^Charles N. Hunter to Brooks, October (?), 1919; Brooks to Charles N. 
Hunter, October 28, 1919, Hunter Papers. 

372 The North Carolina Historical Review 

method to pursue is to hold up the good until we have the 
habit of believing there is more good than evil in both." 29 

As soon as Brooks assumed office, he came to the conclusion 
that the primary need of negro education was an adequate 
supply of competent teachers, especially for elementary 
schools. This, of course, required additional teacher- training 
facilities. In 1919 the State supported three negro normal 
schools located in Winston-Salem, Elizabeth City, and Fay- 
etteville, and ten counties with the aid of the Slater Fund and 
the General Education Board provided county training 
schools for Negroes. These were actually industrial schools 
offering courses in teacher-training on a very elementary 
level. 30 

Brooks immediately initiated plans for expanding the negro 
teacher-training program by procuring aid from the philan- 
thropic agencies. He concentrated his attention upon the 
General Education Board and succeeded in winning the con- 
fidence and admiration of President Wallace Buttrick and 
Secretary Abraham Flexner. Throughout his administration 
he kept these men fully informed of educational develop- 
ments in the State and of his plans for the future. In his fre- 
quent conversations and correspondence with them, Brooks 
demonstrated his acute insight into the educational needs of 
Negroes and employed tact and honesty in requesting finan- 
cial assistance from the board. But his approach was never 
that of a beggar. In replying to one of Brooks's proposals in 
1919, Flexner wrote: "Your proposition— as well as yourself 
—are, we think, entirely sound. We are delighted to assure 
you of our cooperation." The cordial relations between Brooks 
and the officials of the General Education Board were vividly 
expressed in the Boards increasing financial aid for the train- 
ing of negro teachers. 31 

29 Brooks to John D. Wray, May 28, 1921, Public Instruction Correspon- 

30 The John F. Slater Fund: Proceedings and Reports, 1918, 15-16; Brooks 
to J. S. Manning, April 20, 1922; Brooks to Wallace Buttrick, March 5, 
1919, and December 8, 1920; Brooks to Abraham Flexner, August 30, 1919, 
Public Instruction Correspondence. See also Harold F. Brown, "History of 
the Education of Negro Teachers in the State Normal Schools of North 
Carolina from 1877 to 1943" (M. A. thesis, East Carolina Teachers College, 
Greenville, 1943). 

31 Abraham Flexner to Brooks, September 1, 1919, Public Instruction Cor- 
respondence; Abraham Flexner to Willard B. Gatewood, Jr., November 21, 

Negro Education in North Carolina 373 

At Brooks's request the General Education Board provided 
$11,650 for county training schools for North Carolina Ne- 
groes in 1919-1920. This sum coupled with aid from the Slater 
Fund enabled Brooks to establish nine additional training 
schools within one year. At the same time, he attempted to 
reorganize the three negro normal schools, which were sadly 
lacking in faculty, equipment, and buildings. He candidly 
described the sorry plight of these schools to the General Ed- 
ucation Board and enlisted its support in their reorganization. 
The Board provided $12,500 for the improvement of the 
Slater State Normal and Industrial School in Winston-Salem 
and granted Brooks's requests for financial aid for summer 
schools for Negroes. The Anna Jeanes Foundation, the Julius 
Rosenwald Fund, and the Phelps-Stokes Fund also gave val- 
uable assistance to his program through their donations for 
teachers' salaries and school buildings. 32 

In 1917 the legislative appropriation was only $3,300 for 
the expansion of each of the three negro normal schools. 
Brooks, however, persuaded the legislature of 1919 to appro- 
priate $90,000 for the permanent improvement of these in- 
stitutions and to increase the maintenance fund to $35,000. 
With a view toward improving "the efficiency of colored 
teachers," he used a considerable portion of a $50,000 appro- 
priation for teacher training in 1919 for Negroes. In that 
year eight county summer schools were conducted for negro 
teachers without college training for the purpose of aiding 
them to improve their qualifications. These were joint sum- 
mer schools with almost every county in the State sharing in 
their support. 33 

Brooks's certification program and salary schedule, estab- 
lished between 1919 and 1921, included negro teachers. His 
jurisdiction over State funds for the payment of salaries of 

^Brooks to E. C. Sage, June 2, 1919; E. C. Sage to Brooks, March 6, 
1919; Brooks to Abraham Flexner, June 26, 1919; Brooks to S. G. Atkins, 
June 28, 1919, Public Instruction Correspondence. 

83 Report of the Superintendent of the State Colored Normal Schools and 
the Cherokee Indian Normal School, 1918-1920, 7; Report of the State Board 
of Examiners and Institute Conductors, 1918-1920, 9; Brooks, Administra- 
tion of the Public School System, 1919-1920, 9-10, hereinafter cited as 
Brooks, Administration of Public School System; Brooks to S. G. Atkins, 
July 12, 1920; Brooks to E. C. Sage, March 6, 1919; E. C. Sage to Brooks, 
March 6, 1919, Public Instruction Correspondence. 


74 The North Carolina Historical Review 

superintendents, principals, and teachers enabled him to en- 
force the salary schedule for Negroes. This, of course, provid- 
ed considerable incentive for Negro teachers to raise certifi- 
cates through summer school training, because more training 
usually meant higher salaries. Shortly before the meeting of 
a special session of the legislature in 1920, which authorized 
a revised salary schedule, Brooks declared: "It is my desire 
to see that justice is done the negro teachers, and my purpose 
in pleading for a new salary schedule for negroes was that 
they might at least receive the same per cent increase that 
white teachers receive." He first thought that one State salary 
schedule should include all teachers, both white and Negro. 
But he later became convinced of the feasibility of establish- 
ing separate schedules and of raising proportionately the 
salaries of negro teachers with lower certificates in order to 
meet the demands of Negro schools. Actually, then, the dif- 
ference in the salaries of white and negro teachers with lower 
grade certificates was slight, whereas the salaries of white 
teachers with higher grade certificates were considerably 
higher than those of Negroes with similar certificates. This 
arrangement resulted in a somewhat larger salary increase 
for Negroes than for whites, because the former usually lack- 
ed the requirements for higher certificates. Brooks did not 
emphasize this point before the legislators, who authorized 
him to inaugurate a new salary schedule. 34 

The negro leaders, however, immediately appreciated the 
significance of the boost that the education of their race would 
receive from Brooks's salary schedule. A Negro insurance 
executive of Durham declared that Brooks was "tearing away 
the rubbish of inefficiency to lay a broad foundation for bet- 
ter educational conditions in the State." S. G. Atkins, principal 
of the negro normal school in Winston-Salem, assured Brooks 
that "the colored race have for you an increasing appreciation 
and sense of gratitude for the broad progressive policies which 
you are proposing and carrying forward successfully." A 
Rosen wald agent wrote Brooks: "I feel very proud of the 

34 Brooks to C. H. Moore, May 11, 1920; Brooks to Frank Bachman, May 
31, 1920, Public Instruction Correspondence; Teacher Salary Schedule of 
North Carolina, 1920-1921 (Educational Publication No. 30) ; Brooks, Ad- 
ministration of Public School System, 6-7. 

Negro Education in North Carolina 375 

fact that the Negroes of the State have an advocate 'at court' 
who is a broad and sympathetic friend of the poor and much- 
discriminated-against colored teacher." 35 

During the regular session of the General Assembly in 
1921, Brooks achieved his greatest success in reorganizing 
negro education. He persuaded the Budget Commission to 
approve an unprecedented appropriation of $400,000 for 
buildings and equipment at the three negro normal schools 
in addition to a maintenance fund more than double that of 
1919. It was passed by an economy-conscious legislature with- 
out serious opposition. The fund of $400,000 was more than 
the total building appropriations for the negro normal schools 
since their establishment. In addition to this amount, Brooks 
managed to obtain considerable sums from the General Edu- 
cation Board, the Rosenwald Fund, and negro contributors. 
Moreover, he gained direct control over the negro normal 
schools through a legislative act in 1921 that placed the State 
normal schools under the State Board of Education. The fi- 
nancial support provided in that year coupled with another 
large contribution by the General Education Board in 1922 
enabled Brooks to convert these institutions into real normal 
schools with facilities adequate to prepare Negro teachers 
for higher grade certificates. 36 

In 1921 Brooks also induced the legislature to establish a 
Division of Negro Education in his Department with an an- 
nual appropriation of $15,000. On March 15, 1921, this new 
Division was organized with Newbold as Director. By the end 
of Brooks's administration it contained a staff of nine persons, 
both white and Negro, a group larger than the entire number 
of employees of the Department of Public Instruction of a 
decade earlier. Indeed, few of Brooks's accomplishments 
were a greater source of personal pride than the organization 

35 A. M. Moore to N. C. Newbold, August 11, 1920, Division of Negro Ed- 
ucation Papers; S. G. Atkins to Brooks, August 28. 1920; C. H. Moore to 
Brooks, May 10, 1920, Public Instruction Correspondence. Dr. James E. 
Shepard wrote Brooks about the same time: "I wish you could . . . know 
the genuine love which the colored people have for you. It would certainly 
cheer your heart." Shepard to Brooks, June 18, 1920, Public Instruction 

98 Brooks to Abraham Flexner, December 27, 1920 ; Memorandum to Jack- 
son Davis, January 26, 1922; Brooks to Abraham Flexner, March 15, 1921; 
Brooks to Jackson Davis, April 19, 1921 ; Brooks to the General Education 
Board, April 16, 1923, Public Instruction Correspondence. 

376 The North Carolina Historical Review 

of this division, which undertook to supervise and promote 
the education of a large segment of the State's population 
hitherto grossly neglected. Newbold, possessing "the confi- 
dence and support of both races," was eminently qualified 
for his new position, which placed him in charge of all phases 
of negro education. This new division also fulfilled Brooks's 
desire for a native agency to direct the education of Negroes. 37 

The establishment of a reputable system of public schools 
for Negroes was necessarily beset with many problems. But 
the Division of Negro Education attained success at several 
crucial points. It exposed those "spurious" institutions that 
posed as teacher-training centers, energetically promoted 
harmonious race relations, and provided competent supervi- 
sion of Negro schools. 38 According to one student, "public 
secondary schools for Negroes developed slowly until the Di- 
vision of Negro Education was organized. . . .," then their 
growth became "constant and fairly rapid throughout the 
State." 89 Discussing the division in 1922, Brooks stated, per- 
haps exaggeratedly, that a greater harmony prevails be- 
tween the races, and the relationship existing at this time is 
. . . the best to be found in any state in the Union, and this 
is due in a large measure to the fine supervision by the mem- 
bers of the Division of Negro Education." 40 

In the General Assembly of 1923, Brooks continued his 
fight for negro schools; he again concentrated upon teacher 
training facilities. Through his efforts the legislature provided 
a bond issue of $500,000 for the negro normal schools and 
authorized the purchase of the National Training School in 
Durham, which was to be converted into a teacher training 
institution. In 1920 Dr. James E. Shepard, president of the 
Durham school, had discussed with Brooks the feasibility of 
a fourth negro normal school under State control. At that 
time Brooks insisted that the State "should make the institu- 

37 Public Laws and Resolutions of North Carolina, 1921, 421-422; Annual 
Report of the General Education Board, 1922-1923, 41; Harlan, Separate 
and Unequal, 108n; Brooks to Abraham Flexner, March 15, 1921; Abraham 
Flexner to Brooks, May 27, 1921, Public Instruction Correspondence. 

38 Biennial Report, 1920-1922, 34-36. 

89 Hollis Long, Public Secondary Education for Negroes in North Carolina 
(New York, 1932), 104. See also Dennis Cooke, The White Superintendent 
and Negro Schools in North Carolina (Nashville, Tennessee: 1930), 19. 

40 Biennial Report, 1920-1922, 34-35. 

Negro Education in North Carolina 377 

tions already established real normal schools before attempt- 
ing to establish another." By 1923 he felt that the time was 
ripe for undertaking State support of another teacher training 
center. The Durham institution was transformed into a State 
school for Negroes in that year and soon became the only 
State-supported college for Negroes whose graduates could 
receive Class-A teaching certificates in accordance with the 
standards of the North Carolina College Conference. Brooks, 
however, hoped to raise the Slater State Normal School in 
Winston-Salem to be a four-year institution "within the near 
future." 41 

Nevertheless, teacher training facilities for North Carolina 
Negroes remained inadequate, especially for those who de- 
sired work beyond the two-year normal course. Brooks there- 
fore enlisted the support of private negro colleges and by 
late 1922 had effected a plan whereby teachers trained in 
such institutions could receive State certificates. In that year 
also Hampton Institute in Virginia announced its decision to 
offer a four-year teacher training program. This action result- 
ed in part from the efforts of Brooks and Newbold who had 
urged such a program for several years and had appeared 
before the Hampton trustees in behalf of its adoption. Brooks 
realized that Hampton would be easily accessible to North 
Carolina Negroes. 42 

Despite his energetic efforts, the development of negro 
education was necessarily slow and gradual. Brooks was 
building negro schools from the ground up, and his financial 
resources were never large enough for a complete and sudden 
transformation. Nevertheless, there was significant progress 
in almost every phase of negro education during his adminis- 
tration. The number of negro teachers increased from 3,511 
in 1918 to 4,871 in 1923, and the average monthly salaries 
rose from $28.97 to $63.94. The value of Negro school prop- 

41 Brooks to Trevor Arnett, March 2, 1923; Brooks to J. E. Shepard, De- 
cember 6, 1920, Public Instruction Correspondence; Institutions of Higher 
Learning in North Carolina (Educational Publication, No. 58), 17; Eliza- 
beth Seay, "A History of North Carolina College for Negroes," (M.A. 
thesis, Duke University, 1941), 62-67. 

42 James E. Gregg to Brooks, February 20, 1922; N. C. Newbold to J. E. 
Davis, January 5, 1923, Division of Negro Education Papers; "Annual Re- 
port of the Principal of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute," The 
Southern Workman, LI (June, 1922), 272-273. 

378 The North Carolina Historical Review 

erty was augmented more than three-fold in the same period. 
In fact, more State funds were used for Negro school build- 
ings and sites under Brooks than had been expended between 
1900 and 1918. The gap was gradually closing; but from the 
standpoint of relative status, an unequal division of State 
funds continued to exist. Only at the end of Brook's adminis- 
tration did Negro high schools warrant a place in the report 
of the State High School Inspector, although it was his six- 
teenth annual report. There were at that time only eight 
standard public high schools for Negroes with a total enroll- 
ment of 1,488 students. But the number of county training 
schools increased from 10 in 1918 to 25 in 1923, largely be- 
cause of Brooks's success in gaining financial aid from the 
General Education Board. The Negroes also shared rather 
generously in federal and State funds for vocational agricul- 
ture. In 1922, no less than 1,000 negro men participated in 
part-time classes in agriculture and 190 negro women enroll- 
ed in home economics courses. 43 

The most extraordinary development in negro education 
under Brooks was the improvement in the qualifications of 
teachers. The number of negro teachers with high-grade cer- 
tificates 44 increased from 647 in 1920 to 1,876 in 1923, and 
when Brooks left office there were 1,550 negro teachers en- 
rolled in approved college summer schools and 2,609 in coun- 
ty summer schools. He sincerely believed that the "harmony 
and prosperity" of both races depended largely upon con- 
tinuing the effort to close the gap between the educational 
opportunities of whites and Negroes. He had worked toward 
this end for four and a half years by co-operating with negro 

43 Biennial Report, 1918-1920, 80-81, 96-97; Biennial Report, 1922-192A, 53, 
74-75, 96-97 ; Annual Report of the Federal Board of Vocational Education, 
1922, 189-190; R. E. Malone, "Vocational Agricultural Schools in North 
Carolina," The Southern Workman, L (July, 1921), 205-210; Slater Fund: 
Proceedings and Reports, 192S, 14-15; N. C. Newbold to Brooks, November 
9, 1920, Public Instruction Correspondence. In 1917-1918 Negroes in North 
Carolina constituted 32 per cent of the school population and received eight 
per cent of the public funds for school buildings; in 1922-1923 they consti- 
tuted 31 per cent of the school population and received 11 per cent of such 
funds. See also "Negro Education in North Carolina," The Southern Work- 
man, L (October, 1921), 439. 

**Por the meaning of various State teaching certificates, see James E. 
Hillman, "The Story of Teacher Education and Certification in North Caro- 
lina," Quarterly Review of Higher Education Among Negroes, XXI (Janu- 
ary, 1953), 21-26. 

Negro Education in North Carolina 379 

leaders, courting the favor of philanthropic agencies, and 
utilizing skill and diplomacy in presenting the question to 
the legislature. His program elicited little or no criticism in 
political quarters. In fact, Governors Bickett and Morrison 
heartily supported it, and such influential legislators as Vic- 
tor Bryant of Durham, John G. Dawson of Kinston, and H. G. 
Connor, Jr., of Wilson championed it in the General Assem- 
bly. With the aid of these men and the constant assistance of 
Newbold, Brooks had laid a solid foundation for a progressive 
program in negro education by the time that he left the State 
Superintendency in 1923 to become president of North Caro- 
lina State College. 45 

No group was more aware of his accomplishment than the 
Negroes themselves. The Southern Workman, a Negro publi- 
cation, pointed with pride to the "new era" in North Carolina, 
where State officials, had "looked to the future and laid their 
plans for a system of public education which will offer the 
same opportunities to all children . . . whether black or 
white." 46 Upon Brooks's resignation in 1923, James E. Shepard 
wrote him : "By your wise . . . management and far-reaching 
vision, you have done more for the education of all classes 
than any previous State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion." 47 In short, Brooks had inaugurated what has been called 
the "golden period of Negro education in North Carolina." 

45 Biennial Report, 1918-1920, 96-98; Biennial Report, 1922-1924, 90-91, 

46 "The Spirit of North Carolina," The Southern Workman, LII (October, 
1923), 477. 

47 James E. Shepard to Brooks, June 1, 1923, Brooks Papers, Duke. 


Edited by John Bowen Hamilton* 


[78] August 2nd 

There is probably no one who does not exalt in quiet at some 
times and prefers a release from accustomed duty. It is sweet 
thus to make himself awhile a slave to his apetites and inclina- 
tions, for there is greater slavery in the dominion of passion 
than of law, and a release from duty is not freedom when it is 
obtained at the price of succumbing to perverted and licentious 
inclinations I make these remarks as relating in particular to 
one incident of the day — a release from the duties of College to 
attend the election. It is curious to observe human nature in this 
matter How [79] soon it asks relief from irksome duties! how 
it longs to be let loose from the restraints and exults in its free- 
dom, and further how soon freedom degenerates into licentious- 
ness. How soon men loose all selfrestraint when that of law and 
order is withdrawn. In college I may say there has been more 
idleness to day than for many before Several sprees have come 
off intirely satisfactory to the parties engaged. I see a consider- 
able stir about college all day, a great deal of sitting upon the 
door steps of the buildings chit chatting about nothing. I could 
not bring my mind to delight in such things. I involuntarily turn 
in disgust from them. I close my eyes and my door against all 
such things. I found more enjoyment even in reading the early 
part of English history, I dare say than I could by attending the 
polls, of the election, or any other than the company of Hume, 
although it operated almost as a dose of opium in the evening, 
for I found myself despite of all my efforts often noding. . . . 

August 3rd 

In consequence of a recommendation of the President of U. 
States this day was set apart as a day of fasting and prayer, in 
consequence of the Cholera in the Country, that by humbling 
ourselves before God, we might propitiate the God of nations 
[80] and of men, and by his help avert the evil which afflicts the 
nation. The faculty announced in the Chapel that the exercizes 
of College would be discontinued to day except divine worship, 

*Dr. John Bowen Hamilton is an Associate Professor of English, Rollins 
College, Winter Park, Florida. 


Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 381 

which would be held in the Chapel. Accordingly another idle day 
has passed with the students. Having not those restraints which 
are holy one of the Sabbath imposes upon every man who knows 
the command that it comes from God, they broke forth as usual 
in those wild and unbriddled sports with which they always em- 
ploy idle times. And, instead of converting the day into one of 
holy character festivity was the pervading and prevailing enjoy- 
ment of the day. . . . 

[83] August 8th 

To day my class have been employed in the study of [natural] 
philosophy. The lesson containd a discussion of the law of speci- 
fic [84] gravity and descriptions of instruments used in finding 
it. It would seem at first sight that it would be a matter of mere 
curiosity, and not of any practical value to put ourselves to the 
trouble of so acurately measuring the specific gravity, but one 
circumstance alone renders it most useful and even indispensible. 
A law that all articles of commerce shall be taxed according to its 
specific gravity has rendered it quite necessary that rules should 
be discovered and instruments invented in order to obtain with 
acuracy the specific gravity 90 Many interesting subjects are com- 
prehened under Hydrostatics and Hydraulics. The observations 
or rather demonstrations, if it is appropriate to give such a name 
to reasonings so faulty, nevertheless prove highly interesting 
and instructive. The text-book Mr. Olmstead is "the bone of con- 
tention" continually. 91 The faculty instead of striking it out en- 
tirely and getting a better one, choose rather to cavil about daily 
and I may say almost hourly. There is scearcely a recitation at 
which the Professor does not find something erroneous or faulty 
in some respect. The author seems not to have known much about 
the subject, as traces of his plagerism are remarked verry often. 

[85] August 10th ... I feel mirtful and vivacious During these 
times I may count some of the happy hours of my existence. We 
had, besides, Rhetoric for our recitation which I have become 

80 The office of the Attorney General of the State of North Carolina ad- 
vises the editor that this allusion "... might well refer to taxation in the 
form of internal excise duties upon spirits. The 'proof concept as a basis 
of levying excise taxes upon spiritous liquors may very well have been in- 
troduced at about this time . . . proof, referring to alcoholic content, has a 
direct relationship to 'specific gravity.' ... In North Carolina, during the 
period before 1849, our State taxation in respect to the general field of 
liquors and spirits, ordinarily consisted of taxing or licensing the privilege 
of dealing in such commodities. Our State Revenue Act in force did not 
specifically contain provisions for alcohol taxation of stocks or supplies of 
spirtual beverages, as such." Letter to the editor, July 28, 1958. 

91 Denison Olmsted, An Introduction to Natural Philosophy. 

382 The North Carolina Historical Review 

very fond of — the text book is such a good [86] one, and the sub- 
ject well discussed, we had a lecture this morning on Taste, this 
evening on criticism and the pleasure of taste. Our author had 
occasion in illustrating his remarks on grandier and sublimity, 
to introduce examples, taken from the object of external sense 
while he introduces also remarkable displays of magnamity, cour- 
age, firmness, and others. All these conspired to render the lecture 
highly entertaining. ... A young man of verry good appearance 
and apparently of inteligence from the conversational power 
which he exhibited announced that he was a candidate for ad- 
mission into College. It is a matter of [87] regreat that such 
rivalry should exist between the two literary societies connected 
with the College, and I regreted to see an excess of those solici- 
tations put forth for the procuring of new members. The mem- 
bers of the Dialectic crowded around him & would not let any 
one have access to him, and it was found impossible that we 
should be able to save him if we did not make some prompt effort. 
By an artifice which though it would have been impolite in some 
cases, though justifiable in this, we sedused from their company, 
and spoke to him on the subject and pretty soon got him to prom- 
ise to join our society. I hope to see this succeed as the members 
of the sister society are growing insolent from their late success, 
having procured a majority of fifteen or twenty of the candidates 
for College. 92 

(Aug. 11-16 entries consist of speculations on his health, on 
the dangers of alcoholic overindulgence, and on his readings 
in history. ) 

[94] August 17th . . . Quite a disastrous catastrophe occured to 
day in the campus. An old man from the country had come in 
with his waggon loaded with watermelons &c. which he was en- 
deavoring to sell to the students. He had driven up the waggon 
near the belfry, when the bell tolled the hour for dinner, the loud 
ring so near, frightened the horses which remained still hightched 
to the waggon. They pitched frantically off, the waggon behind, 
making a ratling noise, and the students adding their noisy cries 
to that A general shout arose, the horses, students, waggon, 
scattered in every direction, running hooping, and hollowing. 
The horses ran against a tree, and made a smash of waggon 
gear, &c, thus ending the scene. I attended upon the hall this 
evening and was verry much entertained by the debate. One 
gentleman made a verry interesting speech, at which I was much 


See note 70, above. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 383 

gratified, there being present a transient member, before whom 
a little display would be of much service. 93 

August 18th ... I attended the Hall this morning, which was 
rendered verry agreeable by one circumstance. A gentleman 
from Tennessee, making application for the professor-ship of 
Rhetoric, logic & Belles Lettrs in the University to be vacated 
soon by Dr. Green, 94 had occasion to visit the Hill. He came from 
his country with the great Bishop Owtey, 95 who, as they came 
along requested him to become a member of the Philanthropic 
Society. Dr. [John T.] Wheate 96 the gentleman of whom I 
speak according to the instruction of Bishop Owtey joined this 
morning as an "honorary member." He made a few remarks ex- 
pressive of his gratification in becoming a member as well as 
for the membership, as for following the instructions of his 
Bishop. . . . 

[98] August 21st 

I have had Latin lessons to day, which are verry delightful. We 
read Cicero's Cato and Selius or de senectute, 97 a little disquisi- 
tion which has always attracted admiration. Contains many use- 
ful lessons of morality from which both the young and old may 
profit. It exhorts to temperance, and self-rule, restraint of pas- 
sion and subjection of the will, resignation, our ills and gratitude 
for our blessings, and to contentment. The character of its author 
holding such estimation in the minds of all men, is heightened 
to almost sublimity, by expressing such divine sentiments. The 
purity of morals which he professes belongs more properly to a 
Christian age. So high, his philosophy! So sublime his precept! 
I have read but little to day — to morrow I may [99] do more. 

83 Visitors provided the student with a fresh audience and gave the "show- 
off" an additional stimulus; see the entry below for August 18, 1849. 

94 William Mercer Green (1798-1887), born in Wilmington; graduated, 
1818, second distinction; afterwards Bishop of Mississippi and Chancellor 
of the University of the South, D.D., LL.D.; responsible for building the 
first church in the village, the Episcopal, finished largely with his own 
funds. Battle, History of the University, I, 258, 455-456, 546-547. 

95 Bishop James Hervey Otey, Episcopal Bishop of Tennessee, 1834-1863; 
tutor at the University, 1820-1821. Battle, Sketches, 80. 

98 Reverend John Thomas Wheat, D.D., professor of rhetoric and logic, 
1850. Battle, History of the University, I, 524, 581, 617-618. 

97 One of the "Tusculan Disputations," written between 45-44 B.C., a dia- 
logue on old age, imitated in part from the conversation of Socrates and 
Cephalus in Plato's Republic. Cato "The Censor" (234-149 B.C.) is made 
the main interlocutor in the dialogue, explaining how the burdens of old 
age may best be borne, concluding with a reasoned statement of his con- 
viction of immortality of the soul. It is characteristic that Garrett, beset as 
he now was by financial worries and physical isolation, orphaned, and a 
ward of his brother, should be attracted to this consoling philosophy. 

384 The North Carolina Historical Review 

August 21 

This morning our lesson was in Philosophy, 98 and as I expected 
to be called upon to recite, I commited verry thoroughly. I was 
called upon as I expected and made a pretty good recitation, I am 
now free for three or four lessons. The class is so large that each 
student does not recite but about every fourth time and the Pro- 
fessor is so regular that we can always tell when we are going 
to be called on to recite. Reading over my lesson to keep up the 
connection of thought is sufficient for me for several times, as I 
have had time to day to read a script of Hume. . . . 

[100] August 22nd 

I cannot stop to make Enquiries [entries ?] about any regular 
duty which I have to perform in College. I deem it entirely un- 
necessary to state that I had lessons in Philosophy to day, in 
French yesterday and &c, unless I meet with something extra- 
ordinary [101] or worthy preserving the remembrance of. When 
therefore a day passes by which has brought with it nothing of 
interest out of the general course of events I call to mind a re- 
mark which was made to me by one of my friends to whom I 
communicated my determination of keeping a journal. He was 
of the opinion that the events of a life at College were not suffi- 
ciently importante to render the exercize agreable. And I imagine 
that if I were to relate the rotine of college duties as they pass 
daily I should render this exercize monotonous enough. Instead 
of writing them out in full I should invent such initials and ab- 
breviations as I have done for denoting my attendance of pray- 
ers. I can not find time every day to devote to any thing else but 
my text-books. . . . 

August 23rd 

I have occasion to render the observation made a few days ago 
that when men have been subjected to rigid discipline, and sud- 
denly freed breath [e] forth in those unhappy irregularities, 
which disgrace them This gives rise to the mistrust of the capa- 
city of man for self-rule. This remark was suggested by a cir- 
cumstance, which happened to day. In the afternoon near the 
hour for recitation a heavy rain set in, and fell for about an hour 
verry fast. Just before the hour expired a message was received 
at the recitation room that the duty of prayer would be dispensed 
with this evening. And then what a noise! The room was in an 
instant in a violent [102] uproar with the applause of the stu- 
dents. Though the bell had not wrung, the Professor was obliged 

98 It is obvious from this that modern education did not invent all of our 
poor teaching practices, as it has been accused by some of doing. The double 
entry here for August 21 seems clearly to be merely that, the second being 
a continuation of the first. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 385 

to let them retire, so impatient were they to break the restraints 
of authority. A cry arose from every part of the Campus, which 
was prolonged untill the students reached the hotel. Nor did the 
noise cease there. They burst into the dining room in the utmost 
confusion, heedless alike of all cause of propriety and decency, as 
of the respect due to the presence of a lady. They even went so 
far as to use indecent and profane language in the hearing of 
Miss Nancy, who however familiar she may be with the students 
has not lost all claim to respect. When I see such violences com- 
mited upon decency and good breeding, I become more and more 
thoroughly convinced of the utter destitution of good sense 
amongst a large portion of my species. I come to scorn and di- 
spise them. I do indeed believe that such displays of the want 
of good sense has been the principle cause of the multiplication 
of the number of misanthropists in the world. Nothing could 
drive me sooner into solitude, and into forgetfulness of my fel- 
low creatures than some of the rude and detestable practices of 
which they are guilty. But this indecent behavior was attended 
with another circumstance which renders it still more gross. It 
was the intermission of the duty of prayer only, which caused 
this violent disturbance. Each one should hide his face in shame 
and confusion for the confesion of joy, at being freed from at- 
tending upon Divine worship." . . . 

( Most of the entries from August 24 through August 30 are 
devoted to a summary of reading in history.) 

[110] August 31st 

The day has been highly interesting, teeming with new and in- 
teresting events all of which I shall I fear be unable to relate. 
Early in the morning the class repaired to recitation room of 
the President who in consequence of the indisposition of the 
Professor of Rhetoric [met the class] This recitation was de- 
cidedly the most entertaining that we have yet had. I marked 
the contrast. Dr. Green, although a verry good and pious man, 
is considered but verry ordinary in intellectal capacity When 
his mind takes hold of a subject to investigate it, it seems that 

99 See note 51, above, in this connection, and Knight, Documentary His- 
tory of Education, III, 281. The Board of Trustees finally became aware of 
the situation and relinquished the rule to the degree that "... communi- 
cants within ten days after entrance, on notifying the faculty of their 
wishes, could attend the church of their own choice, but could not change 
during the session. The Faculty should require attendance by all somewhere 
as a University duty. . . ." Battle, History of the University, I, 520. This 
statute prevailed for ten years, communicants only being excused from 
Chapel worship. Later, William Mercer Green managed to wring from the 
Trustees for the students an option of attending church in the village or 
in Gerrard Hall, on the campus. Battle, History of the University, I, 547. 

386 The North Carolina Historical Review 

it restricts the view to one point. 100 The author of these lectures 
for an instance appears to disadvantage under the instruction of 
this man. When I go in the recitation I have impressed upon my 
mind in a clear [111] light the views of the author, the view is 
regular and consistant, perspicuous and closely divided. The con- 
nection is permanently marked between the parts subject or ends 
of the lecture. But when we have Dr. Green to labor on it, our 
view is drawn to one or two points, they may be however more 
prominent. But instead of this Gov. Swain when he cases 101 a 
subject, with elastic wing his mind springs above its common 
level, he lays before you a view at first large grand and beautiful, 
he talks on and your vision is extended, he seems to scan the 
landscape and horizon. He talkes on new beauties before unseen 
rise up to view. We seem to be surrounded by a landscape of 
thought, and all dispersed over its uneven surface the bold fea- 
tures of mountains and hills of widespread forest and extended 
planes of fields. It is singular that two minds should place any 
thing in such different postures. 102 The hour for second recitation 
in the day was taken for composition, we were highly entertained 
with the reading of these. But the hour which afforded still more 
delight was that of the third recitation. 103 Gov. Swain instead of 

100 Garrett's impression of Green is confirmed by Battle: ". . . He was a 
good teacher, as far as he went, but his heart seemed to be in his clerical 
duties more than in his department. In his Chapel preaching he carefully 
refrained from inculcating doctrines peculiar to his denomination. His serm- 
ons were always sensible and interesting, but he could not be called eloquent. 
His delivery was smooth and graceful, but not energetic." Battle, History of 
the University, I, 546. With reference to the matter of sectarian indoctri- 
nation, see Appendix F. 

101 Modern dictionaries record no use of this word this way except for the 
criminal cant, "to case the joint" meaning to make a thorough survey, for 
the purpose of robbery. 

102 David Lowry Swain (1801-1868), Governor of N. C., 1832-1835, Presi- 
dent of the University, 1835-1868, was always referred to as "Governor." 
A bright conversationalist, he was given to puns; he had a facile memory, 
genial manners, a kind heart; not an extensive reader, his learning was 
accurate as far as it went; slightly deaf, he would sometimes enter a stu- 
dent's room soon after knocking without waiting for the invitation to enter 
and catch a roomful of card players; the cards were always confiscated 
and added to the basketful he said he always had in his room; physically he 
was knock-kneed, round-shouldered, and homely; the main subjects he 
taught were constitutional law, intellectual philosophy, and moral science; 
he opposed entry of the railroad into Chapel Hill on the grounds that it 
would aid students in running off during term! Battle, History of the Uni- 
versity, I, 528-537. 

M3 In the earliest days of the University the student's school day began 
with sunrise prayers, except during the period from November 1 to Febru- 
ary 15, when they were held at 7:00 a.m. From prayers to 8:00 a.m. there 
was a break, followed by a study hour from 8:00 to 9:00; three hours of 
classes followed until noon; study or classes recommenced at 2:00; eve- 
ning prayers came at 5:00, followed by a break until 8:00, following which, 
students were required to be in their rooms, no departure without consent. 
Saturday morning was an exception to this, it being reserved for speaking, 
reading, and exhibiting compositions. Orations were also given in the eve- 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 387 

making the lesson in Rhetoric the subject of the recitation, took 
occasion to read to us a portion of the address delivered by Judge 
Gaston 104 at this place together with a sermon delivered by Dr 
Wm Hooper, late Professor of Languages in the University upon 
the force of habit. 105 . . . [112] We had a highly interesting meet- 
ing this evening. The question was debated at considerable length 
Some of the gentlemen, however who were prone to bombast 
and vain show were verry disgusting. 106 

ning after prayers in the halls of the Societies. In the 1840's changes in- 
cluded one by the Board of Trustees which ordained on December 10, 1842, 
"... that the number of recitations attended by each class in the institution 
shall be sixteen during each week ..." and the faculty was to so regulate 
classes that there would be at least one recitation or lecture on each day of 
the week, including Sunday. Trustee Minutes, December 10, 1842. Battle 
(History of the University, I, 559) gives a vivid description of the condi- 
tions prevailing when Garrett was a student. "There were no recitations 
before breakfast on Saturdays and Sundays, and consequently students 
could, after attending prayers, sleep until breakfast hour. On these morn- 
ings particularly the spectacle was by no means edifying. Numbers would 
rush into the Chapel with faces unwashed and hair uncombed, clad only in 
chamber wrappers, great coats, or counterpanes, and as soon as the longed 
for Amen was pronounced, hurry back to bed." During Garrett's time the 
first recitation, Monday through Friday, came before breakfast, the second 
at 11:00 a.m.,: the third at 4:00 p.m. in the winter and 5:00 in other seasons; 
from afternoon recitations, all went to Chapel for prayers. Study hours 
were from 9:00 to 12:00 noon, and 2:00 to 5:00 in one term, and 8:00 to 
12:00 noon and 3:00 to 6:00 in the other. By 8:00 or 9:00, depending on 
the season, students were supposed to be in rooms either sleeping or study- 

In 1842 students petitioned the faculty to abolish Saturday classes and 
this was approved, provided the Di and Phi would have their own meetings 
on Saturday morning, including declamations and compositions, preceded 
by debates on Friday night, participation being compulsory, of course. 

104 Judge William P. Gaston, trustee (1802-1844), and representative in 
Congress for a time. 

105 William M. Hooper (1792-1876), professor of rhetoric and logic, 1825- 
1828, and professor of ancient languages, 1828-1837. Battle, History of the 
University, I, 436-438. 

"• Clearly the Societies were not social organizations and only a little 
intuition assures one that the meetings were on occasion dull. The real 
function of the debates, however, can be seen through examination of Gar- 
rett's activities as recorded in the Minutes of the Philanthropic Society, 
1847-1853, University Archives. There were three kinds of activities as 
noted above: writing, reading of compositions (which were graded and 
criticized on both the oral reading as well as on the actual composition), 
and debating. The Minutes are entered only by date, meetings being held 
on Friday nights. 

The following topics, debated on the dates shown, are in all cases prac- 
tically related to classroom recitations; this can often be confirmed by 
comparing the debate topic with a comment by Garrett on his classwork 
for that day. The list is illustrative only, and not complete. 

August 4, 1849 "Were the Mexicans justifiable in imprisoning the Tex- 
ians [sic] captured at Mina[?]?" Garrett defended and won for the 

August 11, 1849 (Saturday morning) Garrett declaimed, no topic given. 

August 25, 1849 Garrett composed (wrote and read a composition, no 
topic given). 

388 The North Carolina Historical Review 

[113] Sept. 3rd 

I awoke this morning refreshed by the sleep of last night, but 
was unhappy to find no water in my pitcher. I was obliged to go 
of to prayers without my toilet made, or even begun. The servant 
I hope will not grow so negligent again, as this is of great incon- 
venience to me. It not only break into my regularity of habit but 
renders me dull sleepy and stupid. . . . 107 

[116] Sept. 5th 

I have studied Philosophy principly to day, and could find time 
for little else. I read some English history but however anxious 
I may be to remark something upon the events [117] that have 

August 31, 1849 Garrett conducted several new members to the hall, 
then debated, "Ought the governments of Europe to recognize the indepen- 
dence of Hungary?" Garrett successfully defended the affirmative. 

September 22, 1849 Composed. 

September 28, 1849 Debated, "Have the advantages, immediately arising 
from the Crusades, been sufficiently numerous and beneficial to compensate 
for the injustice and misery attendant upon them?" Garrett was defeated 
for the negative; vote against him was 10 to 5. 

October 19, 1849 Garrett appointed corrector. According to Phi laws 
and regulations (see Connor, Documentary History, I, 480-483), correctors 
were chosen by ballot every six weeks and their duty was ". . . to inspect 
the compositions of the members in the course of each week and report 
their corrections or remarks at the ensuing Society [meeting]." This 
activity has, perhaps unfortunately, been almost completely taken over in 
modern college freshman composition classes by the instructor. 

October 20, 1849 Composed. 

October 26, 1849 Garrett defended and lost the negative of "Would it be 
advantageous to our Union to take Canada into the Confederation?" 

February 2, 1850 Read a composition, no topic given. 

February 16, 1850 Declaimed, no topic given. 

March 2, 1850 Read a composition, no topic. 

March 29, 1850 Missed his first meeting since joining the organization 
September 1, 1849. 

On March 12, 1850, as supervisor for the meeting, Garrett reported on 
the state of the library and the treasury; he found insufficient seriousness 
of attitude by the librarian; reported conduct and morals of the member- 
ship as a whole good except for the freshmen — for whose poor behavior 
the upper classmen were, he asserted, clearly to blame because they did not 
furnish the freshmen with good examples. The obvious inconsistency in his 
report apparently did not appear to him. 

One can conclude that the classroom deficiencies of Garrett's University 
training were to some degree compensated by his Society activity, especially 
in view of the following quotation from the regulations (Connor, Docu- 
mentary History, I, 480-483) : "Debating on a question shall be regularly 
performed at each meeting; the debates shall be opened by two persons 
appointed for that purpose, under the penalty of a fine; and after they 
have done, all the members have a right to join in the Debate." Thus, after 
formal debate, the floor was thrown open for general debate, and partici- 
pation by the whole Society. 

107 Besides "Doctor" November (see note 42, above), there were other ser- 
vants who attained some degree of renown in Chapel Hill; one was a 
licensed woodcutter named Tom Jones who sold corn liquor under the name 
of "lightwood," or fat pine! Sam Morphis, a mulatto slave, was allowed 
to hire out his own time by paying his master, James M. Morphis (who 
left and went to Texas) a stipulated annual sum — obviously an illegal 
procedure, but no one objected. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 389 

passed in review to day time will not suffice. Some portion of my 
time has been spent in preparing to speak upon the next query. 
I think I am able to give some reasons why the independence of 
Hungary should be acknowledged. 108 

Sept. 6th 

The subject of electrical phenomena in natural philosophy has 
become one of interest. The attractive and repulsive energies of 
the electrical fluid especially when they are found to be causes for 
many of those phenomina which take place in the material world, 
are truely wonderful It is from this circumstance that men have 
been willling to attribute so much more than is due to electricity. 
Especially since the identity between electricity and lightning 
has been discovered men have been prone to exagerate. They 
make it an efficient cure for all diseases, a cause for all changes 
and different appearances in nature, for even the motions of the 
heavenly bodies, and finally for animal existence itself. But man- 
kind have not yet reached those advantages and almost total mas- 
tery over nature which they have expected. The philosopher's 
stone has not yet been discovered and the probability is that it 
will remain so. But men have raised their hopes two high, and 
the consequence is that the disappointment must be proportion- 
ally great. Nevertheless, if their bright dreams and prospective 
visions told the hour of the coming millenium the disappointment 
should not entirely dissipate the hopes that have been [118] ex- 
cited. They did not in a former century dream that news would 
in the nineteenth century be carried by and with the spead of 
lightning. Thus all those expectations which have been excited 
among men may not be verified and still more than any sangui- 
nary visionaries can expect, be accomplished. There is not a 
doubt but that some of those phenomina which occur in nature 
may be found to have their ultimate cause in this. Indeed the 
simularity between some of [the] appearances of electric and 
magnetic phenomena has excited the expectation that at some 
future time and not far distant there will be found to exist an 
intimate connection between the two fluids which have been sup- 
posed to be the cause of the phenomina in both cases. How far 
the science of galvanism has proceeded I am unable to say, but 
there must have been found verry intimate connexions, which 
have raised this to the dignity of a seperate and destinct science. 
This is assigned to the department of Chemistry and therefore 
we have not been able to study it. 109 

108 Garrett won his debate ; see note 106, above. 

109 The modern compartmentalization of subject matter was yet a long 
way off; the assignment of electricity to a chemistry class, however, was 
quite consistent with the belief that it was a fluid and like other fluids, 
presumably, to be analyzed chemically. 

390 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Sept. 7th 

The day has been one of exciting interest. Not only have the re- 
citations in Rhetoric — a subject always interesting — afforded a 
solid enjoyment, but there have arrisen several circumstances 
which have more particularly been a subject of excitement. I 
allude to the exercizes of the Hall. I was appointed principle de- 
bater for to night, in opposition to a gentleman who had acquired 
some reputation as a pretty speaker and sound reasoner. I en- 
tertained that opinion [119] which gave me some anxiety. The 
idea of the shame which I must of necessity feel if to use a vul- 
gar phrase "I had been taken through," kept me vacilating be- 
twen two opinions. I could not at first determine whether it would 
be better to drop the subject entirely or make my most desperate 
effort. But reflecting that in the former case my disinclination 
to debate as begotten by fear of my rival, would of itself subject 
me to ridicule and contempt. I chose the latter as the most easy 
for avoiding that which I most dread — ridicule — but as the most 
disastrous, if I should fail. After this remark I must say that I 
did speak, and so far from being driven from my position, the 
shock of the gentleman's powerful battery, more powerful from 
reputation than fact, perhaps was not able to make any impres- 
sion upon my [mind]. I established three distinct claims which 
the state of Hungary has to the recognition of her independence. 
The gentleman replied, but his remarks were totally unfounded 
in fact, barren of reason and argument, a vast conglomeration 
of broken sentences and distorted figures, a species of bombast 
which I have not heard equaled for some time. These are not my 
opinion of this gentleman's speech, for whom I have the utmost 
respect and with whom in fact I have extreme intimacy. Other- 
wise I would not have spoken in this manner, lest I might be 
accused of self-attestation and vanity. . . . 

Sept. 8th 

[120] ... At twelve I repaired to the Library to return my books, 
and while there attempted to spend the hour in catching at some 
thought. I seated myself upon a divan and commenced reading, 
but presently some gentlemen had the room sounding and re- 
echoing the shrill note of their whistle. This is the kind of dis- 
turbance which I can in no wise bear. I could not request them 
to hush, for this they would deem impolite, yet I must be allowed 
to say there should be a rule among men to which all should 
conform, a strict observance of silence in the presence of those 
who are reading. . . . 

[125] Sept. 12th 

I hear this morning something of a spree which some of the [126] 

students got in. I say I heard of it because I did not participate. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 391 

This was the occasion of the visit of a circus at Hillboro about 
twelve miles from this place About fifty or if I exagerate, about 
thirty after attending evening prayers, put out for the place of 
exhibition, turned over their carriages several times, broke a 
few wheels and C. [ ?] Arrived they engage in drinking and ca- 
rousing, each endeavoring to outstrip the other in the velocity 
of his inebriation, the height of liquor in his glass &c. Unfortu- 
nately pretty soon several found themsef in that state of insensi- 
bility that they could not exercize any of their senses, and poor 
fellows! pittiful creatures! their money gone, no circus to be 
seen, and unable to move an inch toward home without the kind 
assistance of a friend. But the most ludicrous scene is yet to oc- 
cur. The Circus has closed and all are in a hurry to fly home, to 
be able to answer to their names at prayers. In the hurry and 
bustle, better say the inability on the part of the students them- 
selves, the drivers throw their senseless bodies into the carriages, 
pelmel and crossways, a heavy load indeed. They get home past 
midnight bereft of sleep and repose, except such as had been ar- 
tifically procured. But what was more vexatious, not content with 
losing their own alloted hours of sleep in midnight revel, began 
to disturb their fellow students by ringing the bell. I awoke and 
looked out at the window to see if it was day but instead of find- 
ing the bell ringing for prayers was obliged to come to the un- 
comfortable conclusion [127] that some fool who doubtless often 
exercises his physical strength, mental strength he has not, had 
hold of the [s]tring. Some one who like myself, I was told this 
morning, threw a rock at him but did not succeed in their pur- 
pose I had thought of this I should have probably thrown a few 
at the gentleman, at the fool, — no gentleman will willfully dis- 
turb another in this way. Bad lessons to day have been the con- 
sequence of all this. 110 

Sept 13th 

This day has been entirely taken up with the science of Optics 
in Philosophy, a subject quite interesting indeed; but I would 
willingly escape from the duty of studying it in the language of 
the author. ... It is plain that the author had not a distinct idea 
of what he was writing about, while the collocation of his words 
and phrases render his language almost unintelligible. I exper- 
ience more difficulty in finding the meaning of his language, than 
the truth of this demonstration. 

1,0 It would be interesting to know how many readers of this diary recog- 
nize from their own days at their own alma maters the scene described 

392 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Sept. 14th 

The day has been highly agreable, especially in the evening. . . . 
[128] the most interesting part of the meeting was witnessing the 
debut of a freshman into the flowery fields of oratory Now we 
like modesty so that it manifested not too much at the expense 
of some other quality, but we do detest vanity in all shapes. This 
novice had the presumption to get upon the floor no less than four 
times. This it is true may be pardoned in him, because he is a 
new member, and does not know that the most dignified and par- 
limentary usage is to speak only once, and never to interupt the 
speaker unless it be for a gross misrepresentation which he 
makes. This gentleman however, acquitted himself honorably. 
He battle successfully with a Junior both in wit and argu- 
ment. . . . 

Sept 15th 

. . . [129] In the morning I attended on the Hall, heard some 
beautiful declamation and composition. Some one had been so 
industrious as to make some verry sarcastic remarks upon the 
debate last night, which were deposited in the box and read be- 
fore the Hall. m The authors however seemed to be greatly de- 
void of sense of propriety . . . which rendered the piece verry 
personal. I regretted that I did not intepose my own voice and 
have the reading of the piece stoped, but the worst had come as 
I thought before it was possible for me to do so. Another piece 
subscribed "Elbow" gave a few hunches to the inexperienced 
freshmen, warning them against the insidious desighns of a man 
here who is held in verry low repute for his mean character. He 
holds sometimes secret communication with the inmates of rooms 
by means of key-holes. The rascal betrayed the guilt in his face. 
I am sorrow to say that I once had an intimacy with him. I read 
in the evening about a hundred pages of the Treatise of Voltaire 
on Toleration. This is a remarkable piece of composition Its 
loose arragement may at first pre-dispose one to think that there 
is any argument in it but upon nicer discrimination it will be 
found to contain a great deal of argument. 112 . . . 

[134] Sept. 20th 

I have at last found a subject for composition, exercize in which 

I mostly intend this diary. 113 I have for the subject of my com- 

111 See Appendix B for an explanation of the function of the "box" 
referred to here, and its connection with the existing methods of teaching 
students how to read, write, and think. 

112 One wonders whether Voltaire on "Toleration" made Garrett any more 
tolerant of the acts of his classmates whom he criticizes so frankly. 

118 This little "set piece" is included as a good example of the kind of 
composition which was required of the student in his rehetoric classes; 
about five hundred words long, it is doubtless the ancestor of the modern 
freshman, unique (thank heavens!) exercise called a "theme." 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 393 

position for Gov. Swain to day the noted aphorism of Lord Ba- 
con. "Reading makes a full man., conversation a ready man, and 
writing an accurate man." I regarded it in my composition which 
I have prepared to hand in as a complete system of education 
and from some remarks made by the President I must use the 
vanity of stating that he coincides with me, while others of the 
students tooke different, or if different only assented to the prop- 
ositions. No perfect system of education has ever been formed, 
such a system as would lay down easy and simple propositions, 
carry the mind by a gentle and almost imperceptible gradation 
from proposition to proposition from truth to thruth & from 
principle to principle, and make the way to knowledge smooth 
and delightful. Far from it. The best systems are attended with 
difficulty, and all knowledge must be acquired by the most stren- 
uous exertion. The renown of having given the best system to 
the world is due to Lord Bacon a system which is as comprehense 
and as easy as the imperfections of the human intellect will allow, 
one instance only is necessary for illustration. Reading makes a 
full man. But what does reading imply ? Does it merely mean 
that one should pronounce the words and run through the sen- 
tences of an author ? If it comprehends no more than this the 
proposition would be utterly false. But further, does it imply 
merely the [135] acquiring the sense ? Evidently one could not 
be termed a full man who read only with this view. It implies 
some thing infinitely greater. It presupposes in the first place 
habits of attention, training the mind in elementary truths, and 
a knowledge of the laws of generalization and analogy. This 
must be the preperation, in order that after discovering the 
sense and gaining a knowledge of events their relation may be 
observed, & their effect discovered the dependance of one fact 
upon another, reworked, and deductions drawn. In fine there 
must be a full and perfect exercize of the reasoning faculties 
Comparison and causiality must enter largely as digesting ma- 
terials in the mas of rubbish and crude matter. Besides Reading 
implies a use of memory. For of what advantage would it be to 
gain facts, and methodise the relation of circumstances or draw 
deductions and establish truths, if indistincly imprinted upon 
the memory they are soon blotted out. Reading therefore although 
it may be an amusing exercise at some time, yet to read for in- 
struction is a work of the greatest difficulty employing the at- 
tention to discern, reason to apply, and memory to retain what 
we read. Such an exercise as this can not fail to be the most in- 
structive Conversation also if it do mean mere tatling and writ- 
ing if it do not imply scribling are also exercises which can not 
fail to improve Indeed there is not probably a single instance 
of the rise of any great men, or at least any well ballanced mind 

394 The North Carolina Historical Review 

who has not employed these three means of [136] acquiring 
knowledge in their just proportion Gov. Swain mentioned the 
name of Gov. Graham of this state as an instance of a great man 
who has ballanced his education according to the maxim of Lord 
Bacon. His writings and speeches show that he has not neglected 
Rhetoric, nor has he failed to employ his time in useful reading. 

[139] Sept 22nd 

The day has been excedingly dull as almost all Saturdays are 
[140] at College 114 I did nothing in the morning although I had 
intended to read several pages of Hume. This was the fault of 
one of my new alliances, I mean that one [of] the new students 
having contracted a friendship for me as I am glad to mention, 
requested me most earnestly to call upon him at some leisure hour 
and he would gratify my verry intense delight in a game at back- 
gammon. . . . We played untill we could quit on even grounds. 
I was glad of this fortune of the game, for my natural propen- 
sity to exult in success might be too overbearing for my new 
fleged companion at least it would have been impolite, with as 
refined a little fellow as he is. His name is Shepherd. 115 In the 
evening I spent a few hours in the Library of the Dialectic So- 
ciety . . . supposing that I might find some book which might 
make a valuable addition to my catalouge which I shall read while 
I am here. I found none scearcely except what we have in our li- 
brary. I think the selection is not superior to that of the Philan- 
thropic, the arrangement not half as good. 

[145] Sept. 28 

The middle of the session has arrived and the time for sending 
out reports to the parents and guardians of the students has 
come. Great excitement prevails in College with regard to them. 116 
It is most amusing to see the Freshmen gathering about in crowds 
and squadrons, discussing the respective [146] merits of each 

114 This is a characteristic "college Saturday" for Garrett, with the possible 
exception that he seldom "played" this much. 

115 Possibly Frederick Charles Shepard, 1849-1851, from Raleigh; Gar- 
rett's condescending attitude suggests a freshman which Shepard would 
have been at this time. Battle, Sketches, 206. 

118 The University regulations provided for seven levels of grades at the 
time Garrett was there: "very good," "good," "very respectable," "respect- 
able," "tolerable," "bad," "very bad." Battle, History of the University, I, 
553. A student also received marks as to degrees of distinction if his 
marks were good enough; there were three grades of these: first distinc- 
tion, if all or nearly all grades were "very good"; if they all averaged 
"good" the result was second distinction; if the average was "very respect- 
table," third distinction was awarded. For Garrett's student record, see 
the biographical sketch and note 7, above. It is impossible to tell with 
absolute accuracy when Garrett ceased being a freshman, a sophomore, or 
a junior, but judging from records referred to in the biographical sketch 
he is now, September, 1849, a junior. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 395 

their rank in the class, and what each one claims for himself 
Here is a verry good oportunity for investigating that folly of 
all men, vanity. . . . We had a fine display of eloquence this eve- 
ning in the Hall. Such grand conceptions ! ... To give an instance, 
one debator was in favor of a rail-road to cross the Rocky moun- 
tains, and connect the lakes of the north with the pacific, by 
which the commerce of Europe might be exported up the St. 
Lawrance, scale the waterfalls of the roaring cataract, undis- 
mayed, mount the steep heights of the Rocky mountains, and 
empty herself in the Pacific. Grand conception! worse than the 
Bentonion. 117 

Sept 29th 

This day has been one eventful in one respect probably the most 
eventful that I have passed at College. 118 A peice this morning 
was read from the box. It accused a man of evesdroping, under 
the same name as one which was read a few weeks ago. The man 
whom it accused rose upon the floor and charged me with the 
authorship in a language peculiarly agravating. When he took 
his seat I arose and charged him with evesdoping me. This was 
a literal deduction from the Course which he [147] presumed. 
I could do nothing more, but emediately upon this he advanced 
towards and drew from his breast a pistol but droped it before 
he could get a chance even to cock it. The President ordered that 
he be put out of the hall which was immediately executed. Upon 
the house coming to order I stated to the President that I did 
write the piece. The matter stood in this position untill night. 
McDuffie a man for whom I have hitherto regarded verry highly 
came to my room to settle the matter. He stated as a reason why 
his roommate charged the authorship to me was that he had 
heard a report that I had accused him of the charge made in the 
piece. True I did. I had reason founded on circumstantial evi- 
dence to suspect him. I did not however try to traduce a man's 
character for nothing. I warned my friends who have lately come 

117 A sarcastic reference to Benton Utley; see note 35, above. The St. 
Lawrence seaway was finally completed and opened to traffic in July, 1958, 
one hundred years after Garrett's remarks. 

118 This week, ending October 5, was a momentous one in Garrett's Uni- 
versity life. Duelling was forbidden by the early bylaws of the University, 
yet relatively common. Battle records that two students were expelled for 
the offense in 1803. History of the University, I, 198. The Faculty Journals 
for this period are spotted with instances of students being punished for 
pulling dirks and pistols on classmates, especially in the first three decades 
of the nineteenth century; such activity did, however, decrease as time 
passed. For some unknown reason there is no evidence in University records 
that Garrett's episode was brought to the attention of the faculty in such 
a way as to punish any of the participants ; the intermediary in the affair, 
referred to immediately below, is probably Malcom J. Macduffie, freshman 
declaimer in 1848, graduated with second distinction in 1851 in the same 
class with Garrett. Battle, History of the University, I, 510, 521, 624, 803. 

396 The North Carolina Historical Review 

to college against the insidious desighns of this mean fellow and 
in giving plausibility to this I related the circumstances to them 
upon which I founded the disgraceful charge When McDuffie 
attempted to settle the difficulty, I told him all that I have said 
with regard to him, told him that it was a matter of indiference 
to me whether he committed the crime or not. I only wished him 
to make an explanation to the public who would acquit or con- 
demn him if it was or was not clear I did not consider that I 
was injured, if such had been the case, only those who do not 
want a rascal at their door catching their secrets through the 

Sept. 30th 

This the Sabbath but it does not appear like a Sabbath to me. 
[148] At every step I am in danger of being attacked. I know 
not in what way, whether from behind a wall in the open field, 
whether by myself or in a crowd. One attempt at my life is a 
sufficient excuse for my going armed. I felt not right however. 
The idea of going to church with means for killing a man if he 
should attack me is the most unpleasant business I hope indeed 
that no one will think me wrong in this matter I will act honor- 
able if I can. I shall take the advice of those who are most re- 
spected, and who have firmly engrafted in them gentlemany prin- 
ciples. I hope I may be excused from writing further my feelings 
and thoughts do not prompt it. 

Oct 1st 

I had entered upon my duties this week with much alacrity I 
had so far as I could cast aside the thoughts of a few days ago, 
when an incident occured unparralled in the history of my life. 
The fellow with whom I had a slight broil and with whom I re- 
flected the charge must be burdensome made an attack upon me 
this evening. He demanded a statement of the charges which I 
had reported him to be guilty of. It was with effort it appeared 
that I could get him to place the right construction upon the mat- 
ter. Actuated by a feeling of fear or cowardice, he was about to 
go off without requesting me to do any thing but not to speak 
to him. I told him in rather a jocular manner, or least contemp- 
tious, that I should not have done that at any rate. This inflamed 
him, and seeing his friend start to turn back, who had left us 
speaking in the road, he did not hesitate to attack thinking it 
impossible that he would [149] get whiped before he could come 
to his assistence. He struck me first in the eye and bruised it 
considerably. I engaged with him but found my strength not 
sufficient to make any impression upon him and that he would 
severely injure me. I got myself disengaged. This however was 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 397 

affected principly by the aid of my friend Moore 119 who was with 
me in my walk. McKay's 120 friend for such is the name of this 
man, had hold of me and when I found what I was about, I raised 
upon my knee, and seeing my antagonist about ten steps in the 
hands of my friend. I requested him leave him, and I immediately 
drew a pistol and determined to shoot him, but the cap passed 
and the pistol snaped. 121 I can not now say that this was fortu- 
nate though I may be inclined to think so, as my friends tell me, 
in after life. McKay made his threat that he would take my life 
upon first sight. While his friend says I passed the same threat, 
but I am firmly convinced that I did no such thing. Moore says 
I did not who was perfectly cool. White was frightened verry 
much, and his testimony ought not to be relied on much. When 
I came up to College I met John Manning, 122 my friend who ad- 
vised me to arm myself and on the first aggressive movement to 
shoot him. This is what I have determined to do. But before I 
go to bed to night the scene changes. McDufiie comes to me and 
ask on the part of McKay that I retract my threat I told him 
that if [I] made any threat it was the fartherest from my inten- 
tion, which I deemed as much as I could admit. I told him further 
that it was my privilege to demand the first retra[c]tion He told 
me that McKay had determined not to put [150] his threat into 
execution. I did not think he would, for he is too much coward 
for that, he knew that I would be too quick for him. I do not 
however feel any more safety at present, for I can not depend 
on his word. I think he is mean enough to shoot me from ambush 
I should not probably think this, but others concur with me In 
this position the matter stands. The fellow however will not at- 
tempt any thing verry serious I hope, I should regard. 

Oct. 2nd 

I did not go to prayers this morning. I slept with my friend Moore 

last night, who did me such great service on the battle field last 

n9 John W. Moore, Hertford County, graduated in 1853. Battle, History 
of the University, I, 804. 

120 It is difficult to identify Garrett's assailant accurately, since the inci- 
dent appears not to have come to the attention of the two Societies or 
faculty. One Neill McKay, sophomore declaimer, 1849, and trustee of the 
University from 1862-1868, is a possibility; Battle, History of the Univer- 
sity, I, 521, 825; also, one Neill McKay, Jr. from Memphis, freshman de- 
claimer in 1848, graduated with third distinction the same year as Garrett 
may be the attacker; Battle, History of the University, I, 625, 803. We can- 
not eliminate Daniel N. and John A. McKay from Cumberland County, who 
graduated in 1853 as "next best scholars" in that year; Battle, History of 
the University, I, 636, 804. 

121 Garrett's sentence structure in this entire passage may suffer from 
the emotion involved ; it is difficult to determine, for example, the antecedent 
of the three "him's" in this particular sentence. 

123 John Manning, Jr., graduated, 1850 ; declaimed his senior year on "The 
Influence of Religion on Law," Battle, History of the University, I, 616. 

398 The North Carolina Historical Review 

evening. He is a brave boy, cool and collected, yet active and reso- 
lute. His excitement only puts him into action without tending 
to parallize any of his efforts. My feelings this morning were 
very disagreable. My intention was fixed that if I saw any move- 
ment towards an attack, the least motion I should not hesitate 
to kill the man who so wantonly disturbed my peace. No sighn 
however has so far been perceived by which I might judge that 
he had the least intention of killing me, and indeed he looked 
upon me rather suspiciously than otherwise. But if he expects 
that I shall attempt his life he sets a higher value on it than I do. 
He is a dishonest and a dishonorable man, and while I can not 
meet him under these circumstances upon a field of honor, the 
dishonor of attacking even a dog without giving him notice, 
would even deter me from making the least aggressive move- 
ment. The intense excitement which pervades college has not 
scarcely seemed to decline. I [151] have already been fatigued 
with the solicitations of my friends for my safety. I say for my 
own Credit too that I am supported in my conduct by the largest 
part of the students The least expression of distrust on my part, 
that I have not acted right and honorable, has always been met 
almost invariably by the exclamation "You did perfectly right," 
or some simular one. 

Oct 3rd 

The intense excitement under which I have labored for sometime 
has completely deranged my thoughts. The disposition of my 
time has been quite irregular. I can [not] read, or study with 
much advantage. 

Oct 4th 

It is only after the storm has passed that the mariner is able to 
estimate the wounded and shattered condition of his vessel, thus 
it is only in calm tranquility that we are able to judge of the 
proprieties of our own conduct, it is at that time alone that pru- 
dence is allowed to dictate to men what is demanded of them. In 
reviewing my conduct for the last week in an affair of a verry 
serious nature I am led to conclude that I have made a most fort- 
unate escape an escape not from the hands of my antagonist, 
but an escape from crime and probably from disgrace. When ex- 
perience teaches that although men may plead self-preservation, 
honor, and the like as incentive to kill a man, although they may 
shield themselves against the arm of the law, and against the 
reproaches of some, yet that there is something which dwells 
in the name of the murderer, which [152] will drive away peace, 
and repose, honor and respect, which will always traduce the 
character of a man in public estimation, men should look with 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 399 

distrust upon the instrument of death. When I reflect upon my 
peculiar situation, attempting to procure a liberal education, by 
the assistance of kind friends, having nothing to sustain me but 
my own good name, and when I reflect that it must have been 
most mortifing to my pride, to be tried for murder, however 
freely and honoraby acquitted I can not but regard it fortunate 
that the pistol which I snaped did not take fire. Passion prompt- 
ed on the occasion. This is what I plead, yet I say that I was cool 
and collected, and snaped the pistol deliberately. It was not in 
a violent transport of rage that I did it. This is a degree to which 
I am scarcely ever raised And after all, after considering that 
some of the opprobrium belonging to the murderer belongs also 
to him who endeavors to commit it I can think that I have trans- 
ported myself beyond the bounds of reason and sense. I shall 
never probably look upon my conduct as wrong but as resulting 
entirely from necessity. I shall probably do the same thing and 
may-be a little worse, if ever an occasion calls for it. Self-preser- 
vation is the first law of nature, and I have it as an old maxim 
"Follow nature she is the best guide. ["] 123 

Oct 5th 

I have not been entirely free from disturbance to day, my mind 
has not recovered from its distraction. When I attempt to study 
some incident of the almost tragical scene through which [153] 
I have passed last week, involuntarily rushes into my mind. I 
hope that I shall not be longer disturbed. I will endeavor to for- 
get it as far as I can. The only thing that I have performed to 
day has been to get my lessons in Rhetoric. I shall always find 
delight in them, and by study of this art I hope to attain to the 
greatest success. Gov. Swain expressed to the class the idea that 
the whole and sole object of study was to express our thoughts 
in the best language either in speaking or writing. I may be able 
to attain perspicuity and purity, but verry little of the ellegance 
and grace of composition. 

( October 6-9, inclusive, are devoted by Garrett to summaries 
of his reading, primarily history. ) 

[159] Oct 10th 

I have been almost devoted to figures to-day. The Class has got 
to that part of the course of studies when they take up Calculus 
We had a dissertation, I will call it on infinitesimals, a most cu- 
rious piece of reasoning. I do not profess to have gained much 

323 Garrett's unenviable self-satisfaction emerges in entries like this, as 
does his sense of self -righteousness in others; see also entries for October 13 
and November 3, 1849, below. 

400 The North Carolina Historical Review 

of the sense that was intended, but it must be most sublime. One 
circumstance alone renders it truely sublime. When we have any 
immense object before us which requires the utmost tension of 
the human faculties to grasp, scarcely ever does the mind at- 
tempt to raise itself to a contemplation of it without feeling an 
aweful and elivating sensation Warm imaginations often wrapt 
in transport and exstacy. I by no means insinuate that merely 
reasoning with the author excites such an emotion, yet when I 
lay aside my book and quietly contemplated infinity for a moment 
I felt a slight creeping on of that sublime sensation Contempla- 
tions of this character are often delightful — nothing is better 
calculated to refine the feelings, and elivate the tone of sentiment 
that frequent adorations of the wonders which God has made. 124 

[165] Oct. 13th 

I failed to mention a few days ago what report the Faculty have 
given me this session. How much soever of honor it may gain me 
I must be allowed to transcribe it. — In French Verry respectable, 
in Latin and Mathematicks good, and in Rhetoric very good, tak- 
ing in its course all the distinction which the College confers. 
3d 2d and 1st I made my observation also upon the untutored 
Freshmen which was entirely satisfactory. [166] Carried away 
by their natural propensity — vanity — they never cease to praise 
and blame. They have not learned to conceal their vanity, and 
while they concede that their reports were entirely satisfactory, 
yet the Faculty had not done them justice. Others not even know- 
ing the art of bragging, rant and rave, they become in an instant 
almost furious, and finding no other way to vent their spleen 
the [y] swear that they will appeal to the class, no wise doubting 
that they will judge more favorably of their standing. Oh ! vanity 
Vanity ! vanity ! But lest I show this disgusting trait by dwelling 
on it too long I will stop for the present. 

(October 14-18, inclusive, readings in history. A prolonged 
rainstorm began October 18. ) 

[175] Oct 19th 

The rain has continued to day. All faces look gloomy and dull 
Cloaks umbrellas, and overshoes are thing much in vogue, the 
wind is quite still and the rain nothing but a drizzle. Every body 
is confined within doors No one can be seen passing across the 
campus, except when the hour for recitation arrives [176] . ... 

m This discussion in mathematics class may well have led to Garrett's 
perception of the relationship between mathematics and religion, expressed 
below on October 24. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 401 

The debate in the Society this evening was quite short, and if 
I may not give offence by my sarcasm I will say not verry deep. 

Oct. 20th 

It seems that the students driven almost to dispair had got, in 
their last extremity, a new impulse. The rain continued to day 
and kept them close Confined, but when night arrived, they hit 
upon a plan by which they imagined they would be able to break 
the bars that surrounded them. Having taken in them a sufficient 
quantity of liquor to render them to some degree insensible to 
outward and probably inward things, they began to brave the 
fury of the storm Forgetting hat cloak umbrella or any thing 
to protect them, they marched boldly forth under the dark canopy 
of a cloudy night, and more that they minded the rain as little 
as did the bull the great when he alighted upon his horn. . . . 

Oct 21st 

I did not attend prayers this morning on account of the rain 
which continued to fall. When for mercy's sake will the rain 
cease ? I am so tired of staying in my room that I am unable to 
do any thing at all. . . . Indisposition from my cough which is 
but little improved adds another to the already unbearable ills 
of the hour .... I have endeavored to write something to day 
but find that it was utterly impossible. . . . 

[179] Oct 23rd 

I entered this evening upon the first Phillipic of Cicero. 125 The 
plain and simple style of his orations make them easy to trans- 
late. I regreted somewhat that we had finished the de senectute 
and de amicitio 126 of the same author, for during two weeks we 
have been reviewing these and as I was able to read them upon 
the spur of the moment, I did not apply my time to reviewing 
them at my room. This afforded me an oportunity to read, in 
which I am now very much interested The taking up of Cicero's 
Phillipics at this juncture had something of discomfiture in it, 

^Delivered in September, 44 B.C., against the policy of Marc Antony, 
a conciliatory speech favoring peace. Restoration of the commonwealth was 
Cicero's aim — and so Garrett may have seen his own desire for preserva- 
tion of the Union reflected here. 

128 Garrett's senior declamation, "Virtue Alone Makes Men Free," doubt- 
less had its beginnings in this, the De Amicitia, and the fifth of the 
Tusculan Disputations, which discuss whether virtue alone is sufficient for 
happiness; Cicero — and Garrett — adopts the Stoic view that the virtuous 
man is always happy. The De Amicitia is concerned with the nature of 
friendship and its governing principles — founded on and preserved by 
virtue, it owes to virtue the harmony, permanence, and loyalty which are 
its essential features. It was one of the two books where Dante sought and 
found consolation after the death of Beatrice. 

402 The North Carolina Historical Review 

but after reading a little I find that far from being dry they are 
highly interesting and contain some as valuable historical infor- 
mation as any book which I could read. I am more content to 
read them therefore as serving my double purpose 127 

[182] Oct 25th 

This evening I had the pleasure of a verry agreable walk with 
a friend of mine and my room mate. I can not say that they give 
me peculiar delight by their social intercourse, but the conver- 
sation turned upon a singular subject, one which is interesting 
on the present occasion on account of the seeming unfitness for 
the time and circumstance. Truely all would say than an evening 
strole was not a fit occasion to discuss infinity. This should be 
the subject of thought in the retired and secluded corner, where 
stilness invites to meditation, . . . How wonderful is space ! how 
dificult ! how impossible to conceive an utter void, where reigns 
nothing, and is nothing, filling and coextensive with eternity. 
How numberless the stars ! how vast the spaces of their orbits. 
How omnipotent is God ! Can any one doubt but that there is a 
God when he sees all these demonstrations of his will and his 
power ! Oh inconceivable mystery ! Better were it that man even 
in pride should bow in humble and devoted belief, than employ 
his weak faculty of reason in solving such wonderful works. 
It is enough that when he sees the demonstrations of some in- 
finite power, he reason there must be some being who has formed 
these things, and resolve the tide of the [183] universe in God. 
. . . The man that says he reasons further, has lost the use of 
the faculty, has basely perverted its purpose. . . . Such the con- 
clusions that we attained. I can not myself see that men have 
perverted reason. Let us endeavor to grasp the universe in our 
conception. We suspect that there are numberless worlds dis- 
posed throughout immensity — mark that we can not reason about 
that which is numberless from its multiplicity — or from its 
countless divisibility. But stop. Ours is a solar system compre- 
hending within its bounds several planets, ours may be a planet, 
along with many, to another system, that to another, and this 
to another, and this to another and this to another and this to 
another, but if we repeat untill the end of time we can not con- 
ceive that we have numbered a particle of universal space much 
less can we grasp those repetitions already made, and have in our 
view the chain of worlds and systems they comprehend Evi- 
dently we can not reason about that of which we have no concep- 
tion. Man without education has been called a reasoning savage, 

m It is interesting to note that nowhere does Garrett comment on the 
contribution of Latin to his handling of English; the reason may be that 
the usefulness of Latin was such a foregone conclusion that its relation- 
ship to English writing had not yet been questioned. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 403 

but is but this, with it. The greatest amount of knowledge, the 
most clear and comprehensive mind, can not but enable him to 
see God in his works 128 

Oct. 26th 

... I participated in the debate this evening following in reply 
to Mr. Johnston of the Senior Class. 129 He expressed and sup- 
ported the opinion that "all laws in direct opposition to the will 
of a majority of those whom they are designed to govern should 
be repealed'* I did not get the separate arguments of the gentle- 
man and did not reply directly to him. I can not give myself the 
honor of making an off-hand reply to arguments that have been 
digested by one so able to reason and to judge. I declared my 
own opinion against the proposition and mainly supported by 
the train of reasoning. Instead of debating the question in the 
form in which it stands above, I resolved into one which did not 
admit of ambiguity and which is entirely the meaning intended 
to be expressed by the first, that whether the opposition of a law 
to the will of a majority of those whom they are intended to 
govern be repealed? In the first place I made the observation 
that there were but two eliments in every state so far as rights 
were concerned, individuals and society. I conceive of society as 
being endowed with will and action, and life and strength, 
capable of exercising her own power for her own promotion and 
security, as possessing rights and priviliges which she is at liberty 
to wield in any way she may see fit within the limits of justice. 
That individuals in the formation of society reserved some of 
their natural rights, which it were not prudent, nor just to de- 
liver up, and that justice is contract which sets limits to the 
encroachments of both, to authority of their actions. Ought a 
law conformable to this contract be repealed, does the opposition 
to the will of the majority afford a reason why it should be re- 
pealed? [185] Evidently the majority as an active agent in gov- 
ernment is the representative of society and must be restrained 
within the limits of the authority of society. If Society has no 
right to violate individual right, it is highly wrong that the rep- 
resentative having only the measure of her authority should do 
so. . . . All laws which secure individuals in the possession and 

128 This statement of rationalism could stem from any one of the several 
sources of it in Garrett's reading or classroom discussion; most likely is 
Shaftesbury's Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Times (1711), a copy of 
which was among the first books in the University Library. Connor, Docu- 
mentary History, II, 38. 

129 The following entry is further evidence of the convictions on which 
Garrett's political creed was to be based, leading to, perhaps, his failure 
to gain the military rank he sought in the Confederate army; the senior 
he answers is William H. Johnston, from Tarboro. Battle, History of the 
University, I, 802. 

404 The North Carolina Historical Review 

exercise of the natural privalages which they have reserved for 
themselves, and for securing such an end a portion of natural 
power had been given to society, should not be repealed, nor 
should laws be enacted which serve to destroy the original pur- 
pose of society. These laws seem at first sight but few in number 
but they are in truth many, not only extending themselves to the 
rights but to the interest of mankind. But the original question 
whether the opposition to the will of the majority be any reason 
why a law should be repealed, I conceive is answered, that the 
majority have not stability sufficient. Their judgement in the 
experience of mankind is fickle, that is borne and dying with 
the blest tone which made it. 

( October 27-November 2 devoted to plans for a chronological 
table for correlating historical events, and summaries of read- 
ings in Elizabethan history.) 

[201] Nov. 3rd 

I shall notice to day our labor on our Chronological Table. 130 
We did not get to work to day untill the evening, . . . We had not 
been employed at it more than an hour when one of the stu- 
dents interupted us with the unwelcome inteligence that some 
ladies wished to visit the library that evening, and we must leave 
it. We gathered up all the books which we were using, and not- 
withstanding the inconvenience of the place determined to go to 
our friend's room I mean my copartner in this work, but vexation 
worse than ever, the room was full of gamesters, [202] this is 
the misfortune against which I warned my friend when first I 
saw him engage in play, that his room would be full of game- 
sters, and impolite dogs they would sit and bore a man all day. . . . 
I advise my friend throw every gaming instrument out of his 
room and admit none of these bores afterwards, plainly tell them 
that he must not be interupted. He might loose a little mush- 
room popularity, but he would gain an incalculable advantage. 
I would not have a game played in my room upon no conditions 
under the sun. I would meet the man at the door and drive him 
back were he to attempt to come into my room with a gameing 
instrument. Nor would I be vaguerous [gregarious?] enough to 
go into another man's room and play without being invited. 

Nov. 4th 

This is the Sabbath and a verry pleasant day it has been. . . . 
I had only one [203] cause that I remember which would create 
disgust. I could not were I in a situation to do so with effect use 

130 This was a historical table, similar to those in modern school texts, 
showing the degree of contemporaneity of certain authors or events. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 405 

more reproachful words or be moved with stronger disgust, at 
any thing than at misconduct in Church. It is true that I have 
been at College long enough to see the unmanly practice of ly- 
ing down on the benches and going to sleep in church, untill my 
senses have become somewhat blunted. I do not now feel that 
overwhelming contempt with which I first regarded this prac- 
tice. I sought relief from it by going to the Chapel in the vil- 
lage where the tranquility of the place, the stillness which per- 
vades every thing about, invited to calm thought, and peaceful 
feeling, but two young men this evening gave me a shock which 
in that place I was little prepared to bear. I was sitting listen- 
ing verry attentively to the first lesson, some one brushed me 
violently as the[y] passed along the aisle near which I was and 
into which my elbow was extended. They who passed were two 
young men students in verry high standing among the rest, 
they were d[r]essed in verry fine style approaching somewhat 
to the dandy, magnificent collars standing above their cravats 
which they had purposely got alike pressing up their heads so 
as to cause them to assume what they thought might seem dig- 
nity, their hands covered with white-kid gloves which they 
seemed careful to extend that they might be seen, but what 
was still worse they had painted their faces, extending on their 
upper lip what they vainly though might be taken for a fine 
mustach. Unfortunately for their credit however one had red 
hair or rather light auburn, which coresponded most [204] un- 
naturally with the black lips. These foolish mocking youth could 
not content themselves with a seat with the rest of the congre- 
gation, they went up to the side of the altar in a most conspicuous 
place, and took seats almost in front of the rest of the people 
I can not conceive that they can excuse themselves upon the plea 
that they have a right to go to church as they please, that they 
can dress as they please that they can sit in church where they 
please. Every man is bound to observe those rules of decency 
and propriety of conduct which Society establishes, and whoever 
transgresses them should be cast of [f] the pale of gentlemen, 
they should meet the scorn and indignation and contempt of the 
whole circle in which he lives Much more severe reprehension 
should he meet who goes to Church to mock and deride, who 
shows disrespect to that service which God has ordained for his 
Church. 131 

[206] Nov. 7th 

I have to note to day my resolution of remaining on the Hill this 

vacation. I own that I am free from any of those childish whims 

which make many long for home. I know too that that for me 

231 The Faculty Journal has no entry on punishment for this ; possibly 
the minister had a sense of humor and considered the source! 

406 The North Carolina Historical Review 

is not a place of comfort and happiness, that I can easily forget 
the joys but not the sorrows connected with my home I have no 
inducement but to see Aunt. I can forego this to keep from me 
the recollection of my sorrows. I have then no inducement to 
go home, there are many that I should remain here. I have an 
extensive library for my use. I have collected in it a heap of 
happiness which I wish to drain. I can imagine to myself a 
warm fire and I sitting reading regardless of the raging storm 
without. Can there be a purer happiness, a more void-filling joy 
than this Love of education is worth any thing, it must be its 
power of dispensing some such joy as this. — I am convinced 
indeed that my time will pass profitably and happily. I shall con- 
tent myself with the decission of Bro. Preston, to whom I have 
written for that purpose. 132 

[210] Nov. 11th 

The Sabbath has again come and gone. I have gone my usual 
round of duties. I can not say religious, although they consist 
in such as attending prayers and church, recitation in the Bible 
&C. I could wish that those duties went down with more grace. 133 
I am of opinion that religious duties at College are not attended 
with much good [if] they are performed as a task, they make 
to students the chains of slavery; which in whatever form they 
come are disagreeable. Often disgust and contempt and disre- 
spect to religion are engendered, they not only serve to deter 
them from performing the duties which become all men, but 
bring along in their train those more fatal consequences of corrup- 
tion, always attendent upon want of reverence Infidelity seazes 
hold of the infatuated and dizzy intellect, the whole nature be- 
comes changed. From Character loving virtue and fearing God, 
they are lewd, licentious. The moral courage capiable of resist- 
ing temptations, is found wanting. 

Nov. 12th 

I shall devote this page to a notice of the next chapter of the ex- 
cellent reflections upon the rise and fall of the ancient republicks 
comprising a view of Athens. . . . [211] The fatal error of lodg- 
ing too much power into the hands of the people, so as to give 

133 University regulations as early as 1796 permitted students to remain 
in the rooms during vacation, subject to all rules except payment of tuition. 
Connor, Documentary History, II, 29. Apparently the faculty felt that only 
the most serious would elect to remain. See also entry for November 24, 
1849, below. If Garrett ever heard from his brother he does not record the 
fact; the exact nature of the decision cannot be determined, other than 
that implied — whether to remain in Chapel Hill during the vacation period. 

138 This section is included as typical of several such frank and revealing 
criticisms Garrett makes of the conduct of the religious life of the Univer- 
sity. Even his pious nature began to rebel. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 407 

this estate a preponderance in a mixed government [,] the en- 
couragement given to factions and demagogeism, had finally their 
ruinous consequences. Never was there ever witnessed in any 
state such turmoil and strife and party contention — a state al- 
though not entirely inconsistent with [the existence of] free- 
dom, completely destructive of the enjoyment of its blessings. 
The interest of the country was often disregarded, even prostitut- 
ed to that of party. Ambitious leaders and factious demagogues 
kept the city in [212] utter confusion, no wise regarding the 
rights of citizens, if they obtained their avaricious desighns. Lib- 
erty must soon take her flight from such a region. The fact which 
our author takes hold of as the basis of an argument, speaks 
much for Athenian taste and genius, but shows how deeply lux- 
ury and licentiousness had imbued them with vises the most de- 
structive to liberty. That a fund should be supplied by the 
state for the public exhibition of the theatre, while the people 
affected a cruel indifference to all matters connected with the 
peace and safety of the country, must manifest a state of moral- 
ity utterly inconsistent with liberty, which must be purchas [ed] 
at the price of the morals of each individual citizen Passion for 
any particular thing is easily caught and disseminated among 
a people. There may be a large number who will assume an atti- 
tude of defiance if they see any thing in its approach dreadful, 
but these stout hearts will be gradually overcome. The general 
tenor of feeling and sentiments will change, that which might 
have seemed the monster of hideousness may perhaps become 
the darling of the public, that which seemed delightful will on 
the contrary assume the aspect of deformity. No time can be 
more dangerous than when some evil passion has been excited, 
and has become the impulse to action. 134 It is thus in a people, 
as it is with the sober. The former impeled by the common mo- 
tive to action, press on, bearing down all before them, breaking 
through every restraint that dose oppose them committing every 
excess of which the heart is capable, untill grown dizzy with 
these very excesses, they [213] go their round, senseless, uncon- 
scious, obeying they know not how the blind impulse of passion. 
. . . Some silly fellow's voice from a window of the adjacent 
building suggest an illustration verry apt. Having collected round 
him a crowd of admiring associates he is singing to them in verry 
audible tones a negro song yes one of those real negro songs 
which some senseless booby of Africa has made, yes a student 
of the University of N. Carolina, singing a fine negro song, turn- 
ing and twisting the tune into all kinds of shapes as most suited 
his fancy, and bless his fancy ! has a bad one for I am sure it is 
not so pretty as it came origonally from the thick lips of some 
darky I am inclined to believe that this young man's taste and 

408 The North Carolina Historical Review 

sense are perverted grossly. He may excite supprise, with some, 
but with whom besides with those by whom he is surrounded 
will be ever excite admiration? A sonet will never hang upon 
his lips. He will probably find better employment in some kitchen 
with others of his inward if not outward hue. He is not and 
never will be striving to attain noble ends by noble means. How 
important to have [214] right objects in view? for as much power 
and strength are commonly employed in striving after a bad 
thing as well as a good one. . . . 

(Entries from November 13-19 are devoted wholly to sum- 
maries of and reflections on readings in Greek and Roman 
history, plus a summary of a Sunday sermon. ) 

[228] Nov. 20th 

The amusement which college affords at this time is verry little 
the improvement has never been much. I have been verry un- 
happily situated this session with regard to room, and the general 
state of spirits. I have been here without the means of paying 
the debts which I have contracted for my expenses, a situation 
truly annoying, especially when we consider that debtors are 
here continually dunned [;] my feelings are embittered by the 
continual recollection of a broil with a man who is now in- 
famous. 135 But for the fact that my room mate is the dispenser 
of comfort in all situations, I might probably have sunk under the 
accumulated weight of so many misfortunes I was so fortunate 
as to receive last mail money for the payment of my debts. I feel 
much more comfortable. May heaven avert the return of a like 
state of misfortunes. 

Nov. 21st 

I can express gratification at seeing a duty which the students 
owe to Dr Green who is about to leave College, to take charge 
of the Bishopric of Mississippi, fulfilled. 136 A meeting was held 
a few weeks ago to propose a suitable present to testify to him 
our respect and regret at his leaving. A silver was voted, which 
has been made to order. The Pitcher is a verry neat one [229] 
indeed. It bears the inscription "Presented to Dr. Wm. M. Green 
by the Students of the University of N Carolina Nov. 1849." It 
was presented to day, but I regret to say in a verry informal 

134 This little essay on "passions," a favorite topic in the eighteenth and 
early nineteenth centuries, shows — among other things — the stuffy side of 
Garrett's personality; he seems to feel distinctly above what he considers 
the cheap amusements of his classmates. 

133 This undoubtedly refers to the duelling episode recorded on Septem- 
ber 29-October 4. 

188 William Mercer Green; see note 94, above. 

Diary of Thomas Miles Garrett 409 

manner, a committee only being appointed to be bearers of it 
to him at his house. He returned a verry pretty letter as a fare- 
well address to the Students Dr Green will depart soon for his 
destination. Many regrets will follow him. He is eminently pious, 
kind, and benevolent. 

[233] Nov. 26th 

.... This is the first day of the week of the examination at Col- 
lege. 137 The bustle and hurry which such an exercise is attended 
have driven away from me to day all serious reflection. We were 
buzzy all day so that I did not have time to visit the Library. 
The laws of the society forbid books to be taken from the lib- 
rary. This week of a consequence has been quite dull. 

[234] Nov. 27th 

The examination of the students continued through this day. The 
ambition of some to raise their distinctions and of others to hold 
to what they have already, and the apprehension of some that 
they will be disapproved, have excited considerable bustle in 
the walls of College. Instead of remaining quiet in their rooms 
and doing their duty to their studies by reviewing, most of them 
are filled with the utmost consternation, runing wildly about and 
endeavoring to gain from the older students their thoughts of 
the probable results of a trial of their knowledge in the various 
departments. Few I perceive know how to be calm in the midst of 
doubt and danger. Still less do they know how to exert the abili- 
ties which they have, in the proper direction for usefulness and 
safety. If we may judge according to the old adage that the drift 
of the straws tells the direction of the current, in as simple a 

137 Except for annual examinations, there were apparently no fixed exami- 
nations, comparable, for example, with the modern college's mid-terms. 
Annual examinations were fixed by bylaws of 1810 as being on June 22, or 
if that day were Sunday, on June 23. According to Battle, examinations in 
the 1840's were little more than single recitations, sometimes oral, some- 
times written, lasting from an hour to an hour and a half; when held 
during Commencement week, in the presence of the Trustees, nervous ten- 
sion was great. The bylaws of 1796 encouraged invitation of parents and 
guardians to the event. 

Cheating on examinations when the object was only to pass and not to 
get an honor was not considered dishonorable, but rather a trial of wit 
between class and professor, it being considered good fun to win. One of 
the ingenious means devised was boring a hole in the floor before the 
examination and passing questions on a string, written out, to a student 
below who was well-prepared; the answer was returned by the same 
means. Also, rocks, with questions on a piece of paper wrapped around 
them, were thrown out windows, answers being returned similarly. The 
following example of an entry connected with cheating, found in the Faculty 
Journal, University Archives, for Friday, January 26, 1849, is interesting: 
"David W. Fisher and William G. Little [admonished] for refusing to sur- 
render a translation from which they were reciting to the tutor of 

410 The North Carolina Historical Review 

matter as [an] examination, we see how dependent some make 
themselves upon the exertions of others, how they use servile 
and cunning means for the promotion of their fame, and how 
they substitute superfluousness for profundity 

[235] Nov. 29th 

I have shaken hands with most of my friends from whom I am 
to sepperate for six weeks. When I hear the sounding of the 
horse hoofs over the hard walk, as he trotted glibly off with some 
one or other of those with whom I have enjoyed the simple 
amusements of a college life, and who was endeared to me by 
the ties of acknowledged friendship, I felt the childish wish rise 
up in me that I might be permitted to partake in the pleasures 
which to him a vacation might bring. I checked or endeavored 
to check such idle whims, but I allowed no envy of their hap- 
piness. I do hope that all may enjoy those delights which they 
have gone to seek, I will remain at College where I can have 
access to an elegantly furnished library and will turn even these 
six weeks to my profit as well as pleasure. I have moved my 
lodging Instead of the verry incomfortable room on the first 
floor, I have occupied one on the third story, with two windows 
looking to the east. The site of the building is elevated which af- 
fords me a delightful prospect, extending about ten miles in 
the direction of Raleigh. The quiet of the place is already afforded 
me some comfort. I prefered a social mate than to be alone. 
Mr. Neely will keep me company for the vacation. 138 

No such person appears in the available records at this time. 

[To be concluded] 


Charles Brantley Aycock. By Oliver H. Orr, Jr. (Chapel Hill: 
The University of North Carolina Press. 1961. Pp. viii, 394. 


This sympathetic but scholarly and palpably honest bio- 
graphy of North Carolina's famed "Educational Governor" 
fills a significant gap in the State's history. Not least among 
the obstacles which confronted Professor Orr, who teaches 
at North Carolina State College, is the sad paucity of Aycock 
materials. His long years of research in newspapers, the per- 
sonal papers of Aycock's contemporaries, and in other sources 
probably goes about as far in filling out the main lines of the 
biography as is possible; but the softened, and often eulogis- 
tic, reminiscences of Aycock's contemporaries are a poor sub- 
stitute for on-the-spot, heat-of-the-moment reactions. 

The man who emerges from this study is, above all else, 
Aycock the orator. The pattern began early— at Chapel Hill 
the young man almost flunked out but made his mark speak- 
ing—and lasted until the very end, which came suddenly 
while the ex-governor addressed a Birmingham, Alabama, 
audience in 1912. A warm charming personality rather than 
a deep thinker or bold doer, Aycock poured no less fervor 
and contagious emotion into his famous white supremacy 
crusade than he did into his later appeals for universal ed- 

In the economic area, Orr shows Aycock to have been sur- 
prisingly conservative. He supported the Farmers Alliance's 
sub-treasury scheme and Federal regulation of railways only 
until "the radical farmers" had left the Democratic party to 
become Populists; despite a somewhat expedient conversion 
to the silver cause, Aycock always felt more loyalty to Grover 
Cleveland than to William Jennings Bryan. As his senatorial 
ambitions kindled toward the end of his life Aycock spoke 
in the fashionable progressive phrases of 1912, but one won- 
ders if a 1900 statement had not been closer to his life-long, 


412 The North Carolina Historical Review 

and increasingly antiquated, view: "Good government and 
very little of it is the best government." 

In line with this philosophy, Aycock's principal contribution 
to the cause of education is depicted as having been his ora- 
torical exhortations in behalf of local rather than State sup- 
port for the public schools. Orr interestingly relates Ay cock's 
earlier Goldsboro experience with Negro and white schools to 
his later career, and frankly describes the incongruities in- 
volved in a convivial drinking man's eloquent efforts in be- 
half of state-wide prohibition. 

In his preface, the author writes of "the work of the man" 
and the "power of the legend." If he perceives inconsistencies 
or ambiguities in the relationship of these two aspects, he is 
nowhere explicit about the matter. But Professor Orr has fur- 
nished abundant evidence for contemplation about a color- 
ful human being and important political figure. 

Robert F. Durden. 

Duke University. 

Eugene Clyde Brooks : Educator and Public Servant. By Willard 
B. Gatewood, Jr. (Durham: Duke University Press. 1960. 
Illustrations, notes, and index. Pp. ix, 279. $6.00.) 

This book is not the first written about a distinguished ed- 
ucational leader of North Carolina but it is certainly one of 
the best. Historians are slowly but surely recognizing that 
much of the State's progress is founded upon the work of 
those men whose chief characteristic has been their devotion 
to the causes of public education. Professor Gatewood's ac- 
count of Eugene Clyde Brooks: Educator and Public Servant 
is substantial and at times eloquent testimony of that recog- 

The career of Brooks is traced from an impressionable 
childhood on a farm in Contentnea Neck in Lenoir County 
to his death in 1947. After graduating from Trinity College 
he worked briefly as a reporter for Josephus Daniels' News 
and Observer. Following this he was principal and superin- 
tendent of several schools. In 1903 he became assistant super- 

Book Reviews 413 

intendent of schools under James Yadkin Joyner. His chief 
contribution in this office was made as executive secretary 
of Governor Aycock's Committee for the Promotion of Pub- 
lic Education. He soon returned to Goldsboro as superinten- 
dent of city schools but from 1907 to 1919 he served as pro- 
fessor of Education at Trinity College. As professor he was 
instrumental in making Trinity College a leader in the field 
of education. Meanwhile he had established a reputation as 
an author and as an editor. For seventeen years he edited 
North Carolina Education. 

In 1919 he was appointed by Governor T. W. Bickett as 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction to fill the unex- 
pired term of Superintendent James Yadkin Joyner. In 1923 
Brooks resigned as superintendent to accept the presidency of 
State College. 

Most people know of Brooks as a college teacher, State 
superintendent, and president of State College, but few are 
aware of his leadership in modernizing county government 
and in promoting the great Smoky Mountain National Park. 
In both of these fields he distinguished himself. 

What was Brooks' greatest contribution to North Caro- 
lina? It was his leadership during the reactionary and early 
depression years, 1919-1923, that kept North Carolina from 
turning its back on two decades of progress toward a sound 
financial basis for a "general and uniform system of public 
education." Dr. Gatewood does not claim that Brooks alone 
was responsible for the movement toward State control and 
State support, but he does tell in a most effective manner 
how Brooks withstood the forces of reaction in education and 
led the forces of progress. If Brooks had done no more than 
this— and he did many other things— he would deserve to 
be ranked as one of the educational statesmen of North 

The book attractively printed is the product of painstaking 
research in the original sources which are listed in footnotes. 
Its scholarly objectivity does not keep Professor Gatewood 
from passing judgment and drawing conclusions. 

The history of education in North Carolina during the past 
century has not been written, but Eugene Clyde Brooks: Ed- 

414 The North Carolina Historical Review 

ucator and Public Servant, is a step in that direction. It will 
appeal to the general reader as well as to the student and 

D. J. Whitener. 
Appalachian State Teachers College. 

Thomas Wolfe : An Introduction and Interpretation. By Richard 
Walser. (New York: Barnes and Noble, Inc. 1961. Pp. viii, 152. 

This paperback book needs a more permanent binding 
because of its value. One of the American Authors and Critics 
Series, it is published under the general editorship of Foster 
Provost and John Mahoney of Duquesne University with the 
sponsorship of the University. 

Richard Walser, the author— one of the vital, productive 
and perceptive scholars on the North Carolina scene— is Pro- 
fessor of English at State College, Raleigh. Long a student 
of Thomas Wolfe and his writings, he has both a scholar's 
knowledge of and approach to Asheville's famous native son, 
the author of Look Homeward, Angel and other novels. 

Professor Walser, in his new work on Wolfe, serves a use- 
ful purpose in co-ordinating the life and career of a literary 
figure whose great assets did not include orderly processes 
of living and writing. 

The author of this new study, in a chapter on America and 
poetry, finds a pattern in Wolfe's novels— "a constant pro- 
gression from romanticism toward realism, from rebellion to- 
ward maturity, from youth toward responsibility." It is a 
valid finding, for "he who was born Thomas Wolfe in the 
mountains of North Carolina in 1900 came out of the wilder- 
ness and poetry and wonder of America" as one who sought 
discovery, and an evaluation of what he found. 

Tom Wolfe did see America as a land of paradoxes, of 
frightening loneliness but bright with promise; withal, a vital, 
moving America of haunting beauty. 

Professor Walser helps the student find sense in Wolfe's 
life about which so much nonsense has been written. 

Book Reviews 415 

This book has a useful Wolfe chronology, an excellent short 
biography and evaluations and interpretations of his novels. 
In Look Homeward, Angel Walser sees a lyrical quality rare 
in fiction. For those who criticize the lack of discipline, he 
answers that "without his ways, he would have been another 
writer entirely,, minus richness and sensousness and abun- 
dance." That is true. 

Wolfe is identified with the American Dream, one that 
encompasses an ideal and a promise for young people every- 
where in this land. He discovered through experience, Walser 
holds, that his lot was common to that of all men. 

"Out of his life and out of this discovery came the books," 
Walser maintains. Perhaps that sentence should be amended 
to read: "Out of his life and out of his books came this dis- 

George W. McCoy. 

Messages, Addresses, and Public Papers of Luther Hartwell 
Hodges, Governor of North Carolina, 1954-1961. Volume I, 
1954-1956. Edited by James W. Patton. (Raleigh: Council of 
State, State of North Carolina. 1960. Pp. xxxiii, 691. Illustra- 
tions, and index. Free.) 

This is the first volume of the official papers and addresses 
of Governor Luther H. Hodges of North Carolina. This stout 
tome covers only his first two years in office. A judicious bio- 
graphical sketch by the editor, Professor James W. Patton of 
the University of North Carolina, outlines the remarkable 
career of a man who rose from humble origins to become vice- 
president of the Marshall Field textile empire. Though poli- 
tically unknown, Hodges delved into politics upon his retire- 
ment from business and at the age of fifty-four waged a 
successful campaign for Lieutenant Governor of North 
Carolina in 1952. Within less than two years, the death of 
Governor William B. Umstead placed him in the Executive 
Mansion. Elected Governor for a full term in 1956, he thereby 
has served in that capacity longer than any other man elected 
to that position in the history of the State. 

416 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Hodges' approach to State government was that of a hard- 
headed businessman. With a view toward efficiency and 
sound fiscal management, he endorsed, and in most cases 
implemented, significant changes in budgetary, highway, 
prison, and higher education affairs. But his desire to raise 
the standard of living and per capita income of North Caro- 
linians through industrialization will undoubtedly remain 
one of the chief distinctions of his administration. In a sense, 
Hodges was a North Carolina Henry Grady. A prodigious 
public speaker generally, he was an effective publicist for the 
cause of industry in particular. Therefore, the editor has 
justifiably included in this volume numerous papers which 
highlight various aspects of the Governor's industrial expan- 
sion program. 

Ironically, however, the "overshadowing problem" of his 
first two years in office was not so much economic as social 
It concerned racial segregation in the public schools. Profes- 
sor Patton's skillful selection of papers on this problem gives 
a candid portrayal of the Governor's reaction to the Supreme 
Court Decision of 1954 and his strategy to "save" the public 
school system through a plan of "voluntary segregation on 
the part of both races." Considerable attention is focused 
upon the so-called Pearsall Plan and the Governor's num- 
erous, sometimes controversial, remarks on the issue. Of es- 
pecial interest are those items concerning the famous incident 
at A&T College and the Governor's defense of I. Beverly 
Lake in 1955. 

The general excellence of this volume is all the more re- 
markable when one considers the vastness and variety of ma- 
terials that confronted the editor. The choice of items, ex- 
planatory notes, and effective use of political cartoons in this 
work demonstrate Professor Patton's unusual editorial talents. 
His product offers a tantalizing survey of North Carolina dur- 
ing two turbulent years in the mid-fifties. 

Willard B. Gate wood, Jr. 
North Carolina Wesleyan College. 

Book Reviews 417 

New Hanover County Court Minutes, Part 3, 1786-1793. Ab- 
stracted, compiled, and edited by Alexander McDonald Walker. 
(Bethesda, Maryland: Privately Printed. 1960. Pp. v, 121. 

In this volume, Mr. Walker has continued abstracting, com- 
piling, and editing the minutes of the New Hanover County 
Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions. Reviewed in the Jan- 
uary, 1960, issue of this publication, his first two volumes 
covered the periods 1738 to 1769 and 1771 to 1785. The orig- 
inal documents, repaired and rebound as necessary, are on 
file in the State Department of Archives and History. 

No other single source is so rich in early county and local 
history as the minutes of the County Court. Inherited from 
England, this powerful administrative and judicial body func- 
tioned in each of the counties in North Carolina throughout 
the Colonial Era and until 1868 when the Constitution pro- 
vided for the county commissioner form of government and 
revised the court system, thereby eliminating the county 

Of particular interest is the fact that the court had cogniz- 
ance over the appointment of administrators, executors, and 
guardians, and of the inventories and reports of settlements 
of these appointees, also the probate of wills, deeds, and 
other legal instruments, and the appointment of various 
county officials. The action of the court in all such matters 
was recorded in the minutes. The justices of the peace com- 
prising the court were among the most prominent men in 
the county and the jurors were also men of prominence. Con- 
sequently, their names listed in the minutes constitute a 
veritable Who's Who of the times. 

As usual, Mr. Walker has done a faithful and meticulous 
job of abstracting, compiling, and editing these minutes. In 
his apparent zeal for brevity, he has used a few abbrevia- 
tions the meaning of which may not be readily apparent, but 
this is of minor significance and detracts little from the gen- 
eral excellence of his book. 

A very good index increases materially the usability of the 

Adm. A. M. Patterson (Ret.). 

State Department of Archives and History. 

418 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Whipt 'em Everytime: The Diary of Bartlett Yancey Malone. 
By Bartlett Yancey Malone. Edited by William Whatley Pier- 
son, Jr. General Editor, Bell Irvin Wiley. (Jackson, Tennessee : 
McCowat-Mercer Press. 1960. Pp. 131. $3.95.) 

When Bartlett Yancey Malone of Caswell County, North 
Carolina, entered the Confederate service on June 18, 1861, 
he kept a remarkably objective diary until he returned home 
on March 5, 1865. A member of Company H of the well- 
known Sixth North Carolina Infantry, he documented with- 
out detectable rancor some of the daily impressions of a 
fighting soldier in the Virginia, Maryland, and Pennslyvania 
campaigns until he was taken prisoner of war by the Federals 
on November 7, 1863. He was transferred to Point Lookout, 
Maryland, and continued his entries while in prison. 

The diary was first edited by Dr. Pierson and published in 
1919 by the University of North Carolina Press in the James 
Spnint Studies in History and Political Science. Dr. Pierson 
has written a preface to the new edition which is more com- 
plete than his introduction to the 1919 edition. Dr. Wiley, 
in the foreword, correctly values the diary as a significant 
contribution, especially in its phonetic spelling, preciseness, 
humility, honesty, and readibility. 

Not only did Malone record weather conditions, which 
seems to be the hallmark of many diaries, he also recorded 
such things as distances travelled, battles, rumors of troop 
movements, prison conditions, and sermons. The reader quick- 
ly detects that he was a good soldier and a man of integrity. 

As a prisoner of war, Malone was far more objective than 
most diarists. Although he was inwardly a very brave man 
and dedicated to the Southern cause, he seldom let his emo- 
tions, which must have been aroused by the harsh treatment, 
color his perspective. 

Reprinting of the interesting diary, with additions of photo- 
graphs, index, and more descriptive preface and foreword, 
makes available in more readable form this informative link 
with the Confederate soldier. 

T. Harry Gatton. 


Book Reviews 419 

Birth of a National Park in the Great Smoky Mountains. By 
Carlos C. Campbell, (Knoxville: The University of Tennessee 
Press. 1960. Pp. xii, 155, $5.00.) 

This slender volume is, in large part, the memoir of a man 
who for years figured prominently in the struggles for a na- 
tional park in the Great Smoky Mountains. The author, Carlos 
C. Campbell, is a Knoxville insurance agent and Great Smok- 
ies enthusiast who wrote this book at the request of the Great 
Smoky Mountains Conservation Association which considers 
itself the original sponsor of the park movement. Written in 
an informal, easily readable style, the volume gives an ac- 
count of the park crusade in Tennessee from the "birth" of the 
idea in 1923 to the dedication of the Great Smoky Mountains 
National Park in 1940. Mr. Campbell ably decribes the fund- 
raising and publicity campaigns, tedious negotiations and 
surveys, protracted litigation, and other bewildering prob- 
lems involved in securing the park. He is at his best in trac- 
ing the park movement through the maze of Tennessee poli- 
tics—a trail strewn with political chicanery, factional squab- 
bles, and fist fights in the State legislature. 

Since the author took part in the events that he describes, 
his book embodies both the strengths and limitations of 
such works. Under the circumstances his treatment is ad- 
mirably objective, although at times his strong sympathy for 
the "original" park organization and its leaders, especially 
David C. Chapman, produces an uncritical appraisal of both. 
Similarly, his description of the Great Smokies park as "a gift 
of the people to Uncle Sam" is somewhat misleading because 
Uncle Sam and the Rockefellers provided more actual cash 
for the project than the combined contributions of Tennessee 
and North Carolina. Understandably enough, his primary 
concern is the role of his native Tennessee in the park cru- 
sade after 1923, but unfortunately the earlier park movement 
in North Carolina, launched in 1899, is disregarded as being 
of no consequence to the realization of the park. The birth 
and development of the Great Smoky Mountains Park idea 
was not the work of a single group or State; it was part of a 
movement of much greater scope and significance than that 
described in this book. Nevertheless, this work, as a primary 

420 The North Carolina Historical Review 

source, constitutes an important addition to the slim litera- 
ture on the history of conservation of natural resources in the 

Willard B. Gatewood, Jr. 
North Carolina Wesleyan College. 

With Sherman to the Sea. A Drummer's Story of the Civil War 
as related by Cory don Edward Foote to Olive Deane Hormel. 
(New York: The John Day Company. 1960. Pp. 255. $4.00.) 

Among the youngest members of the Federal army during 
the Civil War were the drummer boys. The drum was still an 
officer's means of giving orders, and it was the drum that kept 
up the tempo and spirits on tiring marches. Of the hundreds 
of northern youths volunteering for drummer duty, some 
were no more than thirteen years of age. 

So it was with Corydon Edward Foote of Flint, Michigan. 
"To his mother's anguish and his father's pride," he enlisted 
in the Tenth Michigan Regiment the day after his thirteenth 
birthday. Putting away "his bird's eggs and baby rabbits," 
he went off to war. Young Foote scarcely looked his few 
years in a baggy uniform and with a drum almost touching 
the ground. 

Foote's mentor and close friend was a Mexican War veteran 
called "Old Lacy." The two of them drummed the Tenth 
Michigan into the battles of Missionary Ridge and Lookout 
Mountain and then under fire served as water carriers and 
stretcher-bearers. In the spring of 1864 "Old Lacy" was mus- 
tered out of the service because of his age, but young Foote 
went on to march with Sherman from Chattanooga to At- 
lanta and then on to the coast. 

In his famous "March to the Sea" (Atlanta to Savannah, 
November-December, 1864) General Sherman was depend- 
ent upon the countryside for supplies. The army, in order to 
subsist, was permitted to forage freely as it moved through 
the fertile lands of Georgia. Meeting only token resistance 
from the enemy, the troopers turned the march into a wild 
holiday. The weather was fine, the food was plentiful, and 
the order to forage freely was interpreted by some as the 

Book Reviews 421 

right to pillage and burn. Although Foote was never officially 
designated as a forager, he did go on one foraging expedition 
and engage in some looting. The next day he felt terribly 
ashamed of himself for what he had done. At Savannah 
Foote's term of enlistment expired and much to his dismay 
authorities would not let him re-enlist. He was too young and 
too small they said. So with much reluctance the youthful 
drummer boy returned to Flint to await the end of the war. 

Foote lived to be ninety-five. Shortly before his death he 
related his war experiences to Olive Deane Hormel who wrote 
them down. These reminiscences contain nothing new about 
the Civil War, but they are interesting and the story is ex- 
ceedingly well told. 

John G. Barrett. 
The Virginia Military Institute. 

The State Records of South Carolina: Extracts from the Jour- 
nals of the Provincial Congresses of South Carolina, 1775- 
1776. Edited by William Edwin Hemphill and Wylma Anne 
Wates. (Columbia: South Carolina Archives Department. 
1960. Pp. xxxiv, 299. $8.00.) 

Volume II of The State Records of South Carolina main- 
tains in both format and content the high standard of excel- 
lence set by the South Carolina Archives Department under 
the direction of the late J. H. Easterby. Two informative pre- 
faces serve to introduce the Extracts. One by Director Easter- 
by outlines the evolution of the State Government and the 
other by Editor Hemphill analyzes the Congresses and traces 
the history of the "lost" Journals and the rare Extracts. A title 
page of the Extracts printed in 1776 is reproduced as a fron- 
tispiece and the volume itself is somewhat in the nature of 
a facsimile reproduction. The Extracts cover both sessions of 
the First Provincial Congress (January 11-17 and June 1-22, 
1775) and of the Second Provincial Congress (November 
1-29, 1775, and February 1-March 26, 1776). An Appendix 
lists the officials elected March 26-28, 1776, under the newly- 
promulgated State Constitution. There is a complete Index to 
enhance the usefulness of the book and the annotations in 

422 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the volume preface, and occasionally in the text, are full. 

Recorded in this volume is the troubled but successful 
transition in South Carolina from a collapsing colonial regime 
to a fledgling State sovereignty through the efforts, actions, 
and decisions of a fairly representative body led and sus- 
tained by a hard core of responsible and substantial men. The 
Extracts reveal them concerned with and acting on a multi- 
plicity of matters from those of Continental and Provincial 
significance to those of purely local or individual concern or 
concerned with the minutiae of detail. Congress and its com- 
mittees gave considerable attention to election, organization, 
attendance, and pay of members. They provided for recruit- 
ing, organizing, staffing, paying, supplying, and mustering the 
Provincial military forces. They looked to the defense of the 
Province— particularly of Charleston and other threatened 
points. They corresponded and co-operated with the Conti- 
nental Congress and with other Provinces, especially Georgia 
and North Carolina, with which they exchanged intelligence 
and made mutual defense arrangements. They took measures 
to deal with British officers and ships operating in South Caro- 
lina waters. They issued currency and provided for payment 
of bills for materials and services. They voted on resolutions 
and chose committees, council members and military officers. 
They dealt with insurrection in the Back Country, with Loyal- 
ists and other disaffected individuals and groups, by means 
of force, confinement, surveillance, and amnesty. They ap- 
proved and justified supplying small amounts of ammunition 
to the Indians as a calculated risk in stabilizing the Frontier. 
They controlled exports and encouraged with premiums the 
erection of manufactories of gunpowder and its components, 
iron, lead, textiles, paper, and salt. They listened to sermons 
preached by member divines at Sunday sessions and observ- 
ed days of fasting. They prepared extracts of their Journals 
for printing. Fairing to get any conciliatory response from 
their King, despite their protestations of loyalty while defend- 
ing their rights, they drafted a constitution for an independ- 
ent State. 

Lawrence F. Brewster. 

East Carolina College. 

Book Reviews 423 

"Porte Crayon": The Life of David Hunter Strother. By Cecil 
D. Eby, Jr. (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina 
Press. 1960. Pp. xi, 258. $5.00.) 

In 1959, The Old South Illustrated of "Porte Crayon" ( D. H. 
Strother) was edited for publication by Dr. Eby of the De- 
partment of English at Washington and Lee University. The 
book reprinted a number of engaging travel articles on south- 
ern life written by a Virginia artist for Harpers New Monthly 
Magazine in the 1850's. As corollary to this valuable addition 
to southern letters, Dr. Eby now presents a definitive bio- 
graphy of Strother. Soon the Civil War journals of Strother, 
never before printed, will complete the series. 

That Strother has been unaccountably neglected will be 
apparent to any student of regional culture, and thanks are 
due both Professor Eby and the University of North Carolina 
Press for the fulsome plan undertaken and now two-thirds 
completed. The man who made sketches of backwoods life 
and then wrote descriptive passages to accompany and vital- 
ize them was not only an important artist and writer; his un- 
usual and often tragic life, as Dr. Eby details it, had in it the 
elements of serious drama. 

Strother came from a part of northern Virginia formed in 
1863 into the new State of West Virginia. He was closely con- 
nected to eminent families of the area, for instance to that of 
John Pendleton Kennedy. When, as a lad, he evinced a talent 
for drawing, his indulgent father provided him with several 
years of art study in Europe. After his return home, it soon 
was clear that painting as a profession provided neither finan-